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Torbern Olof Bergman
BERGMAN, Torbern Olof.

BERGMAN, Torbern Olof.
(1735 - 1784)

(Born: Katrineberg, Vestergötland, Sweden, 20 March 1735; Died: Medevi, Sweden, 8 July 1784) Swedish chemist, mineralogist, astronomer, physicist & geographer.

Bergman entered the University of Upsala at the age of seventeen, from which his family expected he would graduate in either divinity or law, although he preferred mathematics and natural science. However, through overwork he injured his health and during his convalescence he studied botany and entomology to such good purpose he was able to send Linneaus several new kinds of insect. He returned to the University in 1758, and upon graduation began teaching there mathematics and then physics. Upon the resignation of J.G. Wallerius from the chair of chemistry and mineralogy, Bergman became a candidate for the appointment. Although opposed by many, he had a friend in Crown Prince Gustavus III, and chancellor of the University, who gained the appointment for Bergman. He held this post until the end of his relatively short life (he died at the age of 49). Bergman's most important chemical contribution was his Essay on Elective Attractions (English trans., London, 1775), a study of chemical affinity. His other writings covered many subjects but are all related to some aspect of science, most particularly chemistry and mineralogy. For example, in 1761 he was the first to discover the planet Venus had an atmosphere.

In chemistry, Bergman is considered the father of quantitative analysis, physical chemistry, modern chemical nomenclature, the concept of equivalent weights, and the electromotive series, and is the discoverer or made major contributions to the discovery of at least eight chemical elements: platinum, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, cobalt, nickel, oxygen, and barium. In crystallography he has been considered a forerunner of Haüy in founding the science. He wrote the first great treatise in physical geography, Physisk Beskrifning (1st ed., Upsala, 1766-74), and he contributed substantially to our modern philosophy of science.

Biographical references: Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 21. Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 174 [2 portraits listed]. Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: no. 368. DSB: 2, 4-8 [by W.A. Smeaton]. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. Fischer, Mineralogie in Sachsen, 1939: 239. Hooykaas, R., "Torbern Bergman's crystal theory", Lychnos, 1952, 21-54. ISIS, 1913-65: 1, 132. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 34. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 179-99. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 1536-7. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 536-7, Suppl. 1 (1986), 1, 287 & Suppl. 3 (1996), 1, 434. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-022, 423-441. Schaedler, Biographisch Handwörterbuch, 1891: 9. Schufle, J.A., "Torbern Bergman, Earth Scientist", Annals of Science, 12, (1967), 59-97. Schufle, J.A., Torbern Bergman. A man before his time. Lawrence, Kansas, Coronado Press, 1985. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 3, 591-??. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 159.

Collected Works

1. Latin, 1779-90.
Torberni Bergman | [...5 lines of titles and memberships...] | Opuscula | Physica et Chemica, | Pleraque Antea Seorsim Edita, | Jam Ab Auctore | Collecta, Revisa Et Aucta. | Vol. 1. | [tapered rule] | Cum Tabulis Ænæis. | [rule] | Cum Privilegio S. Elect. Saxoniæ. | [rule] | Holmiæ, Upsaliæ & Aboæ, | In Officini Librariis Magni Swederi, | Regg. Acadd. Bibliop. | MDCCLXXIX.

6 vols. [Vol 1: 1779] 8°: π2 )(7 χ2 A-Bb8 Cc6; ??l.; [6], [I]-XVI, [1]-411, [1] p., 2 folding plates (apparatus, experiments and crystals). [Vol 2: 1780] 8°: π3 A-Hh8 Ii5 Kk2; ??l.; [6], [1]-510 p., 2 folding plates (crystals and blowpipe). [Vol 3: 1780] 8°: π3 A-Gg8 Hh5; ??l.; [6], [1]-490 p., 3 plates (diagrms. of double elective attractions). [Vol 4: 1787] 8°: π5 A-Aa8 Bb4 Cc3; ??l.; [10], [1]-392, [6] p. [Vol 5: 1788] 8°: *4 A-Cc8 Dd3; ??l.; [8], [1]-421, [1] p., one folding map, 5 plates (diagrams, leaves, rainbow). [Vol 6: 1790] 8°: π4 A-O8 P-Aa4; ??l.; [8], [1]-214, [92] p., 2 folding plates (diagrams).

Contents: [Vol 1] [2 pgs], Half title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso quotation from Bacon.; [1 pg], Dedication.; [1 pg], "Index Commenatationum in Primo Volumine."; [I]-XVI, "Introitus de Indagando Vero."; [1]-404, Text.; 405-411, "Index."; [1 pg], "Errata typographica graviora."

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Half title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso quotation from Bacon.; [1 pg], Dedication.; [1 pg], "Index Commenatationum."; [1]-506, Text.; 507-508, "Index Numeri paginas indicant."; 509-510, "Addenda."

[Vol 3] [2 pgs], Half title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso quotation from Bacon.; [1 pg], Dedication.; [1 pg], "Index Commenatationum."; [1]-479, Text.; 480-482, "Addenda."; 483-488, "Index."; 489-490, "Corrigenda."

[Vol 4] [2 pgs], Half title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso quotation from Bacon.; [1 pg], Dedication.; [1 pg], Blank.; [2 pgs], "Præfatio Editoris."; [2 pgs], "Index Disseertationum."; [1]-392, Text.; [6 pgs], "Index."

[Vol 5] [2 pgs], Title page, verso quotation from Hippocrates.; [4 pgs], "Præfatio Editoris."; [2 pgs], "Commentationum quæ in hoc volumine."; [1]-416, Text.; [417]-421, "Index."; [1 pg], "Corrigenda."

[Vol 6] [2 pgs], Title page, verso quotation from Hippocrates.; [4 pgs], "Lect. sal. Editor."; [2 pgs], Contents.; [1]-214, Text.; [92 pgs], "Index in vniversos sex tomos."

Very scarce. This is the first edition of the collected scientific papers of Bergman, including memoirs on carbon dioxide, elective affinity, the blowpipe, and chemical analysis of minerals and mineral waters. Also contained in the collection are revised and expanded editions of many of the dissertations on chemical subjects offered by Doctoral candidates at the University of Uppsala. Bergman edited the first three volumes, contributing a prefactory essay "On the investigation of truth." The last three volumes were edited by E.B.G. Hebenstreit and were published after Bergman's death.

Contents of the six volumes: [Vol 1] Introitus de indagando vero.; De acido aëreo.; De analysi aquarum.; De aquis Upsaliensibus.; De fonte acidulari Danemarkensi.; De aqua pelagica; De aquis medicatis frigidis, arte parandis.; De aquis medicatis calidis, arte parandis.; De acido sacchari.; De confectione alumins.; De tartaro antimoniato.; De magnesia.

[Vol 2] De formis crystallorum, præsertim e spatho ortis.; De terra silicea.; De lapide hydrophano.; De terra gemmarum.; De terra turmalini.; De calce auri fulminante.; De platina.; De mineris ferri albis.; De niccolo.; De arsenico.; De mineris zinci.; De praecipitatis metallicis.; De minerarum docimasia humida.; De tubo ferruminatorio, ejusdemque usu in explorandis corporibus, præsertim mineralibus.

[Vol 3] De analysis ferri.; De causa fragilitatis ferri frigidi.; De acidis metallicis.; De diversa phlogisti quantitate in metallis.; De stanno sulphurato.; De antitmonialibus sulphuratis.; Producta ignis subterranei chemice considerata (De productis vulcaniis).; De attactionibus electivis.; De ferro et stano igne commixtis.

[Vol 4] De primordiis chemiæ.; Historiæ chemiæ medium seu obscurum ævum a medio sæculo VII. ad medium sæc. XVII.; De analysi lithomargæ. De terra asbestina.; Meditationes de systemate fossilium naturali.; De connubio hydrargyri cum acido salis.; De laterum coctione rite instituenda.; De aquis acidulatis Medviensibus.; De fontibus medicatis Lokanis.; De cobalto, niccolo, platina et magnesia, eorumque per præcipitationes investigata indole.; Observatinese nonnullæ de calculis urinariis.

[Vol 5] Analysis chmica pigmenti indici.; De terris geoponicis.; De magnesia nitri.; De montibus Vestrogothicis.; Classes larvarum.; De galla quadam singulari.; De natura tenthredinum et erucarum spuriarum.; De pityocampe sive eruca pini.; De apibus ed mellificii vicissitudinibus ex alveorum ponderatione aestimandis.; De cocco aquatico sive hirudine octoculata.; De hirudinibus.; Autororae boreales, annis MDCCLIX, LX, LXI & LXII. observatæ.; De aurorae borealis altitudine.; De arcus coelistis explicationibus.; Historia doctrinae de crepusculis.; De fulguratione observationes.; Experimenta electrica, transitum commotionis per aquam illustrantia.; De electicitate crystalli Islandicae.; Experimenta electrica cum tabulis vitreis sibi mutuo affrictis instituta.; Experimenta electrica cum taeniis sericis instituta.; De vi electrica turmalini.

