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Gregor Reisch
REISCH, Gregor.

REISCH, Gregor.
(c1467 - 1525)

(Born: Balingen, Württemberg, Germany, c1467; Died: Freiburg, Germany, 9 May 1525) German theologian.

Reisch became a student at the University of Freiburg in 1487 and received the degree of magister in 1489. Then he entered the Carthusian Order. During the years 1500-1502 he was prior at Klein-Basel, and from 1503 to shortly before his death he was prior at Freiburg. Reisch was confessor of Maximilian I. He was also visitor for the Rhenish province of his order. In this capacity he made many exertions to combat Lutheranism. He became friends of the most celebrated Humanists of the time, e.g., Erasmus, Wimpfeling, Beatus, Rheananus, Udalricus Zasius, and the celebrated preacher, Geiler of Kaisersberg. Reisch developed a good reputation for adaptability and his knowledge was so broad and profound he became regarded as an "oracle."

Biographical references: ADB. Catholic Encyclopaedia. Hartfelder, A., "Gregor Reisch", Zeitschrift fur die Geschichte des Oberrheins, New Series, 5, (1890), 170-200. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 599-600. WBI. Zischka, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1961: 536.

Margarita Philosophica, 1503

1. Latin, 1503 [First edition].
Margarita philosophica | [Large allegorical woodcut ornament representing Knowledge as a three-headed female figure, surrounded by the seven liberal Arts, within a circle inscribed with the names of the Sciences.].

4°: π8 16 2-48 a-q8 r6 A-B8 C4 D-K8 L-M6 aa-dd8 ee4 ff6 (ff6 blank).; 302l.; no pagination or foliation, illus., folding map, 2 folding diagrs. Woodcut illustration on the title page that includes the "MW" monogram. Printer's marks on leaves π4v and ff5v. Colophon: Chalchographatum primiciali hac pressura, Friburgi p Ioanne Schottu argen. citra festu Margarethe anno gratiae M.CCCCC.III.

Contents: π1r, Title.; π1v, Blank.; π2r-π2v, Table of contents.; π3r, Full-page woodcut, "Typus Grāmatice."; π3v, Verses to G. Reisch by Adam Vuneherus Temarensis.; π4r, "Philosophiĉ partitio," being a classified scheme of knowledge, and of the arts and sciences.; π4v-dd2r, Text.; dd2v-ff4v, Index.; ff5r, Epigramma of Paulus Volzius dedicated to Georguis [!] Reisch and the colophon, "Chalcographatum primiciali hac | pressura, Friburgi [old pro] Ioannē Scho | ttū Argeē. citra festū Margarethę | anno gratiĉ M.CCCCC.III."; ff5v, Full-page woodcut of Schott's printer's device.; ff6, Blank.

Edition princeps. Very rare. A popular and much reprinted work, being the first modern encyclopedia to appear in print. Handled in the form of a dialog between teacher and student, the book was written as a textbook to be consumed in a university curriculum, and provides an overview of many subjects. Reisch divides the text into twelve books, each explaining one of the sciences: (1) Grammar, (2) Dialectic, (3) Rhetoric, (4) Arithmetic, (5) Music, (6) Geometry, (7) Astronomy, (8) Principles of Nature Philosophy (de principiis rerum naturalium), (9) Origin of Natural Objects (de origine rerum naturalium) containing references to minerals, metals and mining, (9) Psychology, (10) Logic, and (12) Ethics. The twelve editions published in the 16th century attest to its popularity. The book was very popular on account of its comparative brevity and popular form, and was for a long time a customary textbook of the higher schools. Alexander von Humboldt said of it that it had "for a half-century, aided in a remarkable manner the spread of knowledge".

