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William Phillips
PHILLIPS, William.

PHILLIPS, William.
(1775 - 1828)

(Born: London, England, 10 May 1775; Died: London, England, 2 April 1828) English author, bookseller, mineralogist & geologist.

Born into the Quaker faith as the son of James Phillips, printer and bookseller in London, William was the brother of the distinguished chemist Richard Phillips [1778-1851]. He early on became interested in mineralogy and geological studies to which he devoted all his leisure time. He participated in the foundation of the Geological Society of London in 1807. He wrote several popular works in the geological field, including Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales (London, 1822) with W.D. Conybeare [1815-1857]. This volume with its careful original observations, good descriptions and an innovative arrangement marked the beginning of a new era in English geological publications. Phillps was a elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1827 and the Linnean Society in 1819. The mineral "Phillipsite" was named after him by A. LÚvy in 1825.

Biographical references: American Journal of Science: 1st Series, 15 (1829), 160. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 204. BBA: I 874, 271-280. Cleevely, World PalŠontological Collections, 1983: 231. DNB: 15, 1107-8. Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: no. 4230. DSB: 10, 585-6 [by R.P. Beckinsale]. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 337. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 433-4. Proceedings of the Geological Society, London: 1 (1834), no. 10, 113. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 1886. Smith, Early Mineralogy in Great Britain, 1978. WBI. Woodward, History of the Geological Society, 1907: 13-7, portrait.

1. English, 1815 [First edition].
An outline of mineralogy and geology, intended for the use of those who may desire to become acquainted with the elements of those sciences especially of young persons. London, Printed and sold by William Phillips, 1815.

8░: [12], 193, [1] p., 4 plates (2 hand-colored). Page size: 195 x 130 mm.

Very scarce. The apparently rare first edition of Phillips' influential textbook of mineralogy and geology, which became a standard of the time. It had several editions in England and America [which see below].

Bibliographical references: BL [B.233.(8.)]. NUC [no copy listed].

Outlines of Mineralogy, 1816

2. English, 1816 [2nd edition].
Outlines | Of | Mineralogy And Geology, | Intended For The Use Of Those | Who May Desire To Become Acquainted With | The | Elements Of Those Sciences; | Especially Of | Young Persons. | Illustrated By Four Plates. | [rule] | Second Edition, revised and corrected. | To Which Is Added | An Outline Of The Geology Of England And Wales, | With A Map And Section Of The Strata. | [rule] | By William Phillips, | Member of the Geological Society. | [rule] | London: | Printed And Sold By William Phillips, | George Yard, Lombard Street. | [rule] | 1816.

8░: a6 A-I12 K11; ??l.; [12], [1]-226 p., 5 plates (some folding, hand-colored). Page size: 176 x 104 mm.

Contents: [Frontispiece].; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], "Advertisement To The Second Edition."; [3 pgs], "Preface."; [6 pgs], Contents.; [1]-226, Text.

Plates: There are 5 engraved plates. The first is signed W. Phillips del. It acts as a frontispiece and is titled "Comparative Heights of Mountains." Page 8, "Forms of Primitive Crystals." Page 105, "Section of the Brocken Mountain" (hand-colored).; Page 143, "Veins in Tin Croft and the Pink Mines" (hand-colored).; Page 181, "Geological Map of England and Wales" (hand-colored, folding).

Very scarce. Developed as a text to accompany a series of subscription lectures given by Phillips during the winter of 1815, this work was intended as an elementary introduction to the sciences of mineralogy and geology. The clear writting style that is the trademark of the author contributed to the popularity of this small book, and undoubtedly lead to the issuing of several revised editions.

The text is divided into five lectures. The first on pages 1-27 gives preliminary observations about mineralogy and geology, and it describes simple and compound minerals. The second on pages 28-60 covers the properties of the metals and combustibles. The third lecture (pages 61-91) describes the purpose behind geological inquiry, while briefly describing various hypotheses about the earth and its formation. The origin of fossils on mountain tops is treated in the fourth section (pages 92-140), while on pages 141-192, the fifth lecture characterizes mineral veins, various mineral deposits like salt and coal, volcanoes, the Deluge and the internal structure of the earth. For any reader interested in becoming further acquainted with minerals, the preface plugs John Mawe's establishment in the Strand where "small collections ... [of minerals] ... may be had of one hundred varieties and upwards, with an arranged catalogue ... at any price between $5 and $100." If the reader desires further reading in mineralogy, Arthur Aikin's Manual of Mineralogy (London, 1815) is recommended. Of the plates, number 1 is used as a frontispiece and shows the comparative heights of mountains, number 2 shows primiative forms of crystals, number 3 a cross section of Brocken mountain and number 4 mineral veins in the Tin Croft and Pink Mines.