[Vol 6] De crepusculis.; De interpolatione astronomica.; De attractione universali.; Oratio de nuperrimis chemiae incrementis.; Observationes mineralogicae.; De avertendo fulmine.; Index.

Latin 1786-92: Torberni Bergman ... Opvscvla Physica e Chemica. Editio Nova Emendatior ... Upsaliæ, 1786-92. 3 vols. [Vol 1: 1788] 8°: xxiv, 388 p., 2 plates. [Vol 2: 1792] 8°: [6], 509 p, 2 plates. [Vol 3: 1786] 8°: [8], 488 p., 3 plates. New edition of the first three volumes of the Opuscula.

Ernst Benjamin Gottlieb Hebenstreit. (Born: Leipzig, Germany, 10 February 1758; Died: Leipzig, Germany, 12 December 1803) German apothecary & physician. Trained as an apothecary, Hebenstreit eventually was appointed professor extraordinary first of general medicine (1785) than anatomy and surgery (1793) at the University of Leipzig.

Bibliographical references: BL [955.h.23-28.]. Bolton, Bibliography of Chemistry, 1893: 301. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 102. Duveen, Bibliotheca Alchemica et Chemica, 1965: p. 66. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, 98 [vols. 1-2 only]. Hoefer, Histoiré de la Chimie, 1866-9: 2, 443. LKG: XI 9a. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 282. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 150. Norman Catalog: no. 192. Norman Sale Catalog: no. 287. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342659]. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342656]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 182-3 [lists the dissertations in chronological order assigning his own numbers]. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 2, 149. (Hebenstreit) DBA: I 490, 408-413. Deutsche Apotheker Biographie: 1, ??. Hamberger & Meusel, Gelehrte Teutschland, 1796-1834. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8. Meusel, Verstorbenen Teutschen Schrifsteller, 1802-16. Poggendorff: 1, col. 1043. WBI.

2. French, 1780-5.
Opuscules | Chymiques | et Physiques | de M.T. Bergman, | [...5 lines of titles and memberships...] | Recueillis, revus et augmentés par lui-même. | Traduits par M. De Morveau, | Avec des Notes. | [double rule] | Tome Premier. [-Second.] | [double rule] | [ornament] | A Dijon, | Chez L.N. Frantin, Imprimeur du Roi. | [double rule] | M. DCC. LXXX. [-M. DCC. LXXXV.] | Avec Approbation et Privilege du Roi.

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1780] 8°: π8 a-b8 A-Ee8; ??l.; [16], [i]-xxxi, [1], [1]-446, [2] p., 2 folding plates (apparatus and crystals). [Vol 2: 1785] 8°: π2 a8 A-Kk8; ??l.; [4], [i]-xvi, [1]-525, [3] p., 2 folding plates (blowpipe and crystals).

Contents: [Vol 1] [2 pgs], Half title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication.; [1 pg], Quotation from Bacon.; [10 pgs], "Table du Tome Premier."; i-x, "Avertissement du Traducteur."; xi-xxxi, "Discours Préliminaire. De la Recherche de la Vérité."; [1 pg], One line from Horat.; [1]-434, Text.; 435-445, "Table des Matieres."; 446, "Approbation."; [1 pg], "Additions et Corrections."; [1 pg], "Avis au Relieur."

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Half title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [i], Dedication.; [ii], Quotation from Bacon.; iii-xii, "Table du Tome Second."; xiii-xvi, "Avertissement du Traducteur."; [1]-517, Text.; [518], Blank.; 519-525, "Table des Matieres."; [1 pg], "Approbation."; [1 pg], "Additions et Corrections pour le Tome 1er."; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. Much revised by Bergman through corrections and additions, this is a translation into French by Guyton de Morveau (or according to Partington by Mme. Picardet and supervised by Guyton) of the first two volumes of the Opuscula Physica et Chemica (Holmiæ, Upsaliæ & Aboæ, 1779-80). Guyton himself added an introduction to each volume and a great number of long and valuable notes. When Bergman died, Guyton discontinued the translation.

Louis Bernard Guyton-Morveau. (Born: Dijon, Côte d'Or, France, 4 January 1737; Died: Paris, France, 2 January 1816) French chemist & aristrocat. Guyton-Morveau was a lawyer by profession and served from 1755 to 1782 as a member of the Dijon Parliament. Science had always been his hobby, and after his retirement, he turned his attention to chemistry. He worked with Lavoisier to reform the nomenclature of chemistry. When the French Revolution occurred, Guyton-Morveau returned to politics on the side of the revolutionists and survived the period, although he did nothing to help Lavoisier. He served as master of the mint under Napolean, and was made a baron in 1811.

Bibliographical references: BL [45.f.25.]. Bolton, Bibliography of Chemistry, 1893: 301. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 104. Duveen, Bibliotheca Alchemica et Chemica, 1965: p. 66-7. Edelstein, Catalog of the History of Chemistry, 1981: no. 211. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, 99 [vol. I only]. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 165. Neu, Chemical, Medical & Pharmaceutical Books, 1965: no. 416. NLM 18th Century Books (Blake): 43. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342653-4]. Observations sur la Physique, sur l'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts: 17 (1781), 245 & 27 (1785), 234 [review]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 183 C [calling the second volume `very rare']. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103. Sallander, Bibliotheca Walleriana, 1955: no. 11070. Smeaton, W.A., " L.B. Guyton de Morveau: a Bibliographical Study", Ambix, 6, (1957), 18-34: 24. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 2, 149. (Guyton-Morveau) ABF: I 497, 226-262; II 328, 177-178. Beauchamp, Biographie Moderne, 1816. Berthollet, C.L., Éloge Historique de Guyton-Morveau, Paris, 1816. Bouchard, G., Guyton-Morveau, chimiste et conventionnel, 1737-1816, Paris, 1938, 365 p. DBF: 17, cols. 439-42 [by C. Meyer]. DSB: 5, 600-4 [by W.A. Smeaton]. Feller, Biographie Universelle, 1851. Granville, A.-B., "An account of the life and writings of G. de Morveau," Journal of Science and the Arts, ?? (1817), ??. Grison, E., M. Goupil, and P. Bret, eds., A scientific correspondence during the chemical revolution : Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau and Richard Kirwan, 1782-1802. Edited by Emmanuel Grison, Michelle Goupil, and Patrice Bret. Berkeley, Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California at Berkeley, 1994. vi, 257 p., illus. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer): 22, cols. 968-72 [by L. Louvet]. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 981-2. Schaedler, Biographisch Handwörterbuch, 1891: 46-7. Smeaton, W.A., "The contributions of P.-J. Macquer, T.O. Bergman and Guyton de Moreavu to reform chemical nomenclature," Annals of Science, 10 (1954), 87-106. Smeaton, W.A., "Guyton de Morveau and chemical affinity," Ambix: 11 (1963), 55-64. Smeaton, Portable Chemical Laboratories, 1966. Smeaton, W.A., "L.B. Guyton de Morveau. Early platinum apparatus," Platinum Metals Review, 10 (1966), 24-28. Smeaton, W.A., "Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau, F.R.S. (1737-1816) and his relations with British scientists," Notes & Records, Royal Society of London, 1967, 113-130. WBI.

3. German, 1782-90.
Kleine physische und chymische Werke. Aus dem Lateinischen übersetzt von Heinrich Tabor. [Volumes 4-6:] Nach dem Tode des Verfassers herausgegeben von E.B.G. Hebenstreit. Frankfurt am Mayn, 1782-90.

6 vols. [Vol 1: 1782] 8°: [2], [1]-548 p., 2 plates. [Vol 2: 1782] 8°: [1]-590 p., 2 plates. [Vol 3: 1785] 8°: [1]-614 p., 3 plates. [Vol 4: 1788] 8°: [16], [1]-502 p. [Vol 5: 1789] 8°: [4], [1]-490, [33] p., 6 plates. [Vol 6: 1790] 8°: [4], [1]-290 p., 2 plates.

Very scarce. Translation by Heinrich Tabor of the complete Opuscula Physica et Chemica (Upsaliæ, 1779-90).

Bibliographical references: Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 204. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342540].

4. English, 1784.
Physical and Chemical | Essays; | Translated from the original Latin of | Sir Torbern Bergman, | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] By Edmund Cullen, M.D. | Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians | at Dublin. | To which are added | notes and illustrations, | by the Translator. | [rule] | Vol. I. | [rule] | London: | Printed for J. Murray, No 32, Fleet-Street; | Balfour and Co., W. Gordon, and J. Dickson, | at Edinburgh; | and L. White, at Dublin. | M.DCC.LXXXIV.

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1784] 8°: π4 a-b8 B-Gg8; 252l.; [i]-xl, [1]-464 p., 2 folding plates (apparatus and crystals). [Vol 2: 1784] 8°: A-Kk8 Ll3; 267l.; [i]-xv, [1], [1]-518 p., 2 folding plates (crystals and blowpipes).

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso quotation from Bacon.; [iii], Dedication.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-viii, "Translator's Preface."; [ix], Advertisement.; [x]-xviii, "Contents."; [xix]-xl, "On the investigation of truth."; [1]-464, Text of translated disserations.