The volume is notable for several other reasons. It contains the first schematic representation of the eye, and its plate of the human brain, localizing psychological features in specific regions of the brain, is demeaningly discussed by Vesalius because it relates the three ventricles of brain to three specific functions. This diagram roughly shows the convolutional pattern of the brain and depicts the classic medieval representation of localized psychology. The numerous woodcuts show medical subjects, a mineral spring bath used by both sexes, earthquakes, scenes from the lifes of differenent professions, monsters, beasts, fishes, comets, mining of metals and minerals. There is also a depiction of an alchemist working in his laboratory on the transmution of metals.

The large woodcut map of the world is an interesting combination of fact and fancy, mixing the Ptolemaic world with mideaval belief. It has no border, but is surrounded by twelve heads with inscriptions representing and naming the different winds. It shows Europe, Asia and Africa, whose coast line extends along the bottom side of the map until it joins with Asia. Marks around the edge indicate longitude and latidue. The New World is not shown, although an inscription beneath the unfinished continent of Africa indicates a knowledge of the American discoveries. This map measures 300 x 411 mm. (11 x 16.5 inches) and is extremely rare and often lacking from the book for the obvious reason that it is to large to easily have been bound up.

The Strassburg printer Schott [see note below] was specially brought to Freiberg to print this work. There he established a by-press so that Reisch could oversee the publication of his work.

Johannes Schott. (Born: Strasbourg, Alsace, France, 1477; Died: Strasbourg, Alsace, France, 1550) Alsatian/German printer. Attempted to claim in 1521 that his uncle, Johannes Mentelin, was the inventor of printing.

Bibliographical references: Choulant, Graphische Incunabeln, 1858: 153-4. D'Avezac, Martin Hylacomylus, Waltzemüller, 1867: 94-9. De Morgan, A., Arithmetical books from the invention of printing to the present time. London, Taylor & Walton, 1847: 4-8 [reviews Reisch' account of ancient measuring systems]. Ferguson, Margarita Philosophica, 1929-30: 197-201. Gysel, C., "La face dans la `Margarita Philosophica' (1503)", Actual Odontostomatol, (Paris), 43, (Sept., 1989), no. 167, 477-503. NUC [NR 0152665]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69122. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 1, no. 5409. (Schott) ADB. DBE.

2. Latin, 1504 [2nd edition].
Aepitoma Omnis Phylosophiae Ali- | as Margarita Phylosophica tractans | de omni genere scibili: Cum additionibus: Quę in alijs non habentur. | [Large allegorical woodcut].

4°: B-C6 D-F8 Fix-xxviij G8 H6 I8 K4 L-N8 O6 P-Q8 R6 S-V8 X6 Y-Z8 a8 b4 c7 d-e8 f6 g-h8 i4 k-l8 m6 n-p8; 287l.; no pagination or foliation. Colophon (p8r): "Explicit phylosophica Margarita. Castigatione acri / In nobili Helueciorū | ciuitate Argentina Chalcogra-phatū: Per Ioannē Grüninger Ciuē Argētinū: | ī vigilia / Mathię Anno incarnationis Saluatoris M.ccccc.iiij. | Valete & Plaudite."

Contents: B1r, Title.; B1v-B2r, Contents, immediately followed by the author's address to the "ingenui Adolescentes."; B2v, Full-page woodcut, "Typus Grāmatio."; B3r, "Gregorio Reisch generosi Comitis | de Zolrn alumno: Adam Vuenherus | Temarensis. Salutem P.D."; B3v, "Philosophiĉ Partitio."; B4r-o3r, Text.; o3r-p8r, Index.; p8v, Blank.

Very rare. An unauthorized reprint of the first edition (J. Grüninger, 23. Febr. 1504), with the addition of a synopsis of Hebrew grammer in twenty leaves (on signiatures Fix to Fxxviii). The title page woodcut was copied from the first edition, with slight alterations. The large woodcut map has been reengraved from the one in the first edition. It is surrounded, however, by a black line border, and contains only four heads representing the four principal winds. In the first edition the seas and oceans are separated from the land by mere outlines, but in this one the water is distinguished by wavy lines.

