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Gustav Rose
ROSE, Gustav.

ROSE, Gustav.
(1798 - 1873)

(Born: Berlin, Germany, 18 March 1798; Died: Berlin, Germany, 15 July 1873) German crystallographer & mineralogist.

Rose was born into a family with a strong tradition in science. His grandfather, Valentin Rose the elder, invented the low-melting alloy still called Rose's metal. His father, Valentine the younger made original contributions to procedures in inorganic chemical analysis, and his brother Heinrich was a famous chemist in his own right. In 1815, at the age of only seventeen, Gustav with his brothers fought in the campaign against Napoleon. The following year, he became an apprentice at a mine in Silesia, but left due to illness. Returning to Berlin, he began studying mineralogy under C.S. Weiss. He graduated from the University of Berlin in 1820, and traveled to Stockholm to work in the laboratory of J.J. Berzelius. Returning to Germany in 1823, he began his lifetime career at the University of Berlin becoming professor extraordinary in 1826 and professor ordinary in 1839. In 1856, Rose succeeded Weiss as director of the Royal Mineralogical Museum. Together with F.H.A. von Humboldt, E. Mitscherlich and others, he founded in 1848 the Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft. The mineral "Roselite" was named in his honor by A. Lévy in 1824.

Biographical references: ADB: 29, 175. Annalen der Physik: 150 (1873), 647-52. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 223. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 249. DBA: I 1054, 135-138; II 1094, 226-233. Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: no. 4582. DSB: 11, 539-40 [by A. Pabst]. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 367. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 692-4 & 3, 1141-2. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2001. Schaedler, Biographisch Handwörterbuch, 1891: 107. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 1443. Zeitschrift der Deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft: 25 (1873), i-xix.

1. German, 1820 [Dissertation].
De sphenis atque Titanitæ Systematæ Crystallino ... publice defendet D.IX.M. Decembris MDCCCXX ... Gustav Rose ... Accedunt tabulæ æneæ tres ... [Berolini] Formis Starckianis [1820].

8°: [4], [1]-26 p., 3 plates.

Rare. Rose's dissertation, presented at the University of Kiel in December 1820. This is the first work on crystal morphology of a mineral species based on accurate measurements with a reflecting goniometer. In it Rose established the identity of sphene and titanite.

Bibliographical references: DSB: 11, 539 [by A. Pabst]. NUC: 504, 109-10 [NR 0421776].

Elemente der Krystallographie

Elemente der Krystallographie, 1833

2. German, 1833 [First edition].
Elemente | der | Krystallographie, | nebst | einer tabellarischen Uebersicht | der Mineralien | nach den Krystallformen | von | Gustav Rose. | [rule] | Mit zehn Kupfertafeln. | [tapered rule] | Berlin, 1833. | Bei Ernst Siegfried Mittler.

2 vols. [Text] 8°: vi, 158 (i.e, 173), [1] p.; [Atlas] 8°: [1]-11 p., 10 double page plates).

Rare. Presents the latest advances of the science at the time. Used as a textbook. Rose was an expert in the use of the reflecting goniometer and the results of his research are contained in this work. The first section provides a general overview of the science including definitions. This is followed by discussions of the six divisions of the crystallographic system.

Bibliographical references: Groth, Entwicklungsgeschichte, 1926: 154-5. NUC: 504, 109-10 [NR 0421778].

3. German, 1838 [2nd edition].
Elemente | der | Krystallographie, | nebst | einer tabellarischen | Uebersicht der Mineralien | nach den Krystallformen | von | Gustav Rose. | [rule] | Zweite Auflage. | Mit zehn Kupfertafeln. | [ornate rule] | Berlin, 1838. | Bei Ernst Siegfried Mittler.

[Title to the atlas reads:]

Kupfertafeln | zu | den Elementen | der | Krystallographie | von | Gustav Rose.

2 vols. [Text] 8°: π6 1-118; ??l.; [i]-xii, [1]-175, [1] p. [Atlas] 8°: [20] p., 10 plates. Page size: 200 x 120 mm. Very scarce.

Contents: [Text] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], "Vorrede zur ersten Auflage."-dated 2 February 1833.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-viii, "Vorrede zur zweiten Auflage."-signed Gustav Rose, 16 June 1838.; [ix]-xii, "Inhalt."; [1]-152, Text.; [153], "Tableearische | Uebersicht der Mineralien nach den | Krystallformen."; [154], Blank.; [155]-175, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

[Atlas] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [18 pgs], Descriptive text accompanying the plates.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 79. NUC: 504, 109-10 [NR 0421779].