[Vol 2] [i-ii], Title page, verso quotation from Bacon.; [iii], Dedication.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-xv, "Contents."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-518, Text of translated disserations.

Very scarce. English translation by Edmund Cullen of volumes I and II of the Opuscules Chymiques et Physiques (1st French ed., Dijon, 1780). Most of Guyton de Morveau's notes are translated in this English rendereing. A second edition of these first two volumes appeared in 1788 and an English translation of volume IV of the Opuscula came out in 1791. Of mineralogical interest, this translation contains Bergman's On the blowpipe (1779), containing a full account of the blowpipe, Of the art of assaying in the humid way (1780), describing the wet method in mineral analysis, Of the forms of crystals (1773), describing the supposed internal structure of crystals, and chemical analyses of tourmaline, platinum, and ores of arsenic, zinc, iron, etc.

Contents of the volumes are: [Vol 1]. Of the investigations of truth; Of the aerial acid; Of the analysis of waters; Of the waters of Upsal; On the acidulous spring in the parish of Denmark; Of sea-water; Of the artificial preparation of cold medicated waters; Of the artificial preparation of hot medicated waters; Of the acid of sugar; Of the preparation of alum; Of antimoniated tartar; Of magnesia.

[Vol 2]. Of the forms of crystals, particularly those of the spathaceous kind; Of siliceous earth; Of the hydrophanous stone; Of the earth of gems; Of the earth of the turmalin stone; Of the fulminating calx of gold; Of platina; Of the white ores of iron; Of nickel; Of arsenic; Of the ores of zinc; Of metallic precipitates; Of the art of assaying in the humid way; Of the blow-pipe, and its use in the examination of bodies, particularly minerals.

Second edition, 1788: Physical and Chemical | Essays; | Translated from the original Latin of | Sir Torbern Bergman, | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] By Edmund Cullen, M.D. | Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians | at Dublin. | To which are added | Notes and Illustrations, | by the Translator. | [rule] | Vol. I [-III.] | [rule] | London: | Printed for J. Murray, No 32. Fleet-Street; | and William Creech, Edinburgh. | [rule] | MDCCLXXXVIII [-MDCCXCI]. 3 vols. [Vol 1: 1788] 8°: π2 b-c8 d4 A-Ff8 Gg2; 256 leaves.; [i]-xliv, [1]-467, [1] p., 2 folding plates. [Vol 2: 1788] 8°: a8 b1 A-Kk8 χ1; 274 leaves.; [i]-xvii, [1], [1]-529, [1] p., 2 folding plates. [Vol 3: 1791] 8°: π1 a8 A-Dd8 Ee7; 232 leaves.; [2], [i]-xvi, [1]-446 p.

Volumes I and II are second editions of E. Cullen's English translation of the first two volumes of the first French edition of Opuscules Chymiques et Physigues (Dijon, 1780). Volume III is the first English translation of vol. IV of the Opuscula (Upsaliæ, 1787).

The contents of the first two volumes are unchanged. The contents of volume III are: On the origin of chemistry; History of chemistry during the Middle Ages; Analysis of lithomarge; Of asbestine earth; Thoughts on a natural system of fossils; Of the combination of mercury with the marine acid; Process for burning bricks; Of the acidulated waters of Medevi; Of the medicinal springs of Lokarne; Of cobalt, nickel, platina, and manganese; Observations on urinary calculi.

Edmund Cullen. (Born:      ; Died:      ) Irish physician & translator. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: BL [8905.dd.13]. BL [1035.i.13,14.]. BMC: 1, 143 [1791 vol.]. Bolton, Bibliography of Chemistry, 1893: 301-2. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 103a. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 103. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, 99. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: nos. 283 & 290. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 253. Norman Catalog: no. 193. Norman Sale Catalog: no. 288. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342668]. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342662]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 183 D ["not well done"]. (Cullen) BBA: I 291, 210-211. Crone, Concise Dictionary of Irish Biography, 1937. Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824. WBI. Webb, Compendium of Irish Biography, 1878.

5. Italian, 1787.
Opuscoli | Chimici e Fisici | di Torberno Bergman | Tradotti in Italiano | Con Aggiunte e Note | Tomo Primo. | [double rule] | Disseratazioni, che in questo Primo Tomo si contengono. | 1 Della ricerca della Verita'. | 2 Dell' Acido Aereo. | 3 Dell' Analisi dell' Acque. | 4 Dell' Acque d'Upsal. | 5 Della Fonte Danimarchense. | 6 Dell' Acqua del Mare. | 7 Dell' Acque Medicinali Fredde. | 8 Dell' Acque Medicinali Calde. | [ornate rule] | Firenze 1787. | [ornate rule] | Per Giuseppe Tofani.

[Title of volume 2 reads:]

Opuscoli | Chimici e Fisici | di Torberno Bergman | Tradotti in Italiano | Con Aggiunte e Note | Tomo Secondo. | [double rule] | Dissertazioni, che in questo Secondo Tomo si contengono. | 1 Saggio sull' Utilita' della Chimica. | 2 Acido dello Zucchero. | 3 Delle Forme de' Cristalli. | 4 Dell' Allume. | 5 Del Tartaro Antimoniato. | 6 Della Pietra Idrofana. | 7 Della Turmalina. | 8 Proprieta' Elfttriche \sic della Turmalina. | 9 Della Terra delle Gemme. | 10 Della Magnesia. | [ornate rule] | Firenze | [ornate rule] | 1788.

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1787] 8°: [1]-46, [1], [1]-127, [1]-130, [1]-32, [1]-20, [1]-30, [1]-76, [1]-63 p., 4 plates. [Vol 2: 1788] 8°: [1]-119, [1], [1]-50, [1], [1]-48, [1]-83, [1], [1]-46, [1], [1]-29, [1], [1]-62, [1], [1]-109, [1], [1]-63, [1] p., 2 plates. The odd pagination is due to each of the individual disserations having its own pagination within the vols.

Very scarce. A selection of essays translated from the Latin of Opuscula Physica et Chemica, most based on the French edition of 1780-1785, with notes by Guyton de Morveau. They are all separately paged and signed, with some having errata at end. Most have Tofani's signed dedication and notes signed by him. There are also translations and notes also credited to Giovanni Fabbroni, with Tofani listed as printer and editor. There are four folded tables, not included in paging; the first unnumbered, the others numbered I-III, and two folding etched plates of chemical apparatus: "Dell' acque d'Upsal. Della Fonte Danimarchense. Dell' acqua del mare. Dell' acque medicinali fredde. Dell' acque medicinali calde."

Napoli issue, 1787: Opuscoli | Chimici e Fisici | di Torberno Bergman | Tradotti in Italiano | Con Aggiunte e Note | [rule] | Tomo Primo. [-Secondo.] | [rule] | [ornament] | Napoli MDCCLXXXVII. [-MDCCLXXXVIII.] | [rule] | Presso Giuseppe Maria Porcelli Librajo, | e Stampatore della Reale Acc. Militare | Con licenza de' Superiori.

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1787] 8°: a-b8 c4 A-Aa8; 213l.; [2], [I]-XL, 1-384 p., 4 folding plates. [Vol 2: 1788] 8°: π2 a-f8 A-X8 Y4; 222l.; [4], I-XCVI, 1-343, [1] p., one folding plate.

{Rare}. This Naples edition of Bergman's dissertations copies the Firenze translation of 1787-8; however, Cole thinks this edition was authorized and not pirated as suggested by Monström. The contents of Tomo 1 are identical with those of the Firenze-edition. In Tomo 2 there are missing three papers; however, added to this volume is an Elogio storico di M. Bergman, by F. Vicq d'Azyr, translated from Histoire de la Societe Royale de Medecine, 1782-3, Paris 1787, pp. 141-187.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 106. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 105. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 281a. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 280. NUC [NSB 002230].

Comprehensive Bibliography

6. English, 1957 [Bibliography].
Torbern Bergman | A Bibliography of his Works | Compiled | by | Birgitta Monström | Almqvist & Wiksell | Stockholm.

8°: [1]-120 p., frontispiece (reproduction of Wedgewood medallion), index. Page size: 185 x 116 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Half title page, verso blank.; [Facing title page, frontispiece reproducing a Wedgewood medallion of Bergmans profile.]; [3-4], Title page, verso "Abbreviation."-at bottom of page. "Printed in Malung, Malungs Boktryckeri AB, 1957."; 5-6, "Introduction."-signed Birgitta Monström, Uppsala, December 1956.; 7-100, Bibliography, 307 numbered entries.; 101-118, "Subject Index. (Arranged according to languages)."; 119-120, "Postscript."-dated December 1956.

Scarce. A bibliography of the editions, issues, states, translations, collections of Torbern Olaf Bergman's writings. Although lacking in some detail, it is the best general reference available to his numerous publications.

Bibliographical references: Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103.

Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis

Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis, 1782

7. Latin, 1782.
Torberni Bergman, | [...7 lines of titles and memberships...] | Sciagraphia | Regni Mineralis, | Secundum Principia Proxima | Digesti. | [rule] | [...3 lines of quotation in Latin, signed Ovidius...] | [rule] | Lipsiæ et Dessaviæ | In Bibliopolio Eruditorum | MDCCLXXXII.

