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 Naturalists' Directory
NATURALISTS' DIRECTORY.

NATURALISTS' DIRECTORY.

See also: Gistel, Johannes Nepomuk

Schenkenberg, F. Carl A.

Naturalists' Directory, 1865

1. English, 1865 [Putman edition].
The | Naturalists' Directory. | [rule] | Part I. | [rule] | North America And The West Indies. | [rule] | Salem: | Published By The Essex Institute. | May, 1865.

2 parts. [Part 1: 1865] 12: 31, [5] p. [Part 2: 1866] Published in Proceedings of the Essex Institute, 5, no. 1, pp. 1-16, no. 2, pp. 17-24, no. 3, pp. 25-32, no. 4, pp. 33-40.

Rare. In America from the earliest times naturalists were scattered over an extensive area that was sparsely settled. To facilitate communication among these naturalists, Frederic W. Putman [1839-1915] initiated a compilation that was first published in two parts as The Naturalists' Directory in 1865 and 1866. The role of this directory was to provide the names, addresses and collecting interests of American and international amateurs and professionals. Advertisements listed dealers selling specimens, equipment, microscopes, taxidermists services, labels, etc. It was used as a convent source to look up shipping addresses, or to locate other collectors that might have material to trade. Collecting of information was difficult task making it hard for Putman to continue a well received but profitless venture. Around 1874 Putman passed on the directories preparation to a youthful publisher, Samuel E. Cassino [1856-1937].

Cassino saw an opportunity to add to his young firms growing business and took up the challenge to continue The Naturalists' Directory. Although somewhat irregular in its issuing and with some alterations of the title, especially in its early years, it would become an essential publication to American naturalists and scientists as a source for addresses and other esoteric information. Its success is shown by the fact that it is still being published in the year 2000. From an historical perspective, the early directories are in many instances the only record that an individual collected natural history objects, including minerals.

After Cassino's death in 1937 other members of his family took over publication. Then a series of other publishers purchased rights to the Directory. Putman had issued the first appearance in 1865-6. From 1877 to 1936, Samuel E. Cassino had published the 1st to 30th of the `Cassino' editions. Starting in 1938 various publishers brought out new editions (50th ed., 2000). Listed below are the know editions.

1st ed., 1877: The Naturalists' Directory. Salem, Mass., S.E. Cassino, 1877. 2 parts. 46 p.; 20 p. Part 1 lists 1,431 U.S. and Canadian naturalists. Part 2 lists chemists and physicists.

2nd ed., 1878: The Naturalists' Directory. Salem, Mass., S.E. Cassino, 1878. 2 parts. 184 p.; 24 p. Part 1 lists 2,524 U.S. and Canadian naturalists. Part 2 lists chemists and physicists.

3rd ed., 1879: The Naturalists' Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1879. 278 p. This edition lists 3,311 naturalists from the U.S. and Canada.

4th ed., 1880: The Naturalists' Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1880. 194 p. Entries are arranged geographically with no index.

5th ed., 1882: The International Scientists' Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1882. 435 p. Geographically by country, c16,000 naturalists are listed. There is no index.

6th ed., 1883: The International Scientists' Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1883. 2 parts. 150 p.; 299 p. Part 1 includes naturalists from the New World. Part 2 includes naturalists from the Old World. In all c17,000 entries are arranged alphabetically within countries. No index.

7th ed., 1884: The Naturalists Directors. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1884. 216 p. Lists 4,524 naturalists from the U.S. and Canada.

8th ed., 1885: The International Scientists Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1885. 2 parts. 273 p.; 199 p. Lists 4,821 naturalists from the U.S. and Canada.

9th ed., 1886: The Naturalists Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1886. 252, 10 p. Lists 4,801 U.S. and Canadian naturalists.

10th ed., 1888: The International Scientists Director. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1888. 2 parts. 286 p.; 205 p. Part 1 lists 4,667 New World naturalists. Part 2 lists Old World naturalists.

11th ed., 1890: The Naturalists' Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1890. 215 p.; 70 p. Part 1 lists 4,914 U.S. and Canadian naturalists. Part 2 lists Old World naturalists.

