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Ulrich Rulein von Calw
RÜLEIN VON CALW, Ulrich.

RÜLEIN VON CALW, Ulrich.
(c1467 - 1523)

(Born: c1467; Died: Leipzig, Germany, 1523) German physician.

Ulrich Rülein von Calw [or Kalbe] was appointed the health officer of Freiberg in 1497, before being elected a member of the city council in 1509 and mayor in 1514 and 1519. He is thought to have worked as a mine surveryor, mathematician, astronomer and physician.

Biographical references: DBA: II 1107, 182-183. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8. Lüdemann, K., "Ulrich Rülein von Calw, der Verfassers des ersten deutschen Buches über der Bergbau", Mitt. Freiberg. Altertumsyer, 64, (1934), 67-75, 4 figs. Perper, W., "Ulrich Rülein von Calw und Bergbuchlein: mit Urtext-Faksimile und Übertragung des Bergbuchleins von etwa 1500 und Faksimile der Postschrift von 1521", Freiberger Forsch. Heft, Kultur und Technik, D. 7, (1955), 215 p., 80 figs. Sachsenweger, M., "Berühmte Freiberger", Glückauf, Z. Erzgeb.-Ver., 57, (1937), 155-60, 2 figs. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2014. Schmidt, O.E., "Ulrich Rülein von Calw", Mitt. Landesver. Sächs. Heimatschutz, 26, (1937), 111-4. WBI.

Ein nutzlich bergbuchlēy, c1505

1. German, c1505 [First edition].
Ein nutzlich bergbuchlēy | [Rectangular ornamental woodcut scene showing miners working a vein of ore].

8°: 24l., without signiature, folliation or pagination. Large woodcut on the title and 12 small woodcuts in the text. No date or publisher is indicated. Page size: 140 x 196 mm.

Extremely rare. This exceedingly rare, earliest known edition of the Bergbüchlein is recognized as the first printed book in the literature of mining. It was reprinted several times in the 16th Century and after [which see subsequent entries], and is an important precursor of Georgius Agricola's [q.v.] celebrated De Re Metallica (1st ed., Basileæ, 1556). To a smaller degree it also influenced Vannuccio Biringuccio's De la Pirotechnia (1st ed., Venetia, 1540), as well as the later works on mining by Lazarus Ercker and Georg Engelhardt von Löhnyess.

The Bergbüchlein is a practical handbook designed for beginners rather than experts in the field of mining. The booklet comprises instructions from Daniel, a skilled miner, to Knappius, "his mining boy." In ten chapters, the work contains an introduction to mining geology, touches on some theories of the generation of ores, which is of mineralogical interest, introduces and defines many of the important technical terms of the profession, discusses the ores of the seven most important metals, and how to prospect for them. Not all the information contained in its pages is based on fact or even first hand knowledge of the author but enough of the material was sufficiently practical for Agricola to have used it as a reference book and even copied certain passages verbatim in writing his more comprehensive work. From references he makes in De Re Metallica Agricola believed the author of the Bergbuchlein to have been "Calbus of Freiberg, a well-known doctor," i.e., Ulrich Rülein von Calw. Indeed Rülein is accepted by present-day scholarship as the author, although most editions of the Bergbuchlein were published anonymously.

The place and date of this edition is, like its authorship, cloaked in mystery. However, almost without exception experts in the field of mining literature and German literature of this period believe this book to be the earliest edition known. Van Dechen (1885) dated this edition as Augsburg, 1505; Darmstaedter (1926) between 1505 and 1510, printed "probably" by Martin Landsberg of Leipzig; Sisco and Smith (1949) agree with this determination signifying it "Edition A"; while Pieper (1955), in a subsesquent study, says "about" 1500. Only three copies of the work are presently known to exist. One is in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, one at the Staats- unds Stadtbibliothek, Augsburg (lacking leaves 23-26) and one other, listed by the San Francisco bookseller John Howell in catalog number 40 (1970), item 6. The current location of this last copy is unknown.

Bibliographical references: Baumgärtel, H., Vom Bergbuchlein zur Bergakademie. Zur Entstehung der Bergbauwissenschaften zwischen 1500 und 1765/1770. Mit 16 Bildern. Leipzig, Deutscher Verlag fur Grundstoffindustrie, 1965. 169 p. [Published as: Freiberger Forschungshefte. D50]. Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926: 13-4 & 61-2. Fischer, Gesteins- und Lagerstättenbildung, 1961: pp. 315-8. GW: 3, 641. Hoover & Hoover, Agricola, "De Re Metallica", 1912. Pellechet, Catalogue General des Incunables, 1970: no. 2002. Pieper, W., Ulrich Rülein von Calw und sein Bergbüchlein. Berlin, 1955. Sisco & Smith, Bergwerk- und Probirbüchlein, 1949 [Edition A: title page reproduced]. Sisco, A., "How Old is the Bergbüchlein?", Isis, 43, (1952), 337-43. Van Dechen, Das Alteste Deutsche Bergwerkbuch, 1885.