8°: A-K8 L4; 84l.; [1]-166, [2] p. Page size: 157 x 95 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-[6], "B.L."; [7]-146, Text.; 147-154, "Appendix Prima."; 155-166, "Appendix Secunda."; [2 pgs], "Errata."

Very scarce. Perhaps edited by Johann Jacob Ferber, this is the first edition of Bergman's important foundational work in mineral classification and nomenclature. In the Sketch of the Mineral Kingdom, digested according to the constituent parts of the substances that compose it, Bergman shows his support for classifying minerals according to their chemical composition and not on the then common method of external appearance. Bergman's handbook, which is rich in observations about the chemistry of minerals, went further in regard to the subject than had its predecessors because Bergman had developed a portable blow-pipe kit. With this tool, which he took with him out into the field and was thus able to analyze minerals on the spot for their chemical constituents he was able to create a practical method of classification. In contrast to the previous systems of Bromell and Cronstedt chemcial knowledge had developed to a state where it was possible for a chemical system of mineral classification of to be prepared and be of practical use. Bergman recognized four major groups of minerals: salts, earths, metals, and inflammable bodies, and then subclassified each of these groups, exercising care in trying to provide a more consistent nomenclature than the contemporary standards.

In his attempt to reform mineralogical nomenclature, Bergman set up a systematic approach to the mineral kingdom. It closely follows the naming conventions used by Linneaus to successfully name plants and involving two Latin names. This meant the naming of the mineral by the Latin names of the prevalent alkali, earth or metal combined with the name of the acid. For example, copper chloride would be called cuprum salitum. Bergman's nomenclature as used in the Sciagraphia was an attempt at a general reform of mineralogical as well as chemical names, and it was successful in this respect being adopted by Louis Guyton de Morveau in the same year, and thus helped to standardise chemical nomenclature. Bergman recognized four classes of pure chemical foundation, called salts, earths, metals, and phlogistic materials. These were translated into Latin as sales, terræ, metalla, and phlogistica. Two other classes were added to hold impure substances, petræ were rocks and petrificata were for organic fossil substances. These classes were then subdivided into genera after the method of Linneaus.

The regard for Bergman as a scientist was such that his student and biographer, P.J. Hjelm, records that before the first edition of the Sciagraphia was printed, no less than five different translations of it were announced in different places. Not all of these original announcements materialized, although the text was eventually distributed in five diffrent languages including German, Italian, French, English and Portugese [which see next entries]. All this activity seems to indicate a considerable interest in Bergman's system for mineralogy.

In the Preface to his Sciagraphia Bergman stated that he had been urged by J.J. Ferber to publish his manuscript outline of mineral classification. This apparently lead Moström to conclude that the work had been "edited by J.J. Ferber." However, Bergman's text contains no evidence that this was the actual case. The Preface reads:

"In answer to the request of my very good friend, Mr. Ferber, I sent him a small outline of mineralogy in which the minerals were arranged according to their con stituent elements. After looking it over, he asked my permission to publish it. At first I thought it would be better not to publish a work so imperfect, especially considering the number of analyses which remained to be made. Mr. Ferber replied that a perfect method was not yet to be expected in so extensive a field, but that having once laid a foundation I might occasionally make such additions and corrections, in new editions of the work, as future experiments might make necessary. Indeed I was fully aware that the system would be perfected more quickly if submitted to the inspection of other more discerning Chemists, than if its completion depended solely on me. The different remarks of others will correct errors, which by further work I might have corrected, but if science is advanced, it does not matter by whom. So Genera and Species are given, except in the Appendices which, since they did not properly belong in my outline, contain Genera only. The Genera are based on the principle elements, and the Species on the remaining components. Varieties depend upon external appearances, and are therefore omitted here."

Related work, 1773: "Variae crystallorum formae a spatho ortae," in: Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis. Upsaliæ, 1773, 1, 150-155, one plate.

Bergman's pupil Johann Gottlieb Gahn had discovered that the scalenohedra of "dog tooth" spar (calcite) when cleaved along certain planes would allways yield a rhombohedral kernel the same shape as ordinary calcspar. On this and other observations, Bergman authored "Various crystal forms that take their origin from spar," which described a new theory of crystal structure that was of the utmost importance in the developement of crystallographic science. He noted that since crystals present such a seemingly endless variety of forms, it appears as though Nature were joking with us. However, by careful study and comparision, he deduced that these multitude of forms could all be derived from simpler bodies which he called "primitive forms." He confined his study to calspar and its basic form the "oblique parallelepiped." Using this basic shape he theorized that they arranged themselves in thin sheets (lamellae) which when stacked together produced the widely divergent forms found in Nature. From the view point of history, Bergman's lamellar theory is one of the first attempts to explain how widely divergent crystal forms could be derived from simpler shapes, and one which Réné Just Haüy would accept and greatly expand upon in his own writings. This work appears in the Opuscula (see: 2, 1-56).

Bibliographical references: BL [987.a.24.]. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 66. English Review: 1 (1783), 390-3. LKG: XII 96. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 211. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342673].

8. Latin, 1782 [Reissue].
Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis, secundum principia proxima Digesti. Lipsiæ, In Bibliopolio I.G. Mülleriano, 1782.

8°: A-K8 L4; 84l.; [1]-166, [2] p. Page size: 157 x 95 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-[6], "B.L."; [7]-146, Text.; 147-154, "Appendix Prima."; 155-166, "Appendix Secunda."; [2 pgs], "Errata."

Rare. This is apparently a reissue of the sheets used to make up the first edition, with a new title page.

Bibliographical references: Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957. NUC: 48, 424-7. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103 [NB 0342674].

Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis, 1783

9. Latin, 1783 [London issue].
Torberni | Bergman, | Chemiæ Prof. Upsal. Et Equitis Aurti | Regii Ordinis De Wasa, | Sciagraphia | Regni Mineralis, | Secundum | Principia Proxima Digesti. | [tapered rule] | [...3 lines of quotation, signed Ovidius...] | [tapered rule] | Londini: | Apud Johannem Murray, No. 32, Fleet-Street. | MDCCLXXXIII.

8°: A4 B-K8 L7; 83l.; [1]-165, [1] p. Page size: 215 x 132 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-4, "Lector; | Bibliopolas."; [5]-8, "B.L."; [9]-165, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. London reprint of the 1782 edition.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. BMC: 1, 142. LKG: XII 96. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 234. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342675].

10. Latin, 1783 [Pirate edition].
Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis, secundum principia proxima Digesti. Lipsiæ & Dessaviæ, 1783.

8°: 127 p.

Rare. Monström believes this work could be a pirated edition with a false place of publication.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 233. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103.

11. Italian, 1783 [Italian transl.].
Torberni Bergman | [...6 lines of titles and memberships...] | Sciagraphia | Regni Mineralis | Secundum Principia Proxima | Digesti. | Editio Prima Italica. | [ornament] | Florentiæ MDCCLXXXIII. | [ornate rule] | In Typographia ad Signum Roboris | Prope S. Mariam Majorem | Superiorum Permissu.

8°: A-K8; 80l.; [1]-160 p.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso quotation from Ovid.; 3-5, "B.L."; [6], Blank.; 7-143, Text.; 144-158, Appendix.; 159-160, "Index."

Rare. This is the first Italian edition of Bergman's Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis (1st ed., Lipsiæ & Dessaviæ, 1782). It is a faithful rendering of the original text.

Bibliographical references: BL [954.b.42.(1.)]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 107. LKG: XII 96. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 235. NUC [no copy listed]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 184 G.(a), 191 & 192.

12. Italian, 1783 [Italian transl.].
Descrizione Compendiosa | del | Regno Minerale | secondo i principj prossimi | opera | di Torberno Bergman | Profesore di Chimica a Upsalia Cavaliere | del Regio ordine di Wasa Socio | di molte delle più illustri | Accademie d'Europa. | Traduzione Corredata di Note. | [ornament] | In Bergamo | [double rule] | Per Francesco Locatelli | Con Permissione | 1783.

8°: π1 *8 A7 B-G8 H10; 174l.; [2], [I]-XVI, 3-132 p.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso quotation from Ovid.; [I]-[IV], Dedication.; V-XV, "Prefazione."; XVI, "Errori Correzioni."; 3-101, Text.; 102-132, "Annotazioni."

Very rare. Translation by Giovanni Maironi of Bergman's Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis (1st ed., Lipsiæ & Dessaviæ, 1782).

Giovanni Maironi da Ponte. (Born: Bergamo, Italy, 16 February 1748; Died: Bergamo, Italy, 29 January 1833) Italian naturalist & mineralogist. From 1800 to 1828, Maironi was professor of natural history at the Lyceum in Bergamo. He was a member of the Italian Scientific Society.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 109. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957 [no copy listed]. NUC [no copy listed]. (Maironi da Ponte) ABI: II 344, 373. LKG: p. 296. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 18-9. WBI.