Bibliographical references: BL. NUC [no copy listed].

3. English, 1816 [American issue].
An | Outline | Of | Mineralogy And Geology, | Intended for the use of those | who may desire to become acquainted with | the | Elements of Those Sciences; | Especially Of | Young Persons. | Illustrated By Four Plates. | [double rule] | By William Phillips, | Member of the Geological Society. | [double rule] | New-York: | Printed And Sold By Collins And Co., | . . . . . . . . | 1816.

12░ in 6s: [A]-R6; 102l.; [i]-xii, [1]-192 p., 4 plates (frontispiece, pages 8, 114 & 149; frontis & plate 4 are hand-colored).

Contents: [Facing title page is the frontispiece, "Comparative Heights of Mountains, see p. 105."]; [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-vi, "Preface."-signed W[illiam]. P[hillips]., 1815.; [vii]-xii, Table of contents.; [1]-192, Text.

Very scarce. This American issue is an identical reprint of the second London edition of 1816 with a new title page.

Facsimile reprint, 1978: New York, Arno Reprint Corp., 1978. 8░: [4], [i]-xii, [1]-192 p., 4 plates (frontispiece, pages 8, 114 & 149; frontis & plate 4 are hand-colored).

Bibliographical references: BL. NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329399].

Outlines, 1818

4. English, 1818 [3rd edition].
Outlines | Of | Mineralogy And Geology, | Intended For The Use Of Those | Who May Desire To Become Acquainted With | The | Elements Of Those Sciences; | Especially Of | Young Persons. | Illustrated By Four Plates. | [short rule] | Third Edition, With Additions. | [rule] | By WilliamPhillips, M.G.S. | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | London: | Printed Aand Sold By William Phillips, | George-Yard, Lombard Street. | [short rule] | 1818.

8░: a7 A-K12 I6 K4; 113l.; [14], [1]-210, [2] p., 4 plates (2 hand-colored). Page size: 168 x 98 mm. Very scarce.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], "Advertisement To The Third Edition."-signed W[illiam] P[hillips], March 1818.; [3 pgs], "Preface"-signed W.P., London, 1815.; [6 pgs], Contents.; [2 pgs], Advertisement.; [1]-210, Text.; [2 pgs], "Lately published by Wm. Phillips."

Plates: The work contains 4 plates 2 of which are hand-colored, and only the first is signed. These are: Frontispiece, "Comparative Heights of Mountains," signed Wm. Phillips delin.; (p. 13) "Forms of Primitive Crystals."; (p. 122) "Section of the Brocken Mountains" (colored).; (p. 165) "Veins in the Tin Croft and the Pink Mines" (colored).

Bibliographical references: NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329401].

5. English, 1826 [4th edition].
Outlines | Of | Mineralogy And Geology, | Comprehending The Elements Of Those Sciences; | Intended Principally For The Use Of | Young Persons. | [tapered rule] | Fourth Edition, Enlarged. | [tapered rule] | By William Phillips, F.L.S. F.G.S. &c. | [double rule] | [...3 lines of quotation, signed W.D. Conybeare...] | [double rule] | London: | Printed And Sold By William Phillips, | George Yard, Lombard Street. | [rule] | 1826.

4░: π4 b4 A-Z4 2A-2N4 2O2; 154l.; [i]-xvi, [1]-292 p., frontispiece, text illus. Page size: 202 x 130 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-iv, "Advertisement To The Fourth Edition."; [v]-vii, "Preface To The First Edition.", signed W[illiam]. P[hillips]., 1815.; [viii], "Lecture I. | ..."; [ix]-xvi, "Contents."; [1]-278, Text.; [279]-292, "Appendix | Heights Of Mountains."

Very scarce. Updated to now include seven "lectures" covering generalities, crystallography, geology, petrology, mineral deposits, etc. Contains a separate list of mountains and their heights as shown on the engraved plate.

Bibliographical references: NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329402].

Elementary Introduction

6. English, 1816 [First edition].
An | Elementary Introduction | To The Knowledge Of | Mineralogy: | Including | Some Account Of Mineral Elements And Constituents; | Explanations Of Terms In Common Use; | Brief Accounts Of Minerals, An Of The Places And | Circumstances In Which They Are Found. | Designed For The Use Of The Student. | [rule] | By William Phillips, | Member Of The Geological Society. | [rule] | Nullum est sine nomine saxum. Lucan. | [tapered rule] | London: | Printed, And Sold By William Phillips, | George Yard, Lombard Street. | [rule] | 1816.