Second edition, the first by Grueninger. With numerous woodcuts and fold. world map (Shirley 23A), which is a rare variant with remarkable differences in the printing of the nomenclature and also another styling of the windheads. "It seems possible that this unrecorded variant may predate the normal four-headed version" (Sh.). Map with small watermark "tête de boeuf",

Johann (Reinhard) Grüninger. (Born:      ; Died: Strassburg, Alsace, France, 1529?) German printer. Grüninger's earliest dated book is the Petrus Comestor's Historia Scholastica, completed 28 August 1483.

Bibliographical references: D'Avezac, Martin Hylacomylus, Waltzemüller, 1867: 103-4. Ferguson, Margarita Philosophica, 1929-30: 201-2. NUC [NR 0152657]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69123. Smith, Rara Arithmetica, 1908: p. 82-3. VD16: R-1034. (Grüninger) ADB. BMC XV.

3. Latin, 1504 [3rd edition].
Margarita Philosophica. | [Large allegorical woodcut].

8°: π6 a-c6 d-z8 aa-pp8 qq6 rr8 ss4 tt8 (b4 misprinted bb4; t7 blank); 330l.; no pagination or foliation. 2 folding musical plates, folding map of the world, 24 full-page woodcuts (several colored in whole or in part), numerous other textual & marginal woodcuts, text printed in Roman type with contractions, index & rules for declensions in first book printed in black letter.

Contents: π1r, Title.; π1v, Verses to Reisch by Adam Vuernherus Temarensis, dated 3 January 1496.; π2r, Contents.; π2v, Full-page woodcut, "Typus Grāmatice."; π3r, "Philosophiĉ parititio."; π3v-qq6v, Text.; qq6v, "Ingenui Adolescentes."; rr1r-tt4v, Index.; tt4v, Colophon.; tt5r-tt6r, Verses by Theodoricus Vlsenius Phrisius on the Margarita Philosophica.; tt6v-tt7r, Errata.; tt7v, Schottus' printer's device.; tt8r-tt8v, Blank.

Very rare. Third edition, the second authorized by the printer, of the manifesto of the new learning in Germany. The colophon states that the printer was of Strassburg, but the place of printing is not given and is postulated by Adams, for example, to be Freiburg. Published in March of 1504, this followed Schott's first edition of 1503 and an edition by Johann Grüninger from February, 1504, which Schott, in the colophon of the present volume, asks the reader not to purchase. He also critisizes the piracy for including a Hebrew grammar that Reisch did not write.

Bibliographical references: Adams, Cambridge Books, 1967: R-333. D'Avezac, Martin Hylacomylus, Waltzemüller, 1867: 99-103. Ferguson, Margarita Philosophica, 1929-30: 202-5. NUC [NR 0152666]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69124. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 1, no. 5410.

Margarita Philosophica, 1508 (Basel)

4. Latin, 1508 [4th edition].
[In red:] Margarita philosophica | cū additionibus nouis: ab auctore suo | studiosissima reuisiōe tertio su[old pro]additis. | [in black, woodcut ornament] | [in red:] Jo. Schottus Argen. lectori S. | [in black:] Hanc eme/ non pręssam mendaci stigmate/ Lector: | Pluribus ast auctam perlege: doctus eris. | [in red:] Basileę. 1508.

4°: a-z8 A-N8 O-P6 Q-R8; 316l.; no pagination or foliation. Title printed in red and black. Printed in Gothic type. Map and 2 diagrams.

Contents: a1r, Title, verso "Philesius vogesigena de laudibus | & fructu Margaritę philosophicę | ..."; a2r, Contents.; a3r, Full-page woodcut, "Typis Grāmatice," verso text.; P6r, "Index sūmarius."; R7r, Colophon.; R7v, Verses to Reisch by Adam Wernherus temarensis.; R8r, Verses by Jacobus Philomusus to the Margarita; R8v, Blank.

Rare. The third authorized edition, fourth overall. The map is a reprint of the one in Schott's second edition, with the twelve wind heads.