4. German, 1873-6 [3rd edition].
Gustav Rose's | Elemente der Krystallographie. | [wavy rule] | Dritte Auflage | neu bearbeitet und vermehrt | von | Alexander Sadebeck. | [ornament] | Mit neun lithographirten Doppeltafeln. | [double rule] | Berlin, 1873. | Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn, | Königliche Hofbuchhandlung. | Kochstrasse 69.

[Title pages to volume two read:]

Rose-Sadebeck's | Elemente der Krystallographie. | [wavy rule] | Zweiter Band. | Angewandte Krystallographie | von | A. Sadebeck. | [ornament] | [double rule] | Berlin, 1876. | Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn, | Königliche Hofbuchhandlung. | Kochstrasse 69, 70.

[Next title page of volume two reads:]

Angewandte Krystallographie, | (Ausbildung der Krystalle, Zwillingsbildung, | Krysstallotektonik), | nebst einem Anhange über Zonenlehre | von | Alexander Sadebeck. | [ornament] | Mit 23 lithographirten Tafeln. | [double rule] | Berlin, 1876. | Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn, | Königliche Hofbuchhandlung. | Kochstrasse 69, 70.

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1873] 8°: π5 1-118 123; ??l.; [i]-ix, [1]-181, [1] p., 9 folding lithographic plates (num. I-IX showing crystal diagrams and signed C. Laue). [Vol 2: 1876] 8°: π8 1-178 186; ??l.; [i]-xv, [1], [1]-284 p., 12 folding plates (num. I-XII). Page size: 222 x 140 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso "Mit Vorbehalt des Uebersetzungsrechts."; [iii]-vi, "Vorrede" and "Nachruf."; [vii]-ix, "Inhalt."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-149, Text.; [150], Blank.; [151], "Tabellarische | Uebersicht der Mineralien | Nach den Krystallisationssystemen."; [152], Blank.; [153], Introduction.; 154-160, "Uebersicht der Mineralien nach den Krystallisationenssystems."; [161]-181, "Erklärung der Tafeln."; [1 pg], Blank.; [At end], 9 folding lithographic plates.

[Vol 2] [i-ii], Blank, verso title page one.; [iii-iv], Title page two, verso blank.; [v]-vii, "Vorrede."-signed A. Sadebeck, April 1876.; [viii], Blank.; [ix]-xv, "Inhalts-Verzeichniss."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-272, Text.; [273]-284, "Erklärung der Tafeln."; [At end], 12 folding lithographic plates.

Rare. After Rose's death, this edition was completed by Alexander Sadebeck [see note below]. It is an authoritative work in crystallography providing in the first volume material covered in the previous editions of Rose's Elements der Krystallographie. However, with the addition of the second volume, Sadebeck is able to include a great deal of new material on the theoretical formation of crystals, descriptions of twinning in each of the six crystallographic classes, and crystal zoning that had never been treated by Rose.

Alexander Sadebeck. (Born: Berlin, Germany, 26 June 1843; Died: Hamburg, Germany, 9 December 1879) German mineralogist, crystallographer & stratigrapher. In 1865, Sadebeck received his Ph.D. from the University of Berlin. In 1872, he became professor ordinary of mineralogy and geology at the University of Kiel.

Bibliographical references: BMC. NUC: 504, 109-10 [NR 0421780]. (Sadebeck) ADB: 30, 163-4. American Journal of Science: 3rd Series, 19 (1880), 168. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 227. DBA: I 1074, 3-5; II 1115, 439-440. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 373. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie: Jg. 1880, 1, 2 unnumb. pages [in section added at back]. Poggendorff: 3, 1159-60. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2029. Volbehr & Weyl, Professoren zu Kiel, 1916: 109. WBI.

5. French, 1834 [French transl.].
Éléments | De | Cristallographie, | Par M. Gustav Rose | (De Berlin). | Traduit De L'Allemand | Par M. Victor Regnault, | Élève-Ingénieur Au Corps Royal Des Mines, Et Ancien Élève | De L'École Polytechnique. | [ornate rule] | Ire Partie.-Texte. | Paris, | L. Hachette, Rue Pierre-Sarrazin, N° 12. | Firmin Didot Frères, Rue Jacob, N° 24. | [wavy rule] | M DCCC XXXIV.

