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 Theophrastus
THEOPHRASTUS.

THEOPHRASTUS.
(c371 B.C. - 287 B.C.)

(Born: Ereos, Island of Lesbos, Greece, c371 B.C.; Died: Athens, Greece, 287 B.C.) Greek philosopher.

Theophrastus studied at Athens and became an ardent supporter of Plato's philosophies. While there, he became a pupil and friend of Aristotle, and when Aristotle went into exile, Theophrastus succeeded him as the leader and principal spokesman of the Peripatetic school of philosophy-a leadership he held until his death.

Biographical references: Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: no. 5455. DSB: 13, 328-34 [by J.B. McDiarmid]. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 537-8. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 427. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer): 45, cols. 103-6. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 1091-2. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2254 & Suppl. 1 (1991), 2, 829. Schaedler, Biographisch Handwörterbuch, 1891: 133-4. World Who's Who in Science: 1662.

Start of Theophrastus' Peri Lithon, 1497

1. Greek, 1495-8 [First edition].
Aristotle's Opera Omnia, in Greek, including other works by Theophrastus, Galen, Philo Judaeus, Alexander Aphrodisiensis and other authors. Edited by Aldus Manutius, Thomas Linacre, Justin Decadyos, Gabriel Bracius and others. Venice, Aldus Manutius, 1 November 1495 to June, 1498.

5 vols. [Vol 1: 1 November 1495] 2°: [Vol 2: February 1497] 2°: [Vol 3: 29 January 1497] 2°: [Vol 4: 1 June 1497] 2°: [Vol 5: June 1498] 2°:

Very scarce. Editio Princeps of Aristotle and Theophrastus and all other texts included. Theophrastus' Πεπ Λιθωυ (=Peri Lithon, or about stones) appears in volume 2 on leaves 254-60. It is a work of special interest in the history of mineralogy as it is the largest fragment to survive from Classical times that treats mineral substances in a meaningful way. It is like no other mineralogical work written during the period, and in fact no other original work resembling it appeared until the Middle Ages. It remained for 1800 years one of the most authoritative treatise on minerals, referenced and quoted by writers down to modern times. The comparative absence from myth and magic in the descriptions is particularly noteworthy, and shows there existed, probably among miners, quarryman, and others engaged in the mining industry of the time, a practical knowledge of mineralogy, which Theophrastus drew upon in the compilation of this work.

The text, written as a series of 69 paragraphs, suggests the Peri Lithon to be a series of lecture notes rather than a formal treatise (Adams, 1934). Some passages contain obvious additions that appear to be notes appended to the more detailed information. It seems possible, therefore, that Peri Lithon is a set of lecture notes as the author would have delivered in the gardens of the Lyceum almost two millennia ago. Incredibly, the text of the treatise appears to have come down to the present little changed from what it was in the beginning. All surviving ancient works, have made their way through time by a tradition of manuscript copying. Invariably, as scribes copied manuscripts, mistakes were unwittingly introduced. The fact that this work exists in a relatively few manuscripts that when compared show few differences, suggests that Peri Lithon is probably very close to what Theophrastus originally wrote.

The text first gives a Peripatetic view of the origin of minerals and stones, and upon this foundation of Aristotle and Plato, modifications are introduced. Metals are said to be composed of water, while stones and mineral earths are composed of earth. A mineral occurs because its substance has been purified through filtration, and its degree of purity can be determined by examining such qualities as smoothness, density, luster and transparency. The primary interest in the work are the descriptions of specific minerals. Theophrastus divides into two broad categories, Earths and Stones, under which about fifty "species" are recognized. Within each commentary, the author recounts various physical characteristics such as texture, color, transparency, hardness, luster, and density, as well as the practical uses. Thus described, it is possible to apply modern names to many of the minerals Theophrastus wrote about eighteen centuries ago, and read the Classical ideas about marble, pumice, onyx, gypsum, amber, pyrite, coal, azurite, chrysocolla, realgar, orpiment, cinnabar, quartz, lapis lazuli, emerald, sapphire, ruby and diamond.