Bibliographical references: D'Avezac, Martin Hylacomylus, Waltzemüller, 1867: 99 & 104-6. Ferguson, Margarita Philosophica, 1929-30: 205-6. NUC [NR 0152667]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69125.

5. Latin, 1508 [5th edition].
Margarita Philosophica Noua | [Large allegorical woodcut].

4°: π6 A-E6 F4 Gh8 I6 K4 L6 M8 N-O6 P4 Q-S6 T-V8 X6 y8 AA8 bb-cc6 DD-GG8 HH4 II6 KK8 a6 b-f8 g6 h4 i-k6 l4 m-n8 o6 p8 q6 r8 (π1 and π6 blank); 322l.; no pagination or foliation. Map and one plate containing 2 diagrams. The title woodcut is the same as that in Grüninger's edition of 1504 (second edition).

Contents: π1, Blank.; π2r, Title.; π2v, "Vdalrici Zasii LL. Doctoris. ..."; π3r, "Suo Gregorio reisch generosi comitis de zolrn alumno: Adam wernherus temarensis Salutem. P.D."; π3v, "In eminentem Margaritam artifici situ Cyilopediam effingentem Jacobi Philomusi Oratoris Poetęqz lauretai Epigramma ..."; π4r, "Elegiacum Petri Schotti Argentineē. ..."; π4v, "Philesius vogesigena de laudibus & fructu Margaritę philosophicę ..."; π5r, "Ex Arte fieri omnia meliora Carmen I. A. ..."; π5v, "Epigrāma fratris pauli wolffii Offoburgii cęnobite Schutterani: Saphicum ad auctorem Margaritę philosophicę ..."; π6, Blank.; A1r-A1v, Contents.; A2r, Full-page wookcut, "Typus Grāmatio."; A2v, "Philosophiĉ partitio."; A3r-p2r, Text.; p2v, Address to "ingenui adolescentes."; p3r-p4r, "Angeli politiani pręlectio, Cui titulus Panepistemon."; p4v, Title woodcut is repeated.; q1r-r4r, Index.; r4v, Blank.

Rare. Grüninger's second unauthorized edition, with improvements and additions. Among them was a treatise on architecture on architecture and prespective by Martinus Ilacomilus (Waltzemüller). The map is a reprint of the one in Grüninger's first edition, with the four wind heads and a plain border.

Bibliographical references: D'Avezac, Martin Hylacomylus, Waltzemüller, 1867: 106-10. NUC [NR 0152672]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69126.

Margarita Philosophica Noua, 1512

6. Latin, 1512 [6th edition].
[Contained within an elaborate woodcut border:] Margarita Phi | losophica noua, cui insunt | sequentia. | Epigrammata In | cōmendationem operis. | Instutio Grammaticę Latinę | Pręcepta Logices | Rhetoricę informatio | Ars Memorandi Rauennatis | Beroladi modus cōponēdi Epi. | Arthmetica | Musica plana | Geometrie Principia: | Astronomia cum quibasdā de- | Astrologia | Philosophia Naturalis | Moralis Philosophta cū figurs. Argentine. 1512.

[Title of appendix reads:]

Appendix Ma- | theseos in Margaritā phi | losophicam. | Sequuntur nonuatim que | in hac appēdice cōplectunt | Greca& literarū instituiōes | Hebraicarum litterarū ru- | dimenta | architecture rudimenta | Quadrantum varie compo | sitiones. | Astrolabij Messahalath cō | positio. | Astrolabij noui geographi | ci compositio | Formatio | Torqueti. | Formatio polimetri. | Usus & vtilitatis eorūdem | omnium. | Figrua quadrātis poli | gonalis. | Quadratura circuli. | Cubatio sphere. | Perspectiue phisice & positi |ue rudimenta | Cara vniuersalis terre ma | risqz neotericam descriptio | nem indicans.