Grundriss des Mineralreichs, 1787

13. German, 1787 [German transl.].
Torbern Bermanns, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | Grundriß | des | Mineralreichs, | in einer Anordnung | nach den nächsten Bestandtheilen der | Körper. | [rule] | Aus dem Lateinischen; | mit einigen Zusätzen | von D. Joseph Xav. Lippert; | [double rule] | Wien, | in der Kraußischen Buchhandlung, 1787.

8°: A-M8; 104l.; [1]-207, [1] p. Page size: 175 x 105 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-6, "An dem Leser."; [7]-204, Text.; 205-207, "Inhalt."; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. Translation by Joseph Xavier Lippert of Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis (Lipsiæ, 1782). It is a standard, but competent translation, following the format of the original text, with some minor additions. It discusses the theoretical classification of minerals before providing a descriptive mineralogy divided into classes of salts, earths, stones and metals.

German, 1782: "Kurzer Abriss des Mineralreichs nach den nächsten Grundtheilen geordnet. Aus dem Lateinischen," see: J.H. Pfingsten, Bibliotheck ausländischer Chemisten, Mineralogen und mit Mineralien beschäftigter Fabrikanten nebst derley biographischen Nachrichten, 3, 507-623 (i.e., 523).

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. LKG: XII 97a. LKG: XII 97a. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 228. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 278. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342638]. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 180.

Outlines of Mineralogy, 1783

14. English, 1783 [English transl.].
Outlines | of | Mineralogy, | translated | from the Original | of | Sir Torbern Bergman, | Knight of the Order of Wasa, | Professor of Chemistry at Upsala, &c. | [tapered rule] | By William Withering, M.D. | Member of the Royal Medical Society, | At Edinburgh. | [tapered rule] | [...4 lines of Latin quotation, signed Ovid.] | [tapered rule] | Birmgham: | Printed by Piercy and Jones, | For T. Cadell, and G. Robinson, London | J. Balfour, and C. Elliott, Edinburgh. | M,DCC,LXXXIII.

8°: π4 A-H8 χ2; 70l.; [4], [i]-iv, [1]-128, [4] p. Page size: 220 x 135 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Blank, verso "Lately published by the same Author." [An Essay on Electricity].; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [i]-iv, "Translator's Preface."-dated 1st September 1783.; [1]-3, "Author's Preface."; [4], Blank.; [5]-11, "Of a Natural System of Mineralogy."; 12-13, "Classes of Fossils."; 14-36, "Class I. Salts."; 37-62, "Class II. Earths."; 63-68, "Class III. Inflammables or Bitumina."; 69-115, "Class IV. Metals."; 116-121, "Appendix. The First."; 122-128, "Appendix. The Second."-at end, "Finis."; [4 pgs], "Index."-at end, "Errata."

Rare. Translation by William Withering of Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis (Lipsiæ, 1782), this first edition in English contains some additions by the translator.

William Withering. (Born: Wellington, Shropshire, England, 28 March 1741; Died: Larches near Birmingham, England, 6 October 1799) English physician. Withering graduated with his M.D. from the University of Edinburgh in 1766. In 1774, he then opened a medical practice in Birmingham. He was the first to describe native barium carbonate, later named after him as the mineral species, witherite. Withering is best known as a botanist, and his work on the foxglove is a classic. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1784. He had collections of both minerals and plants.

Bibliographical references: BL [T.1571.(5.)]. BMC: 1, 143. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 108. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 66 & 83. Duveen, Bibliotheca Alchemica et Chemica, 1965: p. 640. Hoover Collection: no. 115. LKG: XII 98b*. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 231. Neu, Chemical, Medical & Pharmaceutical Books, 1965: no. 418. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342660]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 184 G.(b) & 197. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103. (Withering) BBA: I 1187, 210-231. DNB. DSB: 14, 463-5 [by W.F. Bynum]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 299-300. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 1343-4. WBI. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 198.

15. French, 1784 [French transl.].
Manuel | Du Minéralogiste, | Ou | Sciagraphie | Du Règne Minéral, | Distribué | D'Après L'Analyse Chimique. | Par M. Torbern Bergman, | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Mise au jour par M. Ferber, Professeur de Chimie à Mittaw. | Et traduite et augmentée de Notes | Par M. Mongez le jeune, Chanoine Régulier de | Sainte-Geneviève, Auteur du Journal de Physique, | & Membre de plusieurs Académies. | [ornament] | A Paris, | Chez Cuchet, Libraire, rue & hôtel Serpente. | [ornate rule] | M. DCC. LXXXIV. | Sous le Privilège de l'Académie Royale des Sciences.

8°: a-e8 f4 A-X8 Y4; 216l.; [i]-lxxxviii, [1]-343, [1] p., one plate (blowpipes and other appraratus). Page size: 195 x 120 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-vi, Dedication to Comte de Vergennes.; vii-lxxxvi, "Introduction."; lxxxvii-lxxxviii, "Avis Au Lecteur, | Par M. Bergman."; [1]-329, Text.; 330-340, Index.; 341-343, "Extrait des Registres de l'Academie Royale | des Sciences, du 26 Août 1783."; [1 pg], Blank.; [At end], One plate.

Very scarce. First French translation by J.-A. Mongez from Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis (Lipsiæ, 1782), and dedicated to the Comté de Vergennes. It is an important mineralogical work with extensive notes added by the translator to each mineral described and numerous citations to the works of other chemists and mineralogists. It went far in promoting the general reform of chemical and mineralogical nomenclature first in France and then the rest of Europe.

Jean-André Mongez. (Born: Lyon, France, 1751; Died: Lyon, France, 1788) French chemist, naturalist & writer. Distinguished as a writer on the physical sciences, Mongez contributed articles to the Journal de Physique on botany, chemistry and physics. He was elected to the Academie des Sciences in 1785.

Bibliographical references: BL [953.f.7.]. BMC: 1, 143. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 110. Edelstein, Catalog of the History of Chemistry, 1981: no. 208. Hoover Collection: no. 114. LKG: XII 98b. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 249. Neu, Chemical, Medical & Pharmaceutical Books, 1965: no. 419. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342644]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 184 G.(c), 191 & 192. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103. (Mongez) ABF: I 750, 185-187. Beauchamp, Biographie Moderne, 1816. Biographie Universelle: 28, 622. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer): 35, col. 989. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 186-7. WBI.

16. French, 1792 [French transl.].
Manuel | Du Minéralogiste; | Ou | Sciagraphie | Du Règne Minéral, | Distribuée | D'Après L'Analyse Chimique; | Par M. Torbern Bergman, | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Mise au jour par M. Ferber, Professeur de Chimie à Mittaw; | Et traduite et augmentée de Notes | Par M. Mongez le jeune, Chanoine Régulier de | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | Nouvelle Édition, considérablement augmentée, | par J.C. Delamétherie. | [double rule] | Tome Premier [-Seconde]. | [double rule] | [ornament] | A Paris, | Chez Cuchet, Libraire, rue & hôtel Serpente. | [tapered rule] | 1792.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: a-g8 h4 A-Y8 Z4; 240l.; [i]-cxx, [1]-359, [1] p.; [Vol 2] 8°: π2 A-2F8 2E6; 224l.; [4], [1]-443, [1] p., two plates (one folding; chemical & mineralogical equipment, including a blowpipe and mineralogical hammer and crystal drawings and internal crystal arrangements). Page size: 200 x 118 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Half title page, verso blank.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; [v]-viij, Dedication to the Count De Vergennes, signed Mongez.; ix-cxiij, "Introduction."; cxiv-cxv, "Avant-Propos | Sur cette nouvelle Édition, | par J.C. Delametherie."; cxvj-cxviij, "Avis Au Lecteur, | Par M. Bergman."; cxix-cxx, "Additions & fautes à corriger."; [1]-359, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Half title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1]-423, Text.; 424-4345, "Étymologie | Des noms des principales Substances minérales."; 436-442, "Table | Des Matieres."; 443, "Addition & Fautes à corriger."; [1 pg], Blank.

Scarce. Second edition in French, retaining the translated text and extensive notes added by M. Mongez and with expanded comments by Jean Claude de La Métherie. This edition is one of the most important works in the chemical classification of minerals published in the late eighteenth century, showing the state of both chemistry and chemical mineralogy at the time.

Bibliographical references: BL [953.d.6,7.]. BMC: 1, 143. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 111. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 69. Edelstein, Catalog of the History of Chemistry, 1981: no. 209. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 46. LKG: XII 98b. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 293. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342645]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 184 G.(c). Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103.

17. Portuguese, 1799-1800 [Portuguese transl.].
Manual do Mineralogico, ou esboço do reino mineral, disposto segundo a analyse chimica por Mr. Torbern Bergman, Cavalheiro da Ordem de Wasa, Professor de Chimica em Upsal, Membro de muitas Academias, Publicado por Mr. Ferber, professor de Chimica em Mittaw; Traduzido e augmentado de notas por Mr. Mongez o Moço, Author do Jornal de Phisica, e Membro de Muitas Academias. Nova Edição consideravelemente augmentada por M.J.C. de La Metherie. Ultimanente traduzido por Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrade Machado, Formado em Methematica, e Bacharel em Philosophia. Publicado por Fr. José Mariano da Conceição Velloso. Lisboa, Na Offic. de Joã Procopio Correia da Silva, M.DCC.XCIX [1799-1800].