2 parts in one volume. [Text] 8°: [2], [1]-269, [1] p.; [Atlas] [1]-11, [1] p., 10 double-page lithographic plates. Page size: 206 x 126 mm.

Contents: [Text] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1]-218, Text.; [219]-238, "Tableau | Des | Substances Minérales Cristallées."; [239], Blank.; [240]-269, "Notes."; [1 pg], Blank.

[Atlas] [1]-11, "Explication | Des Planches."; [1 pg], "Errata Du Texte."; [At end], 10 lithographic plates (double page; numbered I-X).

Very scarce. Translated by Henri Victor Regnault [see note below] from Elemente der Krystallographie (1st ed., Berlin, 1833).

Henri Victor Regnault. (Born: Aachen, France, 21 July 1810; Died: Paris, France, 19 January 1878) French chemist & crystallographer. In 1832, Regnault was accepted into the Corps de Mines raising to the rank of Engineer in Chef, 2nd class by 1847. He then accepted a position as professor of chemistry at the École Polytechnique and professor of physics at the College de France. He was elected a member of the French Academie des Sciences in 1840, and he won the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1869.

Bibliographical references: BMC. NUC: 504, 109-10 [NR 0421781]. (Regnault) ABF: I 879, 446-458; II 544, 281-285. Glaeser, E., Biographie nationale des contemporains. Paris, 1878. 4,824 p. [French national biography of the 19th century.]. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Poggendorff: 2, cols. 588-90 & 3, 1099-1100. Schaedler, Biographisch Handwörterbuch, 1891: 101. WBI.

A Jegeczismé Elemei Rose Gustav Után (Pesten, 1843).
See under: Mihálka, Antal.

Mineralogisch-geognostische Reise, 1837

6. German, 1837-42.
Mineralogisch-geognostische | Reise | nach dem | Ural, dem Altai | und dem | Kaspischen Meere | von | Gustav Rose. | [rule] | Erster Band. | Reise nach dem nördlichen Ural und dem Altai. | [rule] | Mit Kupfern, Karten und Holzschnitten. | [tapered rule] | Berlin, 1837. | Verlag der Sanderschen Buchhandlung. | (C.W. Eichhoff.)

[Series title page:]

Reise | nach dem | Ural, dem Altai | und dem | Kaspischen Meere | auf Befehl Sr. Majestät des Kaisers von Russland im | Jahre 1829 ausgeführt | von | A. von Humboldt | G. Ehrenberg und G. Rose. | [rule] | Mineralogisch-geognostisher Theil und historischer | Bericht der Reise | von | G. Rose. | [tapered rule] | Berlin, 1837. | Verlag der Sanderschen Buchhandlung. | (C.W. Eichhoff.)

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1837] 8°: π8 *7 1-408 χ2; ??l.; [i]-xxx, [1]-641, [3] p., 3 folding maps, 7 plates (4 folding). [Vol 2: 1842] 8°: π8 1-388; ??l.; [iii]-xv, [3], [1]-606 p., 2 folding maps, 3 plates (crystal drawings). Page size: 220 x 126 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Blank, verso series title page.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; [v], Dedication to Count G. von Cancrin.; [vi], Blank.; [vii]-xvi, "Vorrede."; [xvii]-xxvii, "Inhalts-Uebersicht."; [xxviii], Blank.; [xxix]-xxx, "Zur Erläuterung der Tafeln."; [1]-60, "I. Reise von Berlin nach Petersburg."; 61-132, "II. Reise von Petersburg nach Katharinenburg."; 133-278, "III. Katharinenburg und Excursionen in die Umgebungen der Stadt."; 279-470, "IV. Reise in den nördlichen Ural."; 471-502, "V. Reise von Katharinenberg nach der Altai."; 503-613, "Der Altai."; 614-620, "Ueber das Tellursilber und das Tellurblei von Sanodinskoi im Altai."; 621-624, "Ueber den Rohstein von der Silberhütte von Barnaul."; 625-628, "Ueber die Goldscheidung vermittelst Schwefelsäure auf dem Münzhofe von Petersburg."; 629-634, "Ueber die mittlere Temperatur von Petersburg, Moskau und Kasan."; 635-641, "Ueber die Höhe von Moskau und Kasan über der Meeresfläche."; [642], Blank.; [643], "Verbesserungen."; [1 pg], Colophon: "Gedruckt vei C. Feister."; [At end], 7 plates and 3 maps.