4°: A4 B-Z8 a-k8; 260l.; no pagination or foliation. ill., music (woodcuts). Includes index. Illustrated title-page. In Gothic letter. Sometimes found with: Appe[n]dix matheseos in Margarita[m] philosophica[m]. [Strasbourg]: Per Ioannem Gruninger ex Argenterato veteri, pridie Kalendas Iunij [May 31] anno redemptionis nostr[a]e 1512. Issued together.

Contents: A1r, Title.; A1v, Blank.; A2r-A2v, "Elegiacum Petri Schotti Argentin. ..."; A3r, "Ex Arte Fieri Omnia | Meliora Carmen ..."; A3v, Contents.; A4r, "Philosophie partitio."; A4v, Full-page woodcut, "Typvs Grāmatio."; B1r-i2v, Text.; i3r-k8r, Index in double columns.; k8v, Blank.

Rare. Grüninger's third unauthorized edition. The map of the world is the same as the one in Grüninger's earlier editions, containing the figures of the four wind heads, and surrounded by a plain border. This edition includes for the first time an "Appēdix Matheseos" (pp. 128), which contains treatises on the astrolabe, prespective (copied from Jean Pelerin), etc. However, not all copies of Reisch's book appear to have been bound with the appendix.

Bibliographical references: Ferguson, Margarita Philosophica, 1929-30: 208-10. NUC [NR 0152677]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69127.

7. Latin, 1515 [7th edition].
[Contained within an elaborate woodcut border:] Margarita Phi- | losophica noua Cui annexa | sunt sequentia. | Grecarum litera{[old R]} institutiones | Hebraica{[old R]} literatum rudimēta | Architecture rudimenta | Quadrantū varie cōpositiōes. | Astrolabij noui geographici zpō. | Formatio Torqueti. | Formatio Polimetri | Usus & vtilitas eorundem omnium. | figura quadrantis poligonalis | Quadratura circuli. | Cubatio sphere. | Perspectiue phisice & positive rudi- | menta. | Cartha vniuersalis terre marisqz for | mam neoterica descriptiōe indicās.

[Title of appendix reads:]

Appendix Ma- | theseos in Margaritā phi | losophicam. | Sequuntur nonuatim que | in hac appēdice cōplectunt | Greca& literarū instituiōes | Hebraicarum litterarū ru- | dimenta | architecture rudimenta | Quadrantum varie compo | sitiones. | Astrolabij Messahalath cō | positio. | Astrolabij noui geographi | ci compositio | Formatio | Torqueti. | Formatio polimetri. | Usus & vtilitatis eorūdem | omnium. | Figrua quadrātis poli | gonalis. | Quadratura circuli. | Cubatio sphere. | Perspectiue phisice & positi |ue rudimenta | Cara vniuersalis terre ma | risqz neotericam descriptio | nem indicans.

4°: A4 B-Z8 a-k8 AB6 CD6 E-F4 G-H6 I4 K-N6 O4; 324l.; no pagination or foliation. The title border is the same as the edition of 1512.

Contents: A1r, Title.; A1v, Blank.; A2r-A2v, "Elegiacvm Petri Schotti Argentinen. ..."; A3r, "Ex Arte fieri omnia | Meliora Carmen."; A3v, Contents.; A4r, "Philosophie Particio."; A4v, Full-page woodcut, "Typus Grāmatio."; B1r-i2v, Text.; i3r-k8r, "Index Summarius," in double column.; k8v, Blank.; [Appendix] AB1r, Title.; AB1v-O4v, Text.

Rare. Grüninger's fourth unauthorized edition, accompanied by an appendix. The map of the world is the same as Grüninger's earlier editions, with plain border and the head figures representing the winds.

Bibliographical references: NUC [NR 0152679]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69128.

8. Latin, 1517 [8th edition].
[Printed on a scroll inside a border consisting of figures of nude childern, medallions grotesques, etc.:] Margartia | Philosophica cū | additionibus nouis: | ab auctore suo | studiosissima | reuiosione | quarto | super | addi | tis | Anno domini. M.D.XVII.

4°: a-d8 e4 f-z8 A-O8; 292l.; no pagination or foliation.