Eyn rvolgerdent, 1518

2. German, 1518 [2nd edition].
Eyn rvolgeordent vnd nütz= | lich büchlin / wie man Bergwerck suchen vñ | finden sol / von allerley Metall/ mit seinen figuren/ | nach gelegenbeyt deß gebirgs artlich ange= | zeygt/ Mit anhangenden Berck na= | men den anfahenden bergleut= | ten vast dinstlich. | [Square ornamental woodcut scene showing miners at work].

8°: 24l. Without folliation, signiatures or pagination. Large woodcut on the title and 12 small woodcuts in the text. Colophon: Gedruckt zu Wormbs bei Peter Schöfern / vñ volendet am fünfften tag Aprill. M.D.XVIII.

Very scarce. There are slight differences between this work and the undated first edition. A brief introduction that occurred before Daniel and the young miner start their dialog has been dropped; the title page and its illustration has been changed; all of the illustrations have been redrawn, and brief instructions on how they should be colored has been included. A six page glossary of mining terms has been appended, although this glossary deals with different aspects of mining than is contained in the text. The text is the same in both editions, in spite of minor ommissions in the 1518 issue. These changes were the result of editorial deletions and corrections.

Bibliographical references: Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926. Hoover & Hoover, Agricola, "De Re Metallica", 1912. Sisco & Smith, Bergwerk- und Probirbüchlein, 1949 [Edition B: title page reproduced].

Berg Büchlin, 1527

3. German, 1527 [3rd edition].
Eiñ nützlich Berg | büchlin von allen Metal= | len / als Golt / Silber / Zeyn / Kupfer | ertz / Eisen stein / Bleyertz / vnd | vom Quecksilber. | [Ornamental woodcut scene showing a miner and two others working an ore windlass].

8°: 24l. Without folliation, signiatures or pagination. Large woodcut on the title and 12 small woodcuts in the text. Colophon: Gedruckt zu Effurd / durch Johan Loersfelt. 1527. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926. Hoover & Hoover, Agricola, "De Re Metallica", 1912. Sisco & Smith, Bergwerk- und Probirbüchlein, 1949 [Edition C: title page reproduced].

Der Vrsprung, c1530

4. German, c1530 [4th edition].
Der Vrsprung gemeynñer | Berckrecht / wie die lange zeit von den alten er= | halten wordē / darauß die Künigklichen vñ Fürstlichen bergks ord | nungen vber alle Bergre:ht geslossen / welcher sich eyn jetz= | licher in zůfelligen Berckhandlungen / vor dem öbristen | Berckmeister vnd anderen Berckrichtern / zů recht | wol gebrauchen mag / Auch ein anzeygung der | clüfft vnd geng des Metallischen ärtz/ wie | die in berg vnnd thal streichent/ vnd | ihr geschick haben / Mit art= | lichen Figuren ver= | zeichner. | Sampe eyner anzeygung vil bösicher vnd fündiger | Berckwerck der löblichen Cron zu Beham. | [Square ornamental woodcut scene showing miners working a vein].

8°: 44l. Large woodcut on the title. No date indicated. Colophon: Durch Johan Haselberger auss der Reichenaw / in druck verordnet.

Very scarce. The Bergbüchlein is included with other tracts concerning mining in this collected work. The first portion consists of a treatise discussing the old mining laws of Bohemia, Moravia, Meissen, etc. The first page of the Bergbüchlein contains an abstract of the omitted original dialogue that serves as an introduction to the ten chapters of the text. The glossary of mining terms is present, and is followed by three pages listing the ores and mines of Bohemia. Although this edition shows no place of publication, Von Dechen (1885) and Sisco & Smith (1949) build a case for dating it around 1530.

Bibliographical references: Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926. Sisco & Smith, Bergwerk- und Probirbüchlein, 1949 [Edition D: title page reproduced].

Corpus juris & systema rerum metallicarum, oder: Neu-verfasstes Berg-Buch, bestehend aus allerhand, so alten als neuern collectaneis von Bergwercks-Sachen, ... (Franckfurt am Mayn, 1698).
See under: Corpus Juris & Systema.

Bergwerck, 1533

5. German, 1533 [5th edition].
Bergwerck | vnd Probirbüchlin. für die Bergk vnd ferwer= | cker / Goltschmid / Alchimisten vnd Künstner. | [ornament] Silbertus Cardinal vonn Soluiren vnnd | scheydungen aller Metal. | [ornament] Polirung allerhand Edelgesteyn. | [ornament] Fürtrefliche Wasser zum Etzen / Scheyden | vnd Soluiren. | [ornament] Verhütung vnd rath für gifftige dämpffe | der Metal. | [Ornamental woodcut scene showing goldsmiths at work].

8°: 39l. Large woodcut on the title. Colophon: Zu Franckfurt am Meyn / bei Christiau Egenolph. Im Herbstmon / Des Jars M.D.XXXIII.