By recording the properties of the species, this early work set a high standard over other mineralogical writings of the period. Theophrastus is in fact the first investigator to methodically treat mineral substances for themselves rather than for their magical or curative properties, and he may be considered the best and most accurate mineralogist among the ancients.

The Aldine Aristotle as this edition is known was the largest venture of Greek printing in the incunabula period of the fifteenth century, and the first major item of Aldus' program to publish Greek literature in the original language. These five volumes include all the then-known works attributed to Aristotle and his most outstanding pupil, Theophrastus, together with other texts associated with the Aristotelian corpus. Taken together with the Aldus edition of Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics of 1508 and Theophrastus' Characters of 1527, this Editio Princeps determined the text of these two authors until the nineteenth century. In preparing this edition, Aldus relied upon Greek manuscripts provided by Greek scholars throughout Italy; a number of these sources survive and form the basis of Sicherl's (1976) study outlining how this edition was edited. In addition, a study by Baker (1992) describes two of the Greek typefaces used to set the text.

Bibliographical references: Barker, N., Aldus Manutius and the Development of Greek Script and Type in the Fifteenth Century. New York, 1992 [chapters 6 & 7]. BL. BMC XV: 5, 553, 555, 556 & 558. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 5 & 11. Copinger, Hain's Repertorium, Supplement, 1898-1902: 16578*. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 81. Dibner, Heralds of Science, 1955: 73. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 27. Goff: A-959. GW: 2334. Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum, 1826-38: *1657. Hoover Collection: no. 785. Klebs, Incunabula Scientifica, 1938: no. 83.1. Norman Catalog: 1, 70. Osler, Bibliotheca Osleriana, 1969: no. 229. PPM: Printing and the Mind of Man: no. 38. Sicherl, M., Handschriftliche Vorlagen der Editio Princeps des Aristoteles. Mainz, 1976. Stillwell, Awakening Interest in Science, 1970: A-858. Wellcome Catalog (Books): no. 414.

2. Greek, 1552 [2nd Greek edition].
[IN GREEK: Theophrastou Peri phyton historian kai peri phyton aition, kai tina alla autou biblia periechon tomos VI]. = Theophrasti Historiam de plantis, et De causis plantarum, et quosdam alios ipsius libros continens tomus VI. Et repetita in editione Venetiis, Aldi filii, 1552.

8°: **7 Aα-Zψ8 AAαα-SSσσ8; 334l.; [14], [1]-652, [4] p. Woodcuts: initials, printer's device (Aldine anchor) on the title page.

Rare. Reprint of the 1497 edition, Theophrastus' Treatise on Stones is in Tome II, pp. 569-582. The Greek text was edited by Federicus Turrisanus [?-1561]. This book forms volume 6 of Aristoteles [et Theophrasti] Opera omnia graece studio Joannis Baptistae Camotii, which was printed by Giovanni Battista Camozzi (Camotius) [1515-1581] at the Aldine Press from 1551-53. This volume contains only works authored by Theophrastus and includes the following titles: Theophrasti vita ex Diogene - De historia plantarum - De causis plantarum - De igni - De sensibus - De ventis - De piscibus - De vertiginibus - De odoribus - De sudoribus - De lapidibus - De signis aquarum ... - Methaphysices - Characterum - Philonis de mundo.

Bibliographical references: Adams, Cambridge Books, 1967: A-1733. Barker, N., Aldus Manutius and the Development of Greek Script and Type in the Fifteenth Century. New York, 1992. BL [ C.19.b.11-16.]. BM/STC Italian: p. 42. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 11. Dryander, Catalogus Banks, 1796-1800: 4, p. 6. Hoover Collection: no. 785. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142412]. Renouard, A.A., Annales de l'Imprimerie des Alde, ou, Histoire des trois Manuce et de leurs éditions. New Castle, Del., Oak Knoll Books, 1991. xvi, 582, lxvi p. [Reprint of 1834 original; ISBN: 0938768271.]: 150, 5. VD16: p. 207 [*108.218].