Contents: a1r, Title.; A1v, Woodcut showing knowledge with the tree of science erupting from her. Below it are the wording, "Io. Schottus Argentinen. lectori S. | Hanc eme, non pressam mendaci stigmate, Lector: | Pluribus ast sauctam perlege, doctus eris. | Basileę. M D X VII."; a2r, Philesius verses.; a2v, "Margarita philosophica ..."; a3r, "Philosophie partitio."; a3v, Woodcut, "Typus Grāmatice."; a4r-M4r, Text.; M4v, Blank.; N1r-O6v, Index.; N7r, "Ad Lectorem Auctoris Conclusio."; N7v, Wernherus verses to Reisch.; N8r, Philomusus' verses, followed by the colophon.; N8v, Blank.

Rare. The fourth authorized edition. The map is like the one in Schott's first edition, with the twelve head winds.

Facsimile reprint, 1973: Margarita philosophica. Mit einem Vorwort, einer Einleitung und einem neuen Inhaltsverzeichnis von Lutz Geldsetzer. Dusseldorf, Stern, [c1973]. 8°: xliv, vi, 583 p. illus. (part fold.).

Published as a volume in a series: Instrumenta philosophica. Series thesauri, 1. Reprint of the 4th, enlarged edition published in Basel in 1517, together with an introduction in German.

Bibliographical references: Ferguson, Margarita Philosophica, 1929-30: 213-4. NUC [NR 0152669]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69129. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 1, no. 5411.

9. Latin, 1535 [9th edition].
[Contained within an elaborate woodcut border:] Marga- | rita philosophica, rati- | onalis, moralis philosophiĉ princi- | pia, duodecim libris dialogice cōple- | ctens, olim ab ipso autore recognita: | nuper aūt ab Orontio Fineo Delphi | nate castigata & aucta, unà cum ap- | pendicibus itidem emēdatis, & quā | plurimis additionibus & figuris, ab | eodem infignitis. Quorū omni- | um copiosus index, uersa | continetur pagella. | Virescit uulnere uirtus. | Basileae 1535.

[Title of appendix reads:]

Appendices | In Margaritam Philosophicam. | In I. librum. | Grĉcarum & Hebraicarum literarum institutiones. | In III. librum. | Conclusiones artis memoratiuĉ. | De componendis Epistolis Compendium. | In IIII. librum. | Introductio Iacobi Fabri Stapulensis in Arithmeticam Seue | rini Boëtij pariter & Iordani. | Ars supputandi Iudoci Clithouei. | Quĉstio haud indigna de numerorum & per digitos & per | articulos finita progressione ex Augustino. | Epitome rerum geometricarū ex geometrico introductorio | Caroli Bouilli. | De Quadratura circuli demonstratio ex Campano. | In V. librum. | Musicĉ Figuratĉ rudimenta. | In VI. librum. | Quadratura circuli. Bis. | Cubicatio sphĉrĉ. | Rudimenta Architecturĉ positiuĉ. | Virga uisoria, seu baculus uisurandi, cum eius ueraci figura, | & utilitatibus. | In VII. librum. | Quadrantum uariĉ compositones, & usus. | Astrolabij declaratio & commoditas. | Speculum orbis, & eius elucidatio. | Formationes Torqueti, Polymetri, & quadrantis polygo- | nalis, cum eorundem omnium utiltatibus. | Charta uiuersalis terrĉ, marisqz, secundum neotericos. | Proiectio sphĉrĉ in planum. Bis. | In X. librum. | Perspectiuĉ physicĉ & positiuĉ rudimenta.

4°: a-e8 A-Z8 aa-zz8 Aa-Zz8 AA-ZZ8 Aaa12; 793l.; [80], 1498, [8] p., [2] leaves of plates: ill., map, music. Errata: 2 p. (at end). Title within decorative border; head and tail -pieces, initials. Includes index. 2 maps and a plate containing 2 diagrams. Colophon: Basileae excvdebat Henricvs | Petrus, ac Conradi Reschij impensis. An{\b} | M. D. XXXV. Page size: 150 x 208 mm.