[Vol 2] [iii-iv], Blank, verso series title page.; [v-vi], Title page, verso blank.; [vii]-xv, "Inhalts-Uebersicht."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "Zur Erläuterung der Tafeln."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-19, "VI. Reise vom Altai nach dem südlichen Ural."; [20]-160, "VIII. Miask und Slatoust, und Exkursionen in die Umgebungen."; 161-216, "IX. Reise von Miask nach Orenburg."; 217-292, "X. Reise von Orenburg nach Astrachen."; 293-346, "XI. Astrachen und das kaspische Meer."; 347-378, "Ueber den Uralit."; 379-382, "Ueber den Chrysoberyll vom Ural."; 383-385, "Ueber den Pyrrhit."; 386-401, "Ueber die Platinerze des Ural."; 402-429, "Ueber die chemische Zusammensetzung des gediegenen Goldes vom Ural."; 430-438, "Ueber die Production an Gold, Silber und Platin im russischen Reiche und besonders im Ural."; 439-442, "Höhe des nördlichen Ural."-contains the entymology of the word `Ural'.; 443-530, "Systematische Uebersicht der Mineralien und Gebirgsarten des Ural. I. Mineralien des Ural."; 531-602, "II. Gebirgsarten des Ural."; [603]-604, "Nachtrag."; [605]-606, "Verbesserungen im ersten Theile."; [At end], 3 plates and 2 maps.

Plates: The plates and maps of the volumes are:

Volume 1: I. Diamant und Brochantit. II. Rothkupfererz, Gold. III. Kupfer. IV. Kupfer. V. Kupferlasur. VI. Kupferlasur. VII. Zirkon, Feldspath, Turmalin. Map I. Karte des Altaischen Hüttenbezirks und der Angränzenden Gegenden (folding; 3060 x 3090 mm.). VIII. Situationsplan der Turjinskischen Kupfergruben (folding; 220 x 4000 mm.; hand-colored). IX. Horiziontaler Durchschnitt des dritten Theils der Curjinskisch-Frolawskischen Grube in einer Teufe von zehn bis funfzehn Saschenen.

Volume 2: I. Zirkon, Phrochlor, Aeschynit, Osmium-Jridium, Monazit. II. Topas, Hornblende, Augit. III. Schwerspath, Diopside, Hornblende, Uralit. IV. Karte des Landes zwischen dem Unter Laufe der Wolga und des Ural (340 x 262 mm.). V. Geognostische Karte von den Hüttenbezirken von Miask und Slatoust. (480 x 380 mm.).

Rare. In 1829, Rose along with C.G. Ehrenberg [see note below] was choosen to accompany Humboldt on a scientific journey commissioned by the Russian Czar to the Urals, the Altai, and the Caspian Sea. This venture took him from Europe to as far as the China frontier. The Mineralogisch-geognostische Reise chronicles the journey and includes many observations on geology, mineralogy, and mineral resources of the regions traversed. Since its publication, it has been widely quoted as an authoritative source about these matters. Volume one concerns the northern Urals and the Altai, while volume two describes the excursions through the southern Urals and the Caspian sea, reviewing in particular the minerals and geology of the Ural mountains.

Abridged English translation, 1994: By John Sinkankas.

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. (Born: Delitzsch, Saxony, Germany, 19 April 1795; Died: Berlin, Germany, 27 June 1876) German physician, microscopist & naturalist. Ehrenberg was the only survivor of an expedition sent by the Prussian Academy to North Africa and the Middle East, 1820-5. This initiated his interest in the fauna of the Red Sea. He went on an expedition to Siberia and Russia to collect material for St. Petersburg, Paris and Berlin museums.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 79. Hoppe, G. and G. Wappler, "Mineralogische Forschungsergebnisse Gustav Roses von der Russlandreise mit Alexander von Humboldt (1829) " Zeitschrift geolgischen Wissenschaften, 4, (1976), no. 2, 337-44: 4 (2), 337-44. NUC: 504, 109-10 [NR 0421784]. (Ehrenberg) ADB. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.: 19 (1877), 113-6. Biographie Universelle. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: p. 110. DSB: 4, 288-92. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. Locker, Sigurd. "Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876) und die Mikrogeologische Sammlung", Zeitschrift für geologischen Wissenschaften, 8 (1980), no. 2, 231-38, 3 illus. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Poggendorff: 1, cols. 646-7 & 3, 401. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences: 12 (1876-7), 327-8. Quarterly Journal of Geological Society of London: 33, Proceedings 56-60.