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: lxix, [1] errata, [1] blank, 351 p.; [Vol 2] 8°: 404, [1] errata, [1] blank p., 2 folding plates. Page size: 200 x 140 mm.

Rare. Translation by Martim Francisco Rigeiro de Andrade of Sciagraphia Regni Mineralis (Lipsiæ & Dessaviæ, 1782). Borba (1983) records that another printing of the first volume exists by the same printer, in the same year, but with a different title page.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Borba, Bibliographia Brasiliana, 1983: 1, 36. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 297.

Work on Blowpipes

18. Latin, 1779.
Torbern Bergmann, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | Commentatio | De | Tvbo Ferrvminatorio | Eivsdemqve Vsv, | In Explorandis Corporibvs | Praesertim Mineralibvs. | [rule] | Ex Actorvm Societatis Literariae | Bohemicae Tomo IV. | [rule] | [ornament] | [double rule] | Vindobonae 1779. | Apvd Ioann. Pavl. Kravs.

8°: A-D8; 32l.; [1]-64 p., one folding plate (showing a blowpipe, lamp and equipment).

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3-4], Text (=introduction).; [5]-64, Text.; [At end], one plate.

Rare. In De Tubo Ferruminatorio Bergman provides the fullest account to date of the equipment and fluxes used in blowpipe analysis. Using a modified three-piece blowpipe made from silver with a gold tip, he records the reactions of minerals fused with the three fluxes of soda, borax and microcosmic salt (sodium ammonium phosphate) in hollow charcoal supports or silver or gold spoons. He is also the first to distinguish between the oxidizing and reducing flames of the flame, which he used with excellent effect in qualitative analysis to determine the elements making up many minerals. Although introduced by Swab, Rinman, Cronstedt and popularized by Engström, it was Bergman's success in blowpipe analysis and his excellent texts that made it an important tool of the mineralogist and chemist for almost two centuries.

German, 1779: "Abhandlung vom Gebrauche des Löthrohres, bey Untersuchung der Mineralien [transl. by Ignaz von Born]," in: Abhandlungen einer Privatgesellschaft in Böhmen, 4 (1779), pp. 254-304, one plate. German translation of Bergman's orignal Latin edition.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Burchard, History of Blowpipe Analysis, 1984: 254. Hoover Collection: no. 113. LKG: XI 8. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 130. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 136. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 185. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 102. Schufle, J.A., Torbern Bergman. A man before his time. Lawrence, Kansas, Coronado Press, 1985: 244, 266 & 478. Szabadváry, History of Analytical Chemistry, 1966: 53-4.

19. Swedish, 1781 [Swedish transl.].
Chemiæ Professoren | och Riddaren af Kongl. Wasa Orden, | Herr Torbern Bergmans | Afhandling | Om | Blåsröret, | samt | Dess Bruk och Nytta wid Krop= | pars Undersökning, i syn= | nerhet de Mineraliske: | Öfwersatt Ifrån Latinska Språket, med Herr Förfat= | tarens tilläggningar. | [rule] | Stockholm, | Tryckt hos Commissar. P.A. Brodin, 1781. | På Ofwersåttarens Bekostnad.

8°: A-D8 E4 F2; 38l.; [1]-76 p., one folding plate (showing a blowpipe, lamp and equipment).

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso quotation signed Cicero.; [3]-[4], "Företal."; [5]-73, Text.; 74-75, "Förteckning på Paragrapherne."; 76, "Rättelser."

Rare. Swedish translation by Peter Jacob Hjelm of the revised Latin edition of Commentatio de Tubo Ferruminatorio, which appeared in the Opuscula Physica et Chemica (Upsaliæ, vol. 2, 1780, pp. 455-506). It encompased all that was known to that time on the use of the blowpipe.

Peter Jacob Hjelm. (Born: Sunnerbo Hårad, Sweden, 2 October 1746; Died: Stockholm, Sweden, 7 October 1813) Swedish chemist. In 1782, Hjelm was appointed an assayer at the mint. Then in 1794, he became the warden of the mint in Stockholm and overseeor of the chemistry laboratory at the Bergcollegium. He was elected a member of the Swedish Academy of Science in 1787.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Bolton, Bibliography of Chemistry. Suppl. 1, 1899: p. 86. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 77. LKG: XI 8. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 174. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342604]. SWIM: 144. (Hjelm) Biographiskt Lexicon. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 1113-4. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-119, 099-101. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 19, 104. WBI.

Meditationes de Systemate Fossilium

20. Italian, 1784.
Torberni Bergman | [...6 lines of titles and memberships...] | Meditationes | De | Systemate Fossilium | Naturali. | Editio Prima Italica. | Praefatus Est Et Indicem Adjecit | Eeditor Italus. | [ornate rule] | Florentiae MDCCLXXXIV. | [rule] | Typis Josephi Tofani | Superiorum Permissa. | Prostant venales apud Aloysium Carlieri | in Via dei Guicciardini.

8°: A-H8; 64l.; [1]-125, [1] p.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; 3-10, "Editoris Praefatio." (=preface).; 11-124, Text.; 125, "Index." (=table of contents).; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. Translated and edited by Italus [pseudonym] from "Meditationes de systemate fossilium naturali" (see: Nova Acta Regiæ Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, 4 (1784), pp. 63-128). In his "Meditation on a System of Natural Fossils," Bergman joined his voice to those of Guyton de Morveau and Pierre Joseph Macquer in proposing of the chemical nomenclature was necessary. He proposes that absurd names that memorialize their discoverers be eliminated. Also, names that refer to some mysterious property should be dropped. This is Bergman's last major statement in mineralogy, published the year of his death. It indicates that had he lived, he would have collaborated with De Morveau on a complete overhaul of chemcial/mineralogical nomenclature. The different bodies that make up the mineral kingdom are briefly defined and include organic, solid and liguid items. Reasons are then provided why they need to be organized into a classification system. This is followed by speculation on mineral formation and descriptions of physical and chemical properties, such as form, specific gravity, hardness, behavior in fire, before the blowpipe and methods of examining fossils by the wet method. At the conclusion is a long discussion providing reasons and the theory behind Bergman's system of nomenclature.

Latin, 1782: Commentationes, e quarto novorum Reg. Scientiarum Societatis Upsaliensis actorum tomo excerptæ. Upsaliæ, 1782. 4°: [2], 51-631 (i.e., 136) p. This work contains three of Bergman's papers. These are, "Commentatio chemica de causa fragilitatis ferri frigidi," "Meditationes de systemate fossilium naturali" and "De ferro et stanno igne commixtis." These papers are reprints with a specially printed title page, published beforehand from volume 4 of Nova acta Regiæ Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, which did not appear until 1784.

Bibliographical references: BL [954.b.42.(2.)]. LKG: XII 99c. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 250 ["trade edition"]. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 97. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342546]. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103.

21. Latin, 1788 [Latin transl.].
Torberni Bergman | Meditiones | De | Systemate Fossilium | Naturali, | In Usum | Oryctologiæ Studiosorum | Iterum Typis Mandatæ. | [tapered rule] | Oxoniæ: | Prostant Apud J. Et J. Fletcher. | M DCC LXXX VIII.

8°: [1]-111 p.

Rare. This trade edition printed in Oxford uses the text issued in the Opuscula (vol. 4, 1787).

Bibliographical references: BL [B.548.(1.)]. LKG: XII 99c. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 281 ["trade edition"]. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342547]. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 103.

Dissertations related to Mineralogy

22. Swedish, 1774 [Dissertation].
Chemisk och Mineralogisk Afhandling | om | Hvitajärnmalmer, | [double rule] | Med den Vidtberömda Philosoph. Facult. i Upsala | Samtycke, | Under Inseende | Af | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | Chemiæ Professor och Ridd. af Kongl. Wasa-Orden; Ledamot af | Kejserl. Acad. Naturæ Curiosorum, Kongl. Vet. Acad. | i Stockholm, och Kongl. Soc. i London och Upsala, | Til almänt ompröfvande, | F.M.D. 22 Junii 1774 i Gustavianska Lärosalen, | Utgifven | Af | Peter Jacob Hjelm, | Smolänning. | [rule] | Upsala, | Tryckt hos Johan Edman, Kongl. Acad. Boktryck.

4°: π2 A-E4 F1; 23l.; [4], [1]-42 p. Page size: 182 x 148 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Dedication.; [1]-42, Text.

Very scarce. This dissertation, in which Peter Jacob Hjelm was respondent describes white ores of iron (ferrous carbonate), providing analyses and show also that manganese is an important component in the composition of superior steels. The text provides a method for detecting manganese within minerals. The text was revised and translated into Latin (Opuscula, vol. 2, 1780, pp. 184-230).