12th ed., 1892: The Scientists International Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1892. . 2 parts. 275 p.; 164 p. Part 1 lists 6,174 U.S. and Canadian naturalists. Part 2 lists Old World naturalists.

13th ed., 1894: The Scientists' International Directory.Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1894. 2 parts. 279 p.; 286 p. Part 1 lists 6,174 U.S. and Canadian naturalists.

14th ed., 1895: The Naturalists' Directory.Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1895. 402 p. Lists 5,747 entries for U.S. and Canadian naturalists.

15th ed., 1896: The Naturalists' Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1896. . 2 parts. 340 p.; 126 p. Part 1 lists 6,350 entries for the New World. Part 2 lists Old World naturalists.

16th ed., 1898: The Naturalists Directory. Boston, S.E. Cassino, 1898. 227 p. Lists 5,374 U.S. and Canadian naturalists.

17th ed., 1905: The Naturalists' Universal Directory. Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1905. . 2 parts. 404 p.; 208 p. After a gap of seven years this edition appeared. It is the last of the international editions. Although the title page indicates that it is the 19th edition, this is an error. Part 1 lists 5,408 New World naturalists. Part 2 is the International Directory.

18th ed., 1914: The Naturalists Directory. Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1914. 212 p. Again after a significant delay this edition appeared.

19th ed., 1919: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1919. 176 p.

20th ed., 1924: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1924. 200 p.

21st ed., 1925: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1925. 226 p.

22nd ed., 1927: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1927. 320 p.

23rd ed., 1929: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1929. 310 p.

24th ed., 1930: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1930. 308 p.

25th ed., 1931: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1931. 284 p. This is the first printing to be labeled with an edition number, which is correctly stated as the 25th edition.

26th ed., 1932: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1932. 224 p.

27th ed., 1933: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1933. 190 p.

28th ed., 1934: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1934. 184 p.

29th ed., 1935: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1935. 176 p.

30th ed., 1936: Salem, S.E. Cassino, 1936. 184 p.

31st ed., 1938: Salem, Herman E. Cassino, 1938. 232 p.

32nd ed., 1940: Herman E. Cassino, 1940. 296 p.

33rd ed., 1943: Herman E. Cassino, 1943. 196 p.

34th ed., 1946: Herman E. Cassino, 1946. 220 p.

35th ed., 1948: Herman E. Cassino, 1948. 236 p.

36th ed., 1951: Herman E. Cassino, 1951. 264 p.

37th ed., 1954: Herman E. Cassino, 1954. 236 p.

38th ed., 1958: The Naturalists' Directory (International). Salem, Madeleine E. Cassino, 1958. 174 p. This title change lasts through the 1978 edition.

39th ed., 1961: PCL, 1961. Jerrold Oakley, editor. 176 p.. This is the first edition outside the Cassino family. It is the first published under the PCL imprint.

40th ed., 1968: Allen S. Cummings, editor. 181 p.

41st ed., 1972: Willard H. Baetzner, editor. 182 p.

41st ed., suppl., 1973: Willard H. Baetzner, editor. 59 p. This is the first supplement issued.

42nd ed., 1975: Willard H. Baetzner, editor. 259 p.

43rd ed., 1978: WNHP, 1978. Ross H. Arnett, Jr, editor. 310 p. This is the first edition published under the WNHP imprint.

43rd ed., suppl., 1980: The Naturalists' Directory & Almanac (International). WNHP, 1980. Ross H. Arnett, Jr, editor. 80 p. This is the second supplement issued. This is also the new title.

44th ed., 1985: F&P, 1985. Ross H. Arnett, Jr and Mary E. Arnett, editors. 292 p. . This edition was published under the F&P imprint.

45th ed., 1990: SCP, 1990. Ross H. Arnett, Jr and Mary E. Arnett, editors. 310 p. This edition was published under the SCP imprint.

46th ed., 1993: SCP, 1993. Ross H. Arnett, Jr and Mary E. Arnett, editors. 438 p.

Bibliographical references: Kisling, V.N., "The Naturalists' Directory and the evolution of communication among American naturalists", Archives of Natural History, 21, (1994), no. 3, 393-406, illus. NUC.

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