8░: [10], liv, [10], 325, [13] p. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 78. NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329393].

American Edition, 1818

7. English, 1818 [American edition].
An | Elementary | Introduction | To The Knowledge Of | Mineralogy: | Including Some Account | Of | Mineral Elements And Constituents; | Explanations Of Terms In Common Use; | Brief Accounts Of Minerals, | An Of The Places And Circumstances In Which They | Are Found. | Designed For The Use Of The Student. | [double rule] | By William Phillips, | Member Of The Geological Society. | With Notes and Additions on American Articles, | By Samuel L. Mitchell, | Professor of Mineralogy, Botany and Zoology, in the University of New-York; | President of the Lyceum of Natural History, &c. | [double rule] | Nullum est sine nomine saxum.- Lucan. | [double rule] | New=York. | Printed And Published By Collins And Co. | No. 189, Pearl-Street. | . . . . . . . . . . . . | 1818.

8░: A5 *B-*D6 *E4 2A6 B-X6 Y2; 155l.; [i]-x, [i]-xxxiv, [10], [1]-246, [10] p. Page size: 186 x 104 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso "Southern District Of New-York, ss. | ..."; [iii]-viii, "Preface."-signed W[illiam] P[hillips], March 1816.; [ix]-x, "Preface, | By The Writer Of The American Notes."-Signed Samuel L. Mitchell, May 1818.; [i]-xxvi, "Introduction."; [xxvii]-xxxiv, "Explanation Of Terms. | Commonly used in Mineralogical Description."; [1 pg], "Table Of Contents | Showing the order in which the Minerals comprehended in | the following pages have been described."; [1 pg], Blank.; [7 pgs], "Contents."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-246, Text.; [9 pgs], "Index."; [1 pg], "Books | on | Geology And Mineralogy, | For Sale By | Collins & Co. | ..."

Very scarce. Contains additional material supplied by Samuel L. Mitchell.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 78. NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329394].

8. English, 1819 [2nd edition].
An | Elementary Introduction | To The Knowledge Of | Mineralogy: | Comprising | Some Account Of The Characters And Elements Of Minerals; | Explanations Of Terms In Common Use; | Descriptions Of Minerals, | WithAccounts Of The Places And Circumstances In Which | They Are Found; And Especially | The Localities of British Minerals. | [rule] | By William Phillips, F.L.S. | Member Of The Geological Societies Of London And Cornwall | [rule] | Second Edition. | [rule] | Nullum est sine nomine saxum. Lucan. | [tapered rule] | London: | Printed, And Sold By William Phillips, | George Yard, Lombard Street. | [rule] | 1819.

8░: π6 a-o4 p2 A-Z4 2A-2P4; 216l.; [i]-viii, [4], [i]-cxvi, [1]-301, [3] p., illus. Page size: 191 x 115 mm. Rare.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-viii, "Preface."-signed W[illiam]. P[hillips]., May 1819.; [4 pgs], "Contents | Forming an Index to the Introduction."; [i]-lxxxii, "Introduction."; [lxxxiii]-xcv, "Explanation Of Terms, &c. | Commonly used in mineralogical Description."; [xcvi]-xcviii, "Of the Arrangement in which Minerals are de- | scribed in the following pages."; [xcix]-cxvi, "Tabular Arrangement."; [1]-281, Text.; [282], blank.; [283]-295, "English Index."; [296]-301, "German and French Index.": [1 pg], Collophon.; [2 pgs], Advertisements.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 78. NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329395].

9. English, 1823 [3rd edition].
An | Elementary Introduction | To The Knowledge Of | Mineralogy: | Comprising | Some Account Of The Characters And Elements Of Minerals; | Explanations Of Terms In Common Use; | Description Of Minerals, | With Accounts Of The Places And Circumstances In Which They | Are Found; And Especially | The Localities Of British Minerals. | By William Phillips, F.L.S. M.G.S. L.&C. | Hon. Member of the Cambridge and Yorkshire Philosophical Societies. | [rule] | Third Edition, Enlarged. | [rule] | Nullum est sine nomine saxum. Lucan. | [rule] | London: | Printed And Sold By W. Phillips, George Yard, Lombard Street; | Sold Also By W. And C. Tait, Edinburgh; | And R. Milliken, Dublin. | [rule] | 1823.

8░: [8], v, [3], cxx, 406, [6] p., illus.