Peter Jacob Hjelm. (Born: Sunnerbo Hårad, Sweden, 2 October 1746; Died: Stockholm, Sweden, 7 October 1813) Swedish chemist. In 1782, Hjelm was appointed an assayer at the mint. Then in 1794, he became the warden of the mint in Stockholm and overseeor of the chemistry laboratory at the Bergcollegium. He was elected a member of the Swedish Academy of Science in 1787.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.571.(5.)]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 78. LKG: XVI 258. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 89. NUC: 48, 424-7 [0342609]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 182 X, 189, 190 & 194. Schufle, J.A., Torbern Bergman. A man before his time. Lawrence, Kansas, Coronado Press, 1985: 58 & 241. Szabadváry, History of Analytical Chemistry, 1966: p. 80. (Hjelm) Biographiskt Lexicon. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 1113-4. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-119, 099-101. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 19, 104. WBI.

23. Latin, 1775 [Dissertation].
Dissertatio Chemica | De | Niccolo, | Quam, | Consentiente Amplissima Facultate Phil., | Præside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Publico Examini Submittit | Johannes Afzelius | Arvidsson, | Vestrogotbus, | In Auditorio Gustaviano, | Die 12 Julii Anni MDCCLXXV, | Horis Ante Meridem Solitis. | [rule] | Upsaliæ, | Typis Edmannianis.

4°: A-C4 D2 E3; 17l.; [1]-30, [4] p. Page size: 182 x 146 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-30, Text.; [4 pgs], "Nickel Malmer ..."

Very scarce. In 1751, Cronstedt did chemical analyses of a mineral called Kupfer-nickel [niccolite], which had been thought to contain copper because when dissolved in acid the mineral produced a blue colored solution. Upon further investigation, involving attempts to precipate copper metal from the solution, Cronstedt concluded that the mineral did not contain copper but a new type of metal, which in 1754 he named nickel, after the material from which it was first obtained. Although most of Cronstedt's contemporaries accepted his findings, there were many important chemists of the period who believed Cronstedt had not discovered a new metal but a complex alloy of copper, arsenic, iron and cobalt. It was not until Afzelius defended Torbern Bergman's dissertation De Niccolo, that Cronstedt's claim was universally accepted. A revised edition appears in the Opuscula (vol. 2, 1780, pp. 231-271).

Jan Afzelius. (Born: Larss Församling, Skara Stift, Sweden, 13 June 1753; Died: Upsala, Sweden, 20 May 1837) Swedish chemist. Afzelius was professor of chemistry, metallurgy and pharmacy at the University in Uppsala. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences, Stockholm.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.398.(6.)]. Bolton, Bibliography of Chemistry, 1893: p. 263 [under Afzelius]. DSB: 3, 473. Hoefer, Histoiré de la Chimie, 1866-9: 2, 448. LKG: XVI 361. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 100. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342622]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 182 XV, 190 & 200. Schufle, J.A., "Torbern Bergman, Earth Scientist", Annals of Science, 12, (1967), 59-97: p. 83. Schufle, J.A., Torbern Bergman. A man before his time. Lawrence, Kansas, Coronado Press, 1985: 237 & 259. (Afzelius) Almquist, Bergskollegium, 1909: p. 162. Poggendorff: 1, col. 16. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-003, 135-138. Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexikon: 1, 11, portrait. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 1, 222. WBI.

24. Latin, 1775 [Dissertation].
Dissertio \sic Chemica. | De | Magnesia Alba, | quam, | Consent. Amplissima Fac. Philosophica, | Præside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Publice Ventilandam Sistet | Stipendiarius Kohreanus, | Carolus Norell, | V. Gothus. | In Aud. Gustav. D. 23 Dec. Anni 1775; | H.A.M.S. | [rule] | Upsaliæ, | Typis Edmannianis.

4°: A-C4 D2; 14l.; [1]-28 p. Page size: 182 x 146 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-28, Text.

Very scarce. In this dissertation to which Carolus Norell was respondent, the chemical behavior of magnesia alba is examined, including its reaction with many different types of acid. Magnesia is conclusively shown to differ from lime. A revised edition appears in Opuscula (vol. 1, 1779, pp. 365-404).

Bibliographical references: BL [B.397.(6.)]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 89. Crosland, Language of Chemistry, 1962: p. 145-6. Hoefer, Histoiré de la Chimie, 1866-9: 2, 447-8. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 99. NUC: 48, 424-7 [0342620]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3 182 XIV & 190.

25. Latin, 1777 [Dissertation].
Dissertatio Chemica | De | Arsenico, | quam, | Consentiente Amplissima Fac. Philosophica, | Præside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | Chemiæ Prof. R. et Ord., Equite Aurator R. Ord. de Wasa; | Academiæ Imp. N.C., nec non Regg. Scientiarum Societatum, | Upsaliensis, Stockholmiensis, Londinensis, Berolinensis membro | et Parisinæ Correspondente, | Publice Ventilamndam Sistit | Andreas Pihl, | Westmannus, | in Audit. Gust. die 7 Maji; Anni. 1777. | H.A.M.S. | [rule] | Upsaliæ, Typis Edmannianis.

4°: π1 A-C4; 13l.; [2], [1]-24 p. Page size: 178 x 146 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1]-24, Text.

Very scarce. This dissertation to which Anders Pihl was respondent gives a short history of arsenic, its chemical behavior in metal, calx and ore forms, and its action as a mineralizer. The view is expressed that metals are only acids bound together by different quantities of phlogiston. A revised edition appears in the Opuscula (vol. 2, 1780, pp. 272-308).

Andreas Pihl. (Born: 26 February 1759; Died: c1835) Swedish mining expert. Pihl matriculated at the University of Upsala in 1772, and took his mining degree in 1777. He worked at mines throughout Sweden, most especially at Falun.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.370.(7.)]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 85. LKG: XVI 102. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 117. NUC: 48, 424-7. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 182 XXII & 190. SWIM: 130. (Pihl) Almquist, Bergskollegium, 1909: p. 255.

26. Latin, 1779 [Dissertation].
Dissertatio Chemica | De | Mineris Zinci, | Quam, | Consensu Amplissimæ Fac. Philos. | Praeside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | [...2 lines of titles...] | Publice Ventilandam Sistit | Benedictus Reinh. Geijer, | Vermelandus. | In Auditorio Gustaviano, | H.A.M.S. | Die 20 Marth, Anni 1779. | [rule] | Upsaliæ |Apud Joh. Edman, Direct. & Reg. Acad. Typogr.

4°: π1 A-C4 D3; 16l.; [2], [1]-30 p. Page size: 212 x 165 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso quotation in Latin, signed Baco de Verulamio.; [1]-30, Text.

Very scarce. In this dissertation to which Benedict Reinhard Geijer was respondent various ores of zinc are examined, many for the first time. The presence of quartz and iron in some ores is shown. A revised edition appears in the Opuscula (vol. 2, 1780, pp. 309-348).

Bengt Reinhold Geijer. (Born: Bofors in Värmland, Sweden, 11 November 1758; Died: Rörstrand, Sweden, 11 November 1815) Swedish mining expert. Geijer matriculated at the University of Upsala in 1776, graduating in 1779 with a mining degree. He worked at various positions in the mining industry throughout Sweden, until his death.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.398.(9.)]. Bolton, Bibliography of Chemistry. Suppl. 1, 1899: p. 86. LKG: XVI 452. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 137. NUC: 48, 424-7 [NB 0342621]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 183 XXXII & 190. (Geijer) Almquist, Bergskollegium, 1909: p. 205. Nordin-Pettersson, Konstsamlingar, 1971: 84 & 314. Poggendorff: 1, col. 868. Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexikon: 1, 383, portrait.

27. Latin, 1779 [Dissertation].
Disseratio Chemicæ | De | Terra Silicea, | Quam, | Venia Amplissimæ Fac. Phil. | Praeside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | [...3 lines of titles ...] | Publice Ventilandam Sistit | Stipendiarius Hyltingianus, | König Alexander Grönlund, | Roslagus. | In Auditorio Gustaviano Die XXIV Nov. | Anno 1779. | H.A.M.S. | [rule] | Upsaliæ, | Apud Joh. Edman, direct. et reg. acad. typogr.

4°: [4], [1]-20, [2] p. Page size: 178 x 146 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso dedication to Jean Abraham Grill and Henri Wilhelm Peill, signed König Alexander Grönlund.; [1 pg], "Kyrkoherden."; [1]-20, Text.; [1 pg], "Till Herr Respondenten!"; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. This dissertation to which König Alexander Grönlund was respondent chemically examines silca earth. By the addition of acid to a dilute solution of alkali silicate, the formation of soluble (colloidal) silicic acid was observed.

König Alexander Grönlund. (Born: ?; Died: after 1784) Swedish mining expert. Grönlund matriculated at the University of Upsala in 1769, graduating with a degree in 1779.

Bibliographical references: BL [RB.23.b.2649]. LKG: XVI 13. NUC: 48, 424-7. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 183 XXX & 188. (Grönlund) Almquist, Bergskollegium, 1909: p. 210.