Contents: a1r, Title.; a1v, List of books in the Margarita not in the Appendix.; a2r-a2v, Letter from Oronce Finé to Michael Boudet, Lingonensium Episcopus, dated 1532.; a3r-a3v, Two poems.; a4r, "Philosophi quomodo legendi, ex Basilio."; a4v, "Philosophiĉ Partitio."; a5r-e8r, Index.; e8v, Woodcut, "Typus Grammatice."; A1r-Yy8r (pp. 1-1097), Text.; Yy8v, Blank.; Zz1r-AAa8v (pp. 1099-1498), Appendices.; AAa9r, Woodcut illustrating perspective.; AA9v, "Finit Margarita Philosophica ..."; AAa10r-AAa10v, "Errata."; AAa11r, Colophon: "Basileĉ Excudebat Henricus | Petrus, ac Conradi Reschij impensis. An. | M.D.XXXV."; AAa11v, Blank.; AA12v, Petri's device.

Rare. The preface by Oronce Finé [see note below] is dated "Parisijs ex regali collegio Nauarrĉ. 1523," which would suggest that there is an edition of that date. However, since no edition near that year exists, it is more likely a misprint for 1533. The text is preceded by the index. "This edition gives only part of the elaborate engravings found in the earlier ones. It is, however, much better printed, being set in clear Roman type and having a more open page." (Smith). The map in the first section is like the one in the first edition with the twelve head winds. The appendicies fill pages 1099 to 1498 and include: "Declaratio Specvli Orbis" by Gualtero Lud. Canonico Deodatensi (pp. 1421-1424), "Nova Terrĉ descriptio secvndvm Neotericorum obseruantiam" (pp. 1433-1434), followed by a crude, folding woodcut map, with the inscription at the top "Typis vniversalis terrae, ivxta modernorvm distinctionem et exteonem per regna et provincias." This map shows a portion of America with the inscription, "Paria seu prisilia."

Oronce Finé. (Born: Briançon, France, 20 December 1494; Died: Paris, France, 6 October 1555) French mathematician. In 1530 Finé (Fineus, Finĉus) was appointed professor of mathematics at the Collegio (later Collège de France) in Paris. He was the author of numerous scientific works and the inventor of mechanical and astronomical devices.

Bibliographical references: Ferguson, Margarita Philosophica, 1929-30: 214-5. NUC [NR 0152680]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69130. Smith, Rara Arithmetica, 1908: p. 84. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 1, no. 5412. (Finé) Biographie Universelle. DSB: 15, 153-7 [by E. Poulle]. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Poggendorff: 1, cols. 747-8. Thomas, Dictionary of Biography, 1884: 919. Zischka, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1961: 212.

10. Latin, 1583 [10th edition].
Margarita Philo- | sophica, | Hoc est, | Habitvvm sev | Disciplinarvm Omnivm, | Qvotqvot Philosophiĉ Syn- | cerioris ambitu continentur, perfectissima | K\char07K\char03\char05AI\char01EI'A. | A`. | F. Gregorio Reisch, Dialogismis | primùm tradita: Dein ab Orontio Finĉo Delphi- | nate, Regio Parisiensi Mathematico, necessarijs | aliquot Auctarijs locupletata. | Nunc verò innumeris in locis restituta, in eumqz nitorem | reuocata, vt studiosis omnibus, ad pellendam bo- | narum artium famem, Penus loco | esse possit. | Indicem librorum frequens docebit pagina. | Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Cĉs. Maiest. | Basileĉ, | Per Sebastianvm Hen- | ricpetri.

4°: a-b8 c4 A-Z8 aa-zz8 Aa-Zz8 AA-TT8 (TT8 blank); 724l.; [40], 1403, [5] p. Rare.