Very scarce. The preliminary part gives physical and chemical characters of minerals, the use of the blowpipe and acids in analysis, constituents of the earths, alkalies and metals, explanation of terms and a discussion of the tabular arrangement of minerals. This is followed by the descriptive mineralogy. A French-German name index as well as an English one ends the work.

Phillips was an expert of the recently invented reflecting goniometer. He used an insturment of his own design which was accurate to the degree half-minute in compiling the crystal measurements used in this work. As a consequence this edition contained for its time the most accurate body of crystal data in existance. This information showed conclusively that whenever a crystal form was not a perfectly regular solid, HaŘy's values were wrong. In some cases Phillips showed the discrepencies approached two degrees, and this further reinforced the decline of HaŘy's theory of crystals.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 78. NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329396].

10. English, 1837 [4th edition].
An | Elementary Introduction | To | Mineralogy: | comprising | a notice of the characters and elements of minerals; | with accounts of the places and circumstances in which they | are found. | By William Phillips, | F.L.S. M.G.S. L. & C. | Hon. Member Of The Cambridge And Yorkshire Philosophical Societies. | [rule] | Fourth Edition, Considerablly Augmented, | By Rober Allan, | F.R.S.E. M.G.S. L. &c. | London: | Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman; | J.G. & F. Rivington, Whittaker, & Co.; Tegg & Sons; | Simpkin, Marshall, & Co.; And C. Tilt. | [rule] | M.DCCC.XXXVII.

12░: [A]-D12 2A-2D12 E-R12 S9; 261l.; [i]-xcvi, 1-425, [1] p., index, illus. Page size: 192 x 114 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], Dedication to John George Childern.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-vi, "Advertisement By The Editor."-signed Robert Allan, March 1837.; [vii]-xii, "Preface To The Third Edition."-dated 10 May 1823.; [xiii]-lxxviii, "Introduction."; [lxix]-lxxvi, "Explanation Of Terms | Used In Mineralogical Descriptions."; [lxxvii]-xcvi, "Of The Arrangement | In Which Minerals Are Described In The | Following Pages."; [Errata slip tipped in before page 1].; [1]-396, Text.; [397]-408, "Appendix: | Consisting Principally Of Minerals Of Which So Authen- | tic Analysis Has Hitherto Been Published, Or Respect- | ing Which Fuller Information Is Required Before | Their Place In The General Arrangement Can With | Accuracy Be Determined."; [409]-425, "Index."; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. Essentially nothing is left of Phillips' original work, except perhaps a lingering clarity in the writing. Mineralogy had progressed so much since Phillip's death that his ideas were now considered historic curiosities, but his name still commanded respect among the English public. Hence this edition was brought forward by Robert Allan, who made it a very readable volume.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 78. NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329391].

11. English, 1844 [5th edition].
An | Elementary Treatise | on | Mineralogy: | comprising | An Introduction To The Science; | by | William Phillips, F.L.S. M.G.S.L.&C. | Hon. Member Of The Cambridge And Yorkshire Philosophical Societies. | Fifth Edition, | From The Fourth London Edition, By Rober Allan: | Containing The Latest Discoveries In | American And Foreign Mineralogy; | With Numerous Additions To The Introduction. | By Francis Alger, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [ornate rule] | Boston: | William D. Ticknor & Co. | M. DCCC. XLIV.

8░: [4], [i]-vi, [2], [vii]-cl, [2], [1]-662, [2] p. Page size: 210 x 120 mm. Very scarce.

Contents: [2 pgs], Half title page, verso quotation from Professor Cleaveland.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1844, | ..."; [i]-vi, "Preface."-signed F[rancis]. A[lger]., 20 May 1844.; [1 pg], Sectional title page, "Introduction To Mineralogy. | [rule] | Part I."; [1 pg], Blank.; [vii]-viii, "Contents To The Introduction."; [ix]-xviii, "Preface To The Third Edition."-signed W.P., May 1819.; [xix]-cl, "Introduciton."; [1 pg], "Descriptive Mineralogy. | [rule] | Part II."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-597, Text; [598], Blank.; 599-634, "Supplement."; [635]-640, "Explanation Of Terms | Used In | Mineralogical Descriptions."; [641]-662, "Index."; [1 pg], Errata.; [1 pg], Blank.

Bibliographical references: American Journal of Science: 1st Series, 47 (1844), 333-51. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 78. North American Review: 59 (1844), 240-43 [by B. Silliman, Jr.]. NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329397].

12. English, 1852 [6th edition].
An | Elementary Introduction | To | Mineralogy, | By The Late | William Phillips. | [rule] | New Edition, | With Extensive Alterations And Additions, B by | H.J. Brooke, F.R.S. F.G.S. | And | W.H. Miller, M.A. F.R.S. F.G.S. | Professor Of Mineralogy | In The University Of Cambridge. | [rule] | London: | Longman, Brown, Green, And Longmans; Simpkin, Marshall, And | Co.; F. And J. Rivington; Whittaker And Co.; Tegg And Co.; | And D. Bogue. | 1852.

12░: π6 B-Z12 2A-2G12 H2; 356l.; [i]-xi, [1] errata, [1]-700 p., 647 illus., index to mineral species. Page size: 194 x 122 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Half title page, "An | Elementary Introduction | to | Mineralogy," verso "London: | Gilbert And Rivington, Printers, | St. John's Square."; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; [v]-vii, "Preface."-signed H.J.B. [Henry James Brooke].; [viii], Blank.; [ix]-xi, "Contents."; [1 page], "Errata."; [1]-108, "Introduction."; [109]-634, "Description of Species."; [635]-686, "Appendix."; [687]-700, "Index."

Very scarce. Co-authored with Henry James Brooke and William Hallowes Miller, this work is one of the best textbooks of crystallography and mineralogy ever published. In printing sequence this work would be considered a sixth edition of William Phillips' Introduction to Mineralogy (1st ed., London, 1816). Written as it was, however, a quarter century after Phillips death, with thorough revision and updating, this work quite appropiately has been known ever since its publication as "Brooke & Miller." In the preface, Brooke writes that his contribution to the work was in supplying "such specimens and crystals as it appeared desireable again to examine and measure. In every other respect the treatise has been composed and arranged entirely by Professor Miller."

The volume begins with an introduction to the science, the first significant portion of which is devoted to crystallography. The system adopted is essentially the same as that Miller first presented in his earlier A Treatise on Crystallography (Cambridge, 1839). The names adopted for the six systems of crysallization are cubic, pyramidal, rhombohedral, prismatic, oblique, and anorthic. Figures are given in the descriptive mineralogy, illustrating the crystallization of the species. The crystallographic notation employed are the Indices of Miller. Other sections of the introduction describe the optical, physical and chemical properties of minerals. The descriptive mineralogy based upon chemical makeup then follows. Species are listed with notes about their common synonyms, their known crystal forms, their chemistry following Rammelsberg's analyses, their optical characters including refraction and polarization and other phyical properties. An appendix lists minerals which are not fully described or of doubtful composition. The work closes with an index to the species listed.

Bibliographical references: American Journal of Science: 1st Series, 15 (1853), 41-48. NUC: 456, 247-8 [NP 0329392].

Catalogue, 1829

13. English, 1829 [Sale catalog].
Catalogue | Of A | Rich And Valuable Cabinet | Of | Minerals; | And, Also, Of A Select | Crystallographical Cabinet, | Containing | A Great Variety Of Curious Crystals, | To The Extent Of Some Thousand Specimens, With Drawings And | Measurements Annexed: | The Property Of The | Late William Phillps, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | Now to be disposed of by Private Contract. | [rule] | Further particulars may be had, by application to G.B. Sowerby, No. 156, Regent- | Street, to whom Communication on the subject may be addressed. | [rule] | London: | Printed For Harvey And Darton, Gracechurch Street. | 1829.

4░: π2 B-L4 M1; 43l.; [i]-iv, [1]-82 p. Page size: 212 x 136 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-iv, "Notice."; [1]-82, Text of catalog.

Rare. Auction sale catalog of Phillip's large mineral collection, of which many specimens were used to illustrate Phillips textbooks on mineralogy. The text of the catalog follows the physical arrangement of the collection by briefly describing the specimens contained in each of the 100 drawers of the cabinet, together with locality information. The cabinet was arranged according to the last edition of Phillips' Mineralogy (London, 1823), and consist of a total of about 1,000 selected specimens, that embrace nearly all of the mineral species then known, as well as many of the varieties. Although heavy on specimens from English localities, the remainder of the world is well represented in this cabinet of minerals.

This large mineral collection was sold in its entirety at auction to Dr. John Rutter of Liverpool. Rutter apparently added a few other specimens, and bequeathed it to the Medical Institution of Liverpool. Subsequently, the collection was transferred in 1887 to the Liverpool Museum. There it was completely destroyed during the Second World War in the bombing raids of May 1941, and so this rare sale catalog is the only lasting record of Phillips mineral collection.

Bibliographical references: Cleevely, World PalŠontological Collections, 1983: 231. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 220.

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