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Georg Eberhard Rumpf (Rumphius)
RUMPF (Rumphius), Georg Eberhard.

RUMPF (Rumphius), Georg Eberhard.
(1637 - 1706)

(Born: 1637; Died: 1706) Dutch naturalist.

George E. Rumphius (1628-1702), the blind "Plinius Indicus", had been in the service of Dutch East-India Company as merchant and was stationed at the island of Ambon where he started researching systematically flora and fauna of this island. He described and drew all he saw and sent his manuscripts over to Amsterdam. His most famous work (2 Ductch, 2 Latin ans one German edition) is D'Amboinische Rariteitskamer, which was published after his death in 1705 in Amsterdam. This work was and is especially interesting and useful for the owners (very popular at the time) cabinets of natural curiosities, the forerunner of the musea of today. Faraway from every centre of intellectual civilisation he was not literally isolated. He corresponded with many scholars in the Indies and Europe like Rhijne, Cleyer, Mentzel, Valentini etc.

Biographical references: ADB. ????, "Rumphius' life and work" (pp. xxxv-cxii) in: The Ambonese Curiousity Cabinet, 1999. Ballintijn, G.E., Rumphius, de blinde ziener van Ambon. Utrecht, W. de Haan, 1944. vii, 192 p. Bridson, History of Natural History, 1994: 138. DBA: I 1067, 392-393. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. Koloniaal Museum te Haarlem, Rumphius Gedenboek, 1702-1902. Amsterdam, J.H. de Bussy, 1902. viii, [2], 221 p., 6 plates.. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 720-1. WBI. Wit, H.C.D. de, Rumphius memorial volume. Baarn, Hollandia, 1959. [6], v, 462 p., 27 plates..

D'Amboinsche Rariteitkammer, 1705

1. Dutch & Latin, 1705 [First edition].
[In black:] D'Amboinsche | [in red:] Rariteitkammer, | [in black:] Behelzende eene Beschryvinge van allerhande | zoo weeke als harde | [in red:] Schaalvisschen, | [in black:] te weeten raare | [in red:] Krabben, Kreeften, | [in black:] en diergelyke Zeedieren, | als mede allhande | [in red:] Hoorntjes en Schulpen, | [in black:] die men in d'Amboinsche Zee vindt: | Daar beneven zommige | [in red:] Mineraalen, Gesteenten, | [in black:] en foorten van Aarde, die in d'Amboinsche, en zom- | mige omleggende Eilanden gevonden worden. | Verdeels in drie Boeken, | En met nodige Printverbeeldingen, alle naar 't leven getekent, voorzien. | Beschreven door | [in red:] Georgius Everhardus Rumphius, | [in black:] van Hanauw, Koopman en Raad in Amboina, mitsgaders Lid in d' Academiæ Curiosorum Naturæ, in 't Duitsche Roomsche Ryk opgerecht, onder den naam van | [in red:] Plinius Indicus. | [in black, vignette] | [in red:] T'Amsterdam, | [in black, rule] | [in black:] Gedrukt by François Halma, Boekverkoper | [in red:] in Konstantijn den Grooten. | [in black:] 1705.

2°: *-****4 *****2 A-Bbb4 (includes the engraved title page in the collation sequence).; 207l.; [32], 340, [42] p. Engraved title page, engraved frontispiece (portrait of Rumpf), 4 engraved vignettes and 60 engraved plates (numbered I-LX). Title page in red and black Page size: 400 x 260 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs/=*1rv], Half title page, "D'Amboninsche, | Rariteitkamer, | Of Eene Bescryvinge Van Allerhande | Schaalvisschen; | Benevens De Voornaamste | Hoorntjes en Schulpen, | Als Ook Zommige, | Mineraalen, Gesteenten, Enz. | Door | Georgius Everhardus | Rumphivs.", verso blank.; [2 pgs/=*2rv], Engraved title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs/=*3rv], Title page, verso blank.; [5 pgs/=*4r-**2r], Dedication to Hendrik D'Acquet, signed Georgius Everhars Rumphius, 1 September 1699.; [6 pgs/=**2v-***1r], Opdragt continued, with text beginning, "Edele Achtbaren Heer."-signed François Halma, 1704.; [6 pgs/=***1v-***4r], "Voorreden | Des Drukkers | Aan Den | Lezer, Dien hy alle Heil wenscht."-signed F. Halma, 1704.; [2 pgs/=***4v-****1r], "Tafel | Der | Hooftdeelen | Des | Eersten Boeks, | ..." [=list of plates to part one].; [2 pgs/=****1v-****2r], "Tafel | Der | Hooftdeelen | Des | Tweeden Boeks, | ..." [=list of plates to part two].; [2 1/4 pgs/=****2v-****3v], "Hier is Bygevoegt | Eene Beschryvinge | ..."; [2 3/4 pgs/=****3v-****4v], "Tafel | Der | Hooftdeelen | Des | Derden Boeks, | ..." [=list of plates to part three].; [3 pgs/=*****1r-*****2r], "Beschryving | Van het Stuk | Graauwen Amber, | ..."; [1 pg/=*****2v], Blank.; [Portait of Rumphius].; [1]-340/(=A-Vv2v), Text of three books.; [41 pgs]/(=Vv3r-Bbb4r), "Blad-Wyser | ..." [=index].; [1 pg/=Bbb4v], Blank.

Rare. The 60 magnificent copper engravings may be separated into the following categories: crabs (12), sea-urchins & starfish (4), snails & muscles (33), and petrifications and minerals (11). There is also an engraved title page, a beautiful engraved frontispiece portrait showing Rumpf and 4 engraved vingettes.

The best copy ever available of this natural history classical work on marine life, geology and mineralogy of the area of the Molucca Islands in the Indonesian Archipelago. Only two colored copies of this book are known, the one in the Library of Artis, Amsterdam. This copy has been coloured by Maria Sybilla Merian, as is written on the half title by the former owner A. Vosmaer (1720-1799), the director of the princely zoological gardens at Het Klein Loo near The Hague. At an auction in 1779 the 1779 the Vosmaer copy fetched FL. 240, which was a serious amount of money for a book at that time.

Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717). She was highly interested in flowers, insects and other aspects of nature, specially those which came from exotic areas as e.g; Surinam. in our copy the half-title and some plates bear manuscript annotations in German. We are still investigating thename of the author of these scholarly annotations. Anyway the German traveller and burgomaster of Frankfurt Z.C. Von Uffenbach (1683-1735) visitded Maria Sybilla Merian in Amsterdam on February 23, 1711. He recorded this visit enthousiastically in his diary, which was published in 1753-54. He also mentions the coloured copy of d'Amboinische Rariteikamer.

English, 1999: The Ambonese Curiosity Cabinet. New Haven [Conn.]; London, Yale University Press, c1999. cxii, 567 p., illus., maps. [Includes bibliographical references (p. 377-549); ISBN 0300075340]. The first book published with hand-colored plates showing minerals was published in 1705. Georg Eberhard Rumpf (or Rumphius) [1637-1706], the blind "Plinius Indicus", had been in the service of Dutch East-India Company as merchant and was stationed at the Island of Ambon in the modern day Malay Archipelago, Indonesia, where he started researching systematically the natural history of this island. He described and drew all he saw and sent his manuscripts and collections back to Amsterdam. These included specimens of the plants, animals, and minerals of the region. On his return to The Netherlands, he used this information to compile his most famous work \t{D'Amboinische Rariteitskamer}, which was published a year before his death in 1705. It contains his collected observations on the natural history he observed and is illustrated with 60 magnificent copper engravings of the specimens he collected. These plates may be separated into the following categories: crabs (12), sea-urchins & starfish (4), snails & muscles (33), and petrifications and minerals (11). There is also an engraved title page, a beautiful engraved frontispiece portrait showing Rumpf and 4 engraved vingettes. The work is especially interesting as it shows the contents of a typical cabinet of natural curiosities of the early \th{18} century, very popular at the time, and the forerunner of the museums of today. It also exhibits Rumpf's amazing talent as a naturalist, because although he was in a faraway land, removed from every center of intellectual civilization he was not totally isolated. His text shows that he corresponded with many scholars in the Indies and Europe like Rhijne, Cleyer, Mentzel, Valentini, etc. ¶rintFigureNB{Colored_Rumphius_Plate52_1705.jpg}{2.8125}{3.75}{Rumphius, 1705} Copies of the work are almost always found with uncolored plates, and for a very long time, only one copy of the book was known to contain colored plates. It is an extraordinary natural history volume held in the collection of the Library of Artis, Amsterdam. The copy had been colored by the famous naturalist, Maria Sybilla Merian, as is recorded on the half title by a former owner A. Vosmaer [1720-1799], the director of the princely zoological gardens at Het Klein Loo near The Hague. In fact, it is now generally assumed that all of the plates for Rumpf's book were designed by this famous woman naturalist, who was one of the greatest illustrators of natural history of the day. ¶rintFigureNB{Colored_Rumphius_Dendrites_B_1705.jpg}{2.8125}{3.75}{Rumphius, 1705} Maria Sybilla Merian [1647-1717] was highly interested in flowers, insects and other aspects of nature, especially those which came from exotic locales such as Rumpf's Surinam specimens. So it would be no surprise to discover she had taken an interest in Rumpf's work, and helped with its preparation for publication. In any event, it is clear she had access to the Rumpf's specimens, because the coloring of all the plates is very accurate, and done with an expert hand. The German traveller and burgomaster of Frankfurt Z.C. Von Uffenbach [1683-1735] visited Merian in Amsterdam on February 23, 1711. He recorded this visit enthusiastically in his diary, which was published in 1753-54. It was during that visit he mentions seeing a copy of the \t{d'Amboinische Rariteikamer}, superbly colored and printed on large paper, which he considered one of the most beatiful books he had ever seen. Later in the \th{18} century, the noted German book collector Joseph Cobres could also boast to having a colored copy of the 1705 edition in his library.% \ftnote{J.P. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782, p. 103. His copy had the title page and all the plates including the frontispiece showing Rumpf hand-colored. He purchased the copy at the Bozenhard Auction, noting its great rarity in a colored state. \b J.S. Schröter., Journal für die Liebhaber, 6 (1780), p. 395. } So coveted were these few colored copies that in 1779 at an auction the Vosmaer copy fetched FL. 240, which was a serious amount of money for a book at that time (a good house could be purchased for a quarter of that amount!). In 1997, a complete hand-colored copy of the Rumpf book appeared on the market, which was compared to the Vosmaer copy by the bookseller and found to be identical.% \ftnote{H.L Stack and J. Goud, "Rumphius and the `Amboinische Rariteitkamer'," Vita Marina, 44 (1996), nos. 1-2, p. 29-39. [Describes a recently found colored copy of Rumpf's book.]} The confluences of good specimen material and exceptional execution by a highly talented artist combine in these rare colored copies to make perhaps the most beautiful colored mineralogical plates ever produced, not to mention exceptional renderings of shells, crabs, and other objects of the cabinet. Unfortunately, it is also perhaps the rarest of the colored mineralogies with only the two complete copies and an unknown but small quantity of loose plates currently known to exist.

Maria Sybilla Merian. (Born: Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1647; Died: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 13 January 1717) German/Dutch artist. Merian was the natural daughter of a publisher and engraver, and the stepdaughter of a still-life painter. Not surprisingly, she took up flower painting and engraving. She also took up with an artist, but it didn't last. Unhappy in her marriage, she moved her daughters to a religious community in the Dutch province of Friesland, then later to Amsterdam. There she made powerful friends and eventually received funds from the government to journey with her younger daughter to Dutch controlled Surinam in South America. After a cramped, dirty sea voyage, she landed in a hot, wet-and-dry climate. Undaunted, she pursued her passions for the next two years, painting and insects. She built large collections, which she took back to Amsterdam when she was forced to return in 1701 due to illness. These collections surpassed all others and caused great enthusiasm among the city's scientists.

Bibliographical references: ????, "Rumphius' life and work" (pp. xxxv-cxii) in: The Ambonese Curiousity Cabinet, 1999. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782 [Corbes had a copy, purchased at the Bozenhard sale, in which the plates were colored by hand.]. LKG: XIV 866. Murray, Museums, 1904: 1, 146 & 153, 3, 146. Nissen (ZBI): no. 3518. Schröter's Journal für die Liebhaber: 2 (17??), 8. Stack, H.L. and J. Goud, "Rumphius and the `Amboinische Rariteitkamer'", Vita Marina, 44, (1996), nos. 1-2, 29-39. [Describes a recently found colored copy.]. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 228. Wood, Literature of Vertebrate Zoology, 1931: p. 545. (Merian) Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek, 1852-78. ADB. BAB: 459, 7-41. DBA: I 829, 113-121; 829, 203-250. Hirsching, Historisch-literarisches Handbuch, 1794-1815. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. Kobus, Biographisch Woordenboek, 1886. Nagler, Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, 1835-52. Thieme & Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon, 1907-50. WBI. Will, Nürnbergisches Gelehrten-Lexicon, 1755-1808. Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon Österreich, 1856-91.

D'Amboinsche Rariteitkammer, 1741

2. Dutch & Latin, 1741 [2nd edition].
D'Amboinsche | Rariteitkammer, | Behelzende eene Beschryvinge van allerhande | zoo weeke als harde | Schaalvisschen, | te weeten raare | Krabben, Kreeften, | en diergelyke Zeedieren, | als mede allhande | Hoorntjes en Schulpen, | die men in d'Amboinsche Zee vindt: | Daar beneven zommige | Mineraalen, Gesteenten, | en foorten van Aarde, die in d'Amboinsche, en zom- | mige omleggende Eilanden gevonden worden. | Verdeels in drie Boeken, | En met nodige Printverbeeldingen, alle naar 't leven getekent, voorzien. | Beschreven door | Georgius Everhardus Rumphius, | van Hanauw, Koopman en Raad in Amboina, mitsgaders Lid van het Kyzerlyke kweekschool der | onderzoekers van de Natuurkunde in 't Duitsche Roomsche Ryk opgerecht onder den naam van | Plinius Indicus. | [vignette] | T'Amsterdam, | [rule] | By Jan Roman de Jonge, Boekverkoper, 1741.

2°: [24], 340, [44] p., frontispiece (portrait), 60 plates. Page size: 390 x ?? mm.

Very scarce. Added engraved t.p.: De Amboinsche rariteit kamer / door G.E. Rumphius. 't Amsterdam : Gedrukt by Francois Halma ..., 1705. "Beschryving en verdeeling der Amboinsche hoornen en schulpen, door den Heer Sipman": p. 167-193.

Bibliographical references: Murray, Museums, 1904: 3, 146. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1937.

Thesaurus Imaginum Piscium, 1711

3. Latin, 1711 [Latin transl.].
[In red:] Thesaurus | [in black:] Imaginum | [in red:] Piscium Testaceorum; | [in black:] Quales sunt | Cancri, Echini, Echinometra, Stellæ Marinæ, &c. | Ut & | [in red:] Cochlearum; | [in black:] Inter quas numerantur | Lumares; Laciniatæ; Trochi; Valvatæ; sive Semilumares; Valvatæ striatæ; Cassides tubersæ, | verrucosæ, læves & Murices; Globsæ; Buccina; Strombi; Volutæ; Alatæ; | Porcellanæ majores & minores; Cylindri, &c. | Quibus accedunt | [in red:] Conchylia, | [in black:] Ut | Nautilus, Cornu Ammonis, &c. | [in red:] Conchæ Univalviæ & Bivalviæ; | [in black:] Quarum species sunt | Solenes univalvii, Chamæ asperæ, Chamæ læves, Pectines, Pectunculi, Tellinæ, | Solenes bivalvii, Musculi, Pinnæ, Ostrea, &c. | Denique | [in red:] Mineralia; | [in black:] Uti | Mettal, Lapides & Argillæ, variis in locis reperta. | Quorum omnium maximam partem | [in red:] Georgius Everhardus Rumphius M.D. | [in black:] Et Academiæ Cesareæ Naturæ Curiosorum Collega, dictus Plinius Indicus, collegit; | Jam vero Naturæ Amator & Curiosus quidam in hunc ordinem digessit, | & nitidissimè æri incidi curavit. | [vignette] | Lugduni Batavorum, | Apud [in red:] Petrum vander Aa, [in black:] Bibliopolam. M D CC XI.

2°: *2 A-D2 a-z1 aa-zz1 aaa-ooo1 Ppp-Qqq2; 80l.; [6], 1-15, [1] p., Plates I-LX, No. LXI-No. LXVIII p., frontispiece, additional engraved title page. Title page in red and black. The plates are included in the printer's collation sequence. Page size: 420 x 265 mm.

Contents: [Engraved title page].; [Frontispiece].; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], "Naturæ Amanti Curioso."; [1 pg], "Explicatio."; 1-15, "Denominationes | Figurarvm, | Quae in hisce Tabulis continentur." [engraved printer's device, p. 15].; [1 pg], Blank.; Plates No. I to No. LX.; No. LXI-No. LXVIII, "Index | vocum In Hoc Thesauro Occurrentium." [=indexes in Latin and Dutch].

Very scarce. First Latin edition. Reproduction of the plates of the author's D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer (Amsterdam, 1705), with Latin preface, contents of plates, and indexes. The 8 pages of indexes at end are numbered LXI-LXVIII.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 866a*. Murray, Museums, 1904: 3, 146. Schröter's Journal für die Liebhaber: 3 (17??), 104. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1935.

4. Latin, 1739 [Latin transl.].
Thesaurus imaginum piscium testaceorum : quales sunt cancri, echini, echinometra, stellæ marinæ, &c. : ut et cochlearum ... quibus accedunt conchylia, ut nautilus, cornu Ammonis, &c. : conchæ univalviæ et bivalviæ ... denique mineralia ... quorum omnium maximam partem Georgius Everhardus Rumphius ... collegit ; jam vero naturæ amator & curiosus quidam in hunc ordinem digessit, & nitidissim e æri incidi curavit. Hagæ-Comitum : Apud Petrum de Hondt, 1739.

2°: [6], 14, [8] p. frontispiece (portrait), 60 plates (numbered I-LX). Page size: 420 x ?? mm.

Very scarce. Added t.-p., engr. 1st edition: Lugduni Batavorum, 1711. A reproduction of the plates of the author's D'Amboinsche rariteitkamer, Amsterdam, 1705, with Latin preface, content of plates, and indexes. The 8 pages of indexes at end are numbered lxi-lxvii.

Bibliographical references: Murray, Museums, 1904: 3, 146. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1936.

5. German, 1766 [German transl.].
G.E. Rumphius .. Amboinische Raritaten-Kammer ... Aus dem Hollandischen ubersetzt von P.L.S. Muller, ... und ... vermehret von J.H. Chemnitz. [With an introduction by J.A. Cramer]. Wien, 1766.

2°: [18], cxxviii, [2], 200, [2] p., 33 folding plates (numbered 17-49; showing sea shells). Engraved title page. Printed title in red and black. Page size: 250 x 350 mm.

Very scarce. Translation by Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller of D'Amboinsche Rariteitkammer (2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1711). It includes additions by J.H. Chemnitz and a new introduction by Johann Andreas Cramer. The plates numbered 17 to 49 show sea shells.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 886. Murray, Museums, 1904: 3, 146. Nissen (ZBI): no. 3519.

6. Latin, 1754.
Verhandeling de Zii - Horenkeus en Zee - Gewassen in en omstrekt Amboina ... Amsterdam, 1754.

8°: Very scarce.

German transl., 1773: German translation by P.L.S. Muller. Wien, 1773.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 867b.

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