Very scarce. This book contains both the Bergwerck Buchlein and another early work on assaying. The complete text of the Büchlien, without the glossary of mining terms is reprinted.

Bibliographical references: Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926: 70-2. Honeyman Sale: 6:2540. Hoover Collection: no. 117. Norman Catalog: 1, 194. Norman Sale Catalog: 1:165. Sisco & Smith, Bergwerk- und Probirbüchlein, 1949 [Edition E: title page reproduced].

Ein Wolgeordent, 1534

6. German, 1534 [6th edition].
Ein wolgeordent vñ | nutzlich Büchlein/ wie man Bergwerck | suchen vnd finden sol, von allerley Metall/ mit | seinen figuren / nach gelegenbeyt des ge= | bürges / artlich angezeygt / Mit an= | hangenden Bercknamen / den | anfahenden Bergleůten | vast dienstlich. | [Ornamental woodcut scene showing miners entering a mine.] | M. D. XXXIIII.

8°: [55] p. Large woodcut on the title. Colophon: Getruckt zu Augspurg durch Heinrich Steyner / Am 3. tag Octobris / Im M.D.XXXIIII.

Very scarce. According to Sisco & Smith (1949), this edition was reprinted by J.F. Lempe in Magazin der Bergbaukunde [see 9, 21-56] without comments or illustration.

Bibliographical references: Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926. Sisco & Smith, Bergwerk- und Probirbüchlein, 1949 [Edition F: title page reproduced].

Bergwerck, 1535

7. German, 1535 [7th edition].
Bergwerck vñ | Probir büchlin/für die Bergk vnnd feurwercker | Golschmid / Alchimisten vnd Künstner. | Silbertus Cardinal vonn Soluiren vnd schei | dungen aller Metal | Polirung alter hand Edelgestein. | Fürtressliche Wasser zum Erzen/ Scheyden/ vnd Soluiren. | Verhütung vnd Kath für gisstige dämpffe | der Metal. | [Ornamental woodcut scene showing goldsmiths at work] | * | [ornament] Zu franckfurt / bei Christian Egenolff.

8°: 36l. Large woodcut on the title. Colophon: Zu Francfurt am Meyn / bei Christian Egenolph An. M.D.XXXV. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926. Sisco & Smith, Bergwerk- und Probirbüchlein, 1949 [Edition G: title page reproduced].

8. German, 1539 [8th edition].
Ein wolgeordent vñ | nutzlich büchlin wie man Bergwerck | sůchen vnd finden sol / von allerley Metall / mit | seinen figuren / nach gelegennheyt, deß ge | bijrges / artlych angezeygt / Mit an- | hangenden Bercknamen / den | anfahenden Bergleuten | vast dienstlich. | [Ornamental woodcut scene showing miners entering a mine] | M.D.XXXIX.

8°: ??l. Large woodcut on the title. Colophon: Gedruckt zu Augspurg durch Heinrich Steyner / Am j. tag Augusti / Im M.D.XXXIX. Jar.

Very scarce. According to Sisco & Smith (1949), this edition was reissued by Hans Von Dechen in his article, "Das älteste deutsche Bergwerksbuch" [see Zeitschrift für Bergrecht, 26 (1885), 219-62]. This article contains technical annotations and an extensive bibliographic disscussion.

Bibliographical references: Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926. Sisco & Smith, Bergwerk- und Probirbüchlein, 1949 [Edition H: title page reproduced].

9. English, 1949 [English transl.].
[Contained within a double rule box:] Bergwerk= | und | Probierbüchlein | A translation from the German of the | Bergbüchlein | a sixteenth-century book on mining geology, by | Anneliese Grünhaldt Sisco | and of the | Probierbüchlein | a sixteenth-century work on assaying, by | Anneliese Grünhaldt Sisco | and | Cyril Stanley Smith | with technical annotations and historical notes. | New York | The American Institute of Mining and | Metallurgical Engineers | 1949.

8°: [1]-196 p., index, biblio., illus. Page size: 204 x 130 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Half title page, "The Seeley W. Mudd Series | Bergwerk= und Probierbüchlein | Publication Sponsored By The | Seeley W. Mudd Memorial Fund," verso "The Seeley W. Mudd Series | ..."; [3-4], Title page, verso "Copyright, 1949 by the | American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers | (Incorporated) | ..."; [5]-6, "Foreword"-signed A.B. Parsons, December 1948.; [7]-10, "Introduction"-dated October 1948.; [11], "Acknowledgments."; [12], Blank.; [13], "Contents."; [14], Blank.; [15]-66, Text associated with the Bergbüchlein.; [67-68], Blanks.; [69]-190, Text associated with the Probierbüchlein.; [191]-196, "Index."

Very scarce. A modern translation by Anneliese Grünhaldt Sisco [see note below] of the Bergbüchlein and the Probierbüchlein, which was sometimes published with it. Included are extensive bibliographic and historic notes about the early editions of both works, together with facsimile reproduction of the early title pages.

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