Minerarum Docimasia Humida, 1780

28. Latin, 1780 [Dissertation].
Dissertatio Metallurgica | De | Minerarum | Docimasia Humida, | Quam, | Venia Amplissimæ Fac. Philos., | Praeside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | Chemiæ Prof. Reg. et Ord., Regiiqus Wasæi Ord. Equite Aurato, | Publice Ventilandam Sistit | Petrus Castorin, | Vestmannus. | In Auditorio Gustaviano Majori, | Die 7 Jun. Anno 1780. | [rule] | Upsaliæ, | apud Joh. Edman, direct. et reg. acad. typogr.

4°: π1 A-E4; 21l.; [2], [1]-40 p. Page size: 182 x 146 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1]-40, Text.

Very scarce. This important dissertation to which Petrus Castorin was respondent, is a greatly expanded and revised edition of Bergman's previous Chemisk Afhandling om järnmalmus proberande (Upsala, 1777). The text gives detailed and practical methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 15 different metals in ores, including silver, mercury, lead, iron, copper and zinc. The wet method of analysis is recommended because of its accuracy and reliablity even though it takes considerably longer to perform than the dry method. A new edition appears in the Opuscula (vol. 2, 1780, pp. 399-454).

Per Castorin. (Born: Grythytte, Sweden, 19 October 1761; Died: Elfvestorp, Sweden, 20 January 1808) Swedish mining expert. Castorin became the third generation of his family to attend the Swedish Mining Academy. He matriculated at the University of Upsala in 1774, and graduated in 1780. He worked at the Swedish mining centers of Grythytte and Hällefors and Hjulsjö.

Bibliographical references: BL [RB.23.a.14379]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 95. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 159. NUC: 48, 424-7 [0342626]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 183 XXXV, 185 & 190. Szabadváry, History of Analytical Chemistry, 1966: p. 76-8, 80 & 87. (Castorin) Almquist, Bergskollegium, 1909: p. 183.

29. Latin, 1781 [Dissertation].
Dissertatio Chemica | De | Analysi Ferri, | Quam, | Venia Ampliss. Facult. Philos., | Præside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | [...2 lines of titles...] | Publice Ventilandam Sistit | Johannes Gadolin, | Aboa-Fenno. | In Auditorio Gustaviano Majori | D. 9 Jun. Anno 1781. | [rule] | Upsaliæ, | apud Joh. Edman, director. et reg. acad. typogr.

4°: π1 A-I4 K1; 38l.; [2], [1]-74 p. Page size: 198 x 154 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1]-73, Text.; 74, "Errata typographica.

Very scarce. This highly important dissertation to which Johann Gadolin was respondent examines the impurities in iron from different sources. The list of impurities found includes sulfur, plumbago (carbon), arsenic, zinc and manganese. Results are provided for analyses of various samples of iron and 273 experimental tests are cited. It establishes that a successively greater amount of iron is fond in wrought iron, steel and cast iron, and thus helped define quality in steel. Revised and enlarged in the Opuscula (vol. 3, 1783, pp. 1-108).

French transl., 1783: Dissertatio chemica de Analysi Ferri ... Respondent Johannes Gadolin. [Translated by Grignon.] Paris, 1783.

Johan Gadolin. (Born: Åbo near Helsingfors (Helsinki), Finland, 5 June 1760; Died: Wirmo, Finland, 15 August 1852) Finnish chemist. Son of astronomer and physicist Jacob Gadolin [1719-1802]. For a time, Johann was a student of Bergman at the University of Upsala. From 1786 to 1788, Johann traveled outland to complete his studies and broaden his knowledge. He became a docent at the University of Åbo in 1789, and following Gadd's death, he was appointed professor of chemistry; a post he held until 1822. He specilized in the analysis of rare earth elements, and is credited with the discovery in 1794 of the element yttrium. Gadolin's mineral collection was destroyed in 1827 by fire when the Turku Academy burned down. Gadolin held membership in the Academy of Science in Stockholm. The mineral "Gadolinite" was name in his honor by M.H. Klaproth in 1802.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.571.(4.)]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 82. LKG: XVI 247. NUC: 48, 424-7. Schufle, J.A., Torbern Bergman. A man before his time. Lawrence, Kansas, Coronado Press, 1985: 194-5, 239-40 & 547. Smith, History of Metallography, 1960: p. 146-7. Smith, C.S., Sources for the History of Steel, 1968: chapter 8. Szabadváry, History of Analytical Chemistry, 1966: p. 80. (Gadolin) Biographiskt Lexicon. DSB: 5, 215-6 [by S.J. Kopperl]. Finsk Biografisk Handbok: 1, cols. 726-8. Laitakari, Geologische Bibliographie Finnlands, 1934: 57-9. Nordin-Pettersson, Konstsamlingar, 1971: 436. Ojala, V. and E.R. Schierz, "Finnish chemists," Journal of Chemical Education, 14 (1937), 161-5. Oma Maa, 1907-12: 4, 645-9 [by R. Tigerstedt]. Poggendorff: 1, col. 827. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-086, 322-344. Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexikon: 1, 377. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 16, 717. Tigerstedt, R.A.A., Johan Gadolin. Ett bidrag till de induktiva vetenskapernas historia in Finland. Helsinki, 1877.. WBI. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, 1934: 230-1, portrait. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 136 & 171.

30. Latin, 1782 [Dissertation].
Disseratio Chemica | De | Analysi | Lithomargæ, | Quam | Venia Ampliss. Ord. Phil. | Præside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | [...2 lines of titles...] | Pro Gradu Philos. | Publice Ventilandam Sistit | Stipendiarius Gyllenhjelmianus | Carolus Dieteric. Hjerta | Westrogothus. | In Auditorio Gustaviano Majori | D. 15 Junii 1782 | [rule] | Upsaliæ, | apud Johan. Edman, direct. et reg. acad. typogr.

4°: [2], [1]-14 p. Page size: 182 x 146 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1]-14, Text.

Very scarce. In this dissertation, to which Carl Dietrich Hjerta was respondent, samples of basalt are chemically examined and found to contain silica, alumina, iron and calcium carbonate.

Bibliographical references: BL [RB.23.b.2721]. LKG: XVI 427. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 183 XLIV & 198.

31. Latin, 1782 [Dissertation].
Dissertatio Chemica | De | Terra Asbestina, | Quam | Venia Ampl. Fac. Phil., | Præside | Mag. Torb. Bergman, | [...2 lines of titles...] | Publice Ventilanduam Sistit | Carolus Gust. Robsahm, | Vermelandus. | In Auditorio Gust. Majori | Die 10 Julii, Anno 1782. | [rule] | Upsaliæ, | apud Johan. Edman, direct. et reg. acad. typogr.

4°: A-B4; 8l.; [1]-16 p. Page size: 182 x 146 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso dedication to Pierre Suther, signed Carl G. Robsham.; [3]-16, Text.

Very scarce. In this dissertation to which Carl Gustav Robsahm was respondent, the results of 13 analyses of specimens of asbestos are given. Magnesia is determined to be a component of the composition in all cases, which is shown in a table that gives the amount of each element present. Reprinted in the Opuscula (vol. 4, 1787, pp. 160-179).

Carl Gustaf Robsham. (Born: 1752; Died: Korpkulla, Sweden, after 1821) Swedish mining expert. Robsham matriculated at the University of Upsala in 1771. He graduated in 1782, and opened a manufacturing facility in Korpkulla.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.397.(7.)]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 92. Hoefer, Histoiré de la Chimie, 1866-9: 2, 449. LKG: XVI 110. Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 199. NUC [NSB 0052222]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 3, 183 XLV & 198. (Robsham) Almquist, Bergskollegium, 1909: p. 262.

32. German, 1778.
Herrn Torbern Bergmanns ... Abhandlung von dem Arsenick, nach der vorigen deutschen, durchaus fehlervollen, Uibersetzung mit der lateinischen Urschrift verglichen, verbessert und übersetzt von F. August von Wasserberg. Wien, 1783.

8°: 50 p. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XVI 103. NUC: 48, 424-7.

33. German, 1778.
Abhandlung von dem Arsenick. Altenburg, 1778.

8°: 102 p. Very scarce.

Spanish Translation

34. Spanish, 1794 [Spanish transl.].
Elementos fisico-químicos de la análisis general de las aguas. Obra compuesta de las siete disertaciones primeras de los opúsculos físico-químicos del ilustre ... traducidos del latin al francés por M. de Morveau, y de este al castellano, con arreglo á la nueva nomenclatura, con varias adiciones y por un òrden más conforme á este tratado, por el Capitan de Caballería D. Ignacio Antonio de Soto y Araujo ... Madrid, Imp. Real siendo regente D. Lázaro Gayguer Impresor de Cámara de S.M., 1794.

4°: xii-lxx, 353 p., 3 plates, one table.

Rare. Translated by Ignacio Antonio de Soto y Araujo from volume I of the {\sl Opuscula). Based on the contents listed in Monström, all the papers deal with mineral waters, and not mineralogy.

Bibliographical references: Monström, Torbern Bergman Bibliography, 1957: no. 295.

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