3. Greek, 1577 [3rd Greek edition].
ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΥ | ΠΕΡΙ | ΛΙΘΩΝ. | Theophrasti Lib. | De Lapidibus. | [ornament] | [...one line in Greek...] | Lvtetiæ. | Ex Officina Federici Morelli Typographi Reij. | M. D. LXXVII.

4°: [1]-15, [1] p. Printer's mark on title page (Renouard 471).

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank. [3]-15, Text (in Greek).; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. Text in Greek.

Frederic Morel. (Born: Champagne, France, 1523; Died: Paris, France, 1583) French publisher. Frederic (not Frédéric) Morel, surnamed the Elder, was of a noble family. About 1550 he married the daughter of the famous printer, Michel de Vascosan, in 1557 he set up in business in the ruë Saint Jean de Beauvais, and in 1571 was appointed printer to the King. His chief publications were the Declamalioñes of Quintiian and L'Architecture de Philibert Del orme and Greek and Latin texts of Theophrastus' works.

Bibliographical references: BL [726.d.1.(1.)]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 5 & 11. Dryander, Catalogus Banks, 1796-1800: 4, p. 6. Dumoulin, Vie et Oeuvres de Fédéric Morel, 1901: no. 294. Hoffmann, Lexicon Litteratur Griechen, 1838-45: 3, 529. LKG: III 2. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142521]. Renouard, Imprimeurs Parisiens, 1898: no. 471. (Morel) ABF: I 763, 246-252. Biographie Universelle. Dezobry, Dictionnaire de Biographie, 1889. Dumoulin, Vie et Oeuvres de Fédéric Morel, 1901. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. Le Moyne, Nicolas Toussaint., Les siecles litteraires de la France. Paris, 1800-3. 4 vols. [Reprinted, Genève, Slatkine, 1971.]. Letillois, de Mézières., Biographie générale des Champenois célèbres, morts et vivants précédée des Illustres Champenois, poème lyrique, et enrichie de plusieurs tables chronologiques. Paris, Bur. des Journal des peintres, 1836. 227 p. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). WBI.

Latin editions

4. Latin, 1541 [First Latin edition].
ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΥ | ΤΟΥ ΠΛΑΤΩΝΟΣΜΕΝΠΡ- | ΤΙΝ, ΕΙ ΤΑ ΔΕ ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕ' ΑΟΥΣ ΝΑΘΗΤΟΥ | [...one line in Greek...] | Theophrasti | Primvm Qvidem Platonis, Mox Aristo | telis quoque discipuli, & in Philosophiæ professione successoris, | omnium uero Philosophorum, M. Tullij quoqz testimonio, ele- | gantissimi atqz eruditissimi, Opera, quæ quidem à tot sæculis | adhuc restant, omnia: summo studio | Partim hinc inde conquisita, atqz in unum ueluti corpus nunc pri- | mùm redacta: partim à multis quibus etiam hactenus acatebant men | dis, doctorum uirorum industria ac meliorum exem- | plarium ope repurgata. | Eorvm Tvm Praætantiam, Tvm Singvlo- | rum rationem ac ordinem, ex Præfatione, & subjecto eidem Ca- | talogo abunde cognosces. | Cum Cæsareæ Maiest. & Christiansis. Galliarum Regis | gratia ac priuilegio ad septennium. | Basileæ.

2°: [16], [1]-291 p. Page size: 310 x 205 mm.

Rare. First sixteenth century edition printed in Basil by J. Oporinus [see note below] of the Theophrastus' works, only preceded by the Aldine incunable of 1498. Several variant issues exist which have the Latin preface of the doctor and philologist Jerome Gemusaeus [1505-1543] substituted for the preface authored by the doctor and botanist Joachim II Camerius [1534-1598]. Among the various treatises included with in this work are Plantarum historia, De plantarum causis, Aristotelis de Plantis, