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József Szabo
SZAB{�OD3;}, József.

SZAB{�OD3;}, József.
(1822 - 1894)

(Born: Kalocsa, Hungary, 14 March 1822; Died: Budapest, Hungary, 10 April 1894) Hungarian mineralogist & geologist.

Szabó was a pioneer in the geological mapping of the Budapest region, and other areas of Hungary. He worked in association after 1858 with the Geologische Reichsanstalt, of Vienna. He made many studies of rock structure using the microscope and the application of flame tests in identifying minerals.

Biographical references: Földtani Közlöny. Budapest: 25 (1895), nos. 9-10, p. 273-302, portrait. Magyar Életrajzi Lexikon: 2, ??. Proceedings of the Geological Society, London: 1895, p. xlix-l. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, p. 2226-7.

1. Hungarian, 1861 [First edition].
Az Ásványtan Alapvonalai, Kűlőnös Tekintettel az Ásványok Gyakorlati Meghatározására. Pest, Heckenast, 1861.

8°: xii, 332 p., illus.

Rare. Szabó published the first modern university textbook on mineralogy written in Hungarian. His large Ásványtan (Mineralogy) reference book appeared in 1861. The first book was followed by three revised and widely extended new editions. It had great influence in the Hungarian institutes of higher learning. In his books he emphasised the importance of the chemical properties of minerals and included several practical analytical methods applicable especially for minerals, some of them developed by himself. In the first edition of 1861, the Mineralogy of Szabó the crystallography part was based on Carl Friedrich Naumann's book (1856), the descriptive mineralogy on James D. Dana's mineralogy systematics (1854).

Bibliographical references: Buda, G., G. Papp, and T.G. Weiszburg., "Short History Of Teaching Mineralogy At The Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest," Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, 45 (2004), no. 1, p. 5-20. NUC. Szinnyei, Hungarica Historiae Naturalis, 1878: cols. 745-6.

2. Hungarian, 1864 [2nd edition].
Az Ásványtan Alapvonalai, Kűlőnös Tekintettel az Ásványok Gyakorlati Meghatározására. Pest, Heckenast, 1864.

8°: xiv, 398, [2] p., illus.

Rare. In the second edition, Szabó gives more crystal drawings that are included in the crystallography part. The systematic part was updated with the data Szabó received from J. D. Dana as appendix to Dana's 4th edition and from Kobell as the latest results in the field of chemical identification of minerals.

Bibliographical references: Buda, G., G. Papp, and T.G. Weiszburg., "Short History Of Teaching Mineralogy At The Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest," Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, 45 (2004), no. 1, p. 5-20. NUC. Szinnyei, Hungarica Historiae Naturalis, 1878: cols. 745-6.

3. Hungarian, 1876 [3rd edition].
Ásványtan. Felsőbb Tanításra és Gyakorlati Használatra. Budapest, Franklin-Társulat, 1876.

8°: xvi, 614, [2] p., illus.

Rare. The third edition of Szabó's Mineralogy was fully rewritten reflecting the significant developments of mineralogy. Szabó still used Naumann's system and notation in the crystallography part. Optical mineralogy was extended considerably. The Nicol prism and the polarising microscope were included. The relationship between optical properties and symmetry of minerals was also discussed on the base of Des Cloizeaux's work (1862, 1874). In the chemical identification chapter Bunsen's methods (blowpipe, flame colouration) were demonstrated and he treated also the fusibility of minerals. In these latter fields his own special contribution (mainly for the identification of feldspars) was discussed in details as well. He added the description of new minerals discovered between the 5th edition of Dana's book (1868) and 1875 using the Second Appendix to Dana's Mineralogy by Edward S. Dana. Not less than 900 mineral species were included in this third edition.

Bibliographical references: Buda, G., G. Papp, and T.G. Weiszburg., "Short History Of Teaching Mineralogy At The Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest," Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, 45 (2004), no. 1, p. 5-20. NUC. Szinnyei, Hungarica Historiae Naturalis, 1878: cols. 745-6.

Ásványtan, 1893

4. Hungarian, 1893 [4th edition].
Ásványtan. | Felsőbb Tanításra és Gyakorlati Használatra. | Irta | Dr Szabó József | [...20 lines of titles and membeships...] | Egy Kőnyomatur Színes Tábla, 630 Réz-, Zink- És Fametszetű Kép. | Negyedik Ujból Írt Kiadás. | [ornament] | Budapest. | Franklin-Társulat | Magyar IrodIntket És Kőnyvnyomda. | 1893.

8°:

Rare. In 1893, one year before his death, the fourth edition of his Mineralogy was published. Mineralogy developed essentially in the period between the last edition and Szabó felt he had to revise almost all parts of the 1876 book. He entirely rewrote and enlarged the book. He presented the spherical projection, started to use Miller indices alternatively with the Naumann notation. Pyroelectricity, piezoelectricity and magnetic properties of minerals are discussed. The Tables for Identification of Minerals were enlarged as well.

A large number of new mineral species were added to the descriptive mineralogy chapter, based on the 6th edition of Dana's Mineralogy, published in the previous year (1892). Here, beside the chemical, crystallographic and physical properties of minerals, genetic and locality data are also given. Szabó includes the results of several mineral synthesis experiments (Berthier, Fremy etc.) in order to give some idea on how minerals form in their natural environment.

Concerning feldspars, a mineral group Szabó invested a lot of his research time in, Des Cloizeaux's and Tschermak's feldspar determination methods and data are given in detail. These methods, based on optical properties (extinction angle), became widespread at the end of the 19th century and surpassed Szabó's flame-based method. It is not common for a 72-year-old scientist to have enough strength to keep up with the development of science, especially as development overwrote a large part of his oeuvre.

Bibliographical references: Buda, G., G. Papp, and T.G. Weiszburg., "Short History Of Teaching Mineralogy At The Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest," Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, 45 (2004), no. 1, p. 5-20. NUC. Papp, Magyar Topografikus. 2002: p. 142.

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