7. German, 1846.
Über das | Krystallisationssystem des Quarzes. | [double rule] | Ein in der Akademie der Wissenschaften am 25. April 1844 | gehaltene Vorlesung | von | Gustav Rose. | [rule] | Mit fünf Kupfertafeln. | [rule] | Berlin. | Gedruckt in der Druckerei der königlichen Akademie | der Wissenschaften. | 1846. | [double rule] | Bei G. Reimer.

4°: π2 A-G4 H1; 31l.; [4], [1]-58 p., 5 plates (one folding, numbered I-V). Page size: 270 x 225 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to Georg Friedrich Frick.; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-58, Text.; [At end], 5 plates.

Very scarce. This is a separately published paper recording a lecture Rose delivered before the Berlin Academy of Science on April 25, 1844. It is the first monograph entirely devoted to the subject of the crystallization of quartz. The text begins with a review of the previous literature that dealt with quartz crystal systems. Major worldwide localites and the quartz specimens they produce are then described. This commentary covers crystal forms, combinations, zoning and twins. The first four plates show various quartz crystal forms while the last one shows a complex projection of the known forms.

Bibliographical references: NUC: 504, 109-10 [NR 0421788].

Das Mineralsystem, 1852

8. German, 1852.
Das | Krystallo-Chemische | Mineralsystem | von | Gustav Rose. | Mit 10 Holzschnitten. | [rule] | Leipzig. | Verlag Von Wilhelm Engelmann. | 1852.

8°: [1]-156 p., 10 woodcuts.

Scarce. Important classified catalog of mineral species, presented as a modification of Berzelius' system of classification, in which the modifying principle is derived principally from crystallography. At the time this volume was written, natural history classification schemes were still generally accepted. Other researchers preferred a pure chemical approach following the theories of Berzelius, but could not easily integrate species like calcite and aragonite that have the same chemical composition but crystallize in different systems. In the Krystallo-Chemische Mineralsystem however, Rose blends mineralogical chemistry and crystallography into a coherent system of classification, which ended ideas about "natural classifications" and was a model for most later classifications.

In the introduction, Rose describes his theoretical approach to classification. His system consists of 4 major divisions: I. Simple bodies, subdivided by crystal form, II. Compounds of antimony, arsenic, tellurium, sulfur and selenium, III. Compounds of chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine, and IV. Oxygen compounds. This classification is followed by notes on crystallization and composition of many species. A catalog of minerals arranged according to the system follows. Here the species under each division are arranged in columns according to their system of crystallization. The divisions are thus broken up into natural groups that exhibit interesting relationships between the species. Throughout, Rose provides extended notes and original views on many mineral species.

Bibliographical references: American Journal of Science: 2nd Series, 15 (1853), 430 & 17 (1854), 81-2. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 79. Groth, Entwicklungsgeschichte, 1926: 154-5. NUC: 504, 109-10 [NR 0421783].

9. German, 1874 [Collection catalog].
Das Mineralogische Museum ... Systematisches Verzeichniss und Beschreibung seiner Schausammlungen. Von G. Rose und A. Sadebeck. Berlin, 1874.

8°: vii, 100 p.

Rare. Co-authored with Alexander Sadebeck [see note below].

Alexander Sadebeck. (Born: Berlin, Germany, 26 June 1843; Died: Hamburg, Germany, 9 December 1879) German mineralogist, crystallographer & stratigrapher. In 1865, Sadebeck received his Ph.D. from the University of Berlin. In 1872, he became professor ordinary of mineralogy and geology at the University of Kiel.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 149. NUC [no copy listed]. (Sadebeck) ADB: 30, 163-4. American Journal of Science: 3rd Series, 19 (1880), 168. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 227. DBA: I 1074, 3-5; II 1115, 439-440. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 373. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie: Jg. 1880, 1, 2 unnumb. pages [in section added at back]. Poggendorff: 3, 1159-60. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2029. Volbehr & Weyl, Professoren zu Kiel, 1916: 109. WBI.

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