Contents: a1r, Title.; a1v, List of books in the Margarita and in the appendix.; a2r-a3r, Letter from Oronce Finé to Michael Boudet, Lingonensium Episcopus, dated Paris M.D.XXIII.; a3v-a4r, Poems.; a4v, "Philosophi quomodo legendi, ex Basilio."; a5r, "Philosophiĉ Partitio."; a5v-c3v, Index.; c4r, Woodcut title of the first edition of 1503, omitting the words (much worn).; c4v, Woodcut "Typus Grammatice."; A1r-Ss7v (pp. 1-1022), Text.; Ss8r-TT6r (pp. 1023-1402), Appendices.; TT6v, Woodcut illustrating perspective.; TT7r, Colophon: "Basileĉ, | Per Sebastianum Hen- | ricpetri, Anno Salvtis. | M.D.LXXXIII. | Mense Martio."; TT7v, Henricpetri's printer's device within an elaborate border.; TT8, Blank.

Bibliographical references: Ferguson, Margarita Philosophica, 1929-30: 215-6. NUC [NR 0152671]. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69131.

11. Italian, 1599 [Italian transl.].
Margarita | filosofica | del R.do P.F. Gregorio Reisch, | nella quale si trattano con bellissimo, & breue metodo | non solo tutte le doctrine comprese nella | Ciclopedia dagli antichi, | Cioè Cerchio, ouer Rotolo delle scienze; | ma molte altre ancora aggivntevi | di nouo da Orontio Fineo Matematico Regio. | Tradotta nuouamente dalla lingua Latina nell' Italiana da Giovan Paolo Gallvcci Salodiano | Accademico Veneto; | E dal medesimo accresciuta di varie, e bellissime cose | comenella Nona Pagina si vede. | Non meno per i curiosi diletteuole, che vtile, e gioueuole per gli Studiosi. | Con Licencia de' Superiori, & Priuilegij. | [vignette] | In Venetia, M. D. XCIX. | Appresso Iacomo Antonio Somascho.

4°: [24], 1138 p., illus., maps, music. With 5 engravings by Jan Sadeler after Marten de Vos (inserted?). Title in red and black. Woodcuts throughout, some fullpage. Folded diagram at page 262.

Rare. Translated by Giovanni Paolo Gallucci [see note below], with additions by the mathematician, Oronce Finé [1494-1555] and an introduction by Faber Stapulensis to the arithmetics of Boethius and Jordanus. The additions are substantial and comprise instructions on arthmetic and practical music. The large symbolic plates and many textual illustrations have been omitted, while those that are retained are inferior in execution to earlier editions. (Ferguson). "This Italian translation, which contains many additions on arithmetic and music is much scarcer than any edition of the Latin original."-Libri Catalogue.

Giovanni Paolo Gallucci. (Born: Salo near Brescia, Italy, 1538; Died: 1631?) Italian astronomer. The Italian Gallucci was a renowned astronomer whose contributions, especially in the field of astronomical insturments, greatly advanced the scientific knowledge of the 16th and 17th centuries.

Bibliographical references: Ferguson, Histories of Inventions, 1981: IV, 17-23. NUC [NR 0152662]. Riccardi, Biblioteca Mathematica Italiana, 1893: 1, 572. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 69132. (Gallucci) Biographie Universelle. Dizionario Biografico Italiani. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Poggendorff: 1, cols. 838-9. WBI.

12. Italian, 1600 [Italian transl.].
Margarita Filosofica, nella quale si trattano ... tutte le Dottrine comprese nella Ciclopedia dagli Antichi ... ma molte altre ancora. Aggiuntevi di novo da Orontio Fineo, tradotta nuovamente da Giovan Paolo Gallvcci, et accresciuta di varie e bellissime Cose ... Venetia, Appresso Iacomo Antonio Somascho, 1600.

4°: [24], 1-790, [2], 795-1138 p., one folding diagram. Title in red and black.

Rare. Reprint of the 1599 edition with a new date on the title page.

Bibliographical references: NUC [NR 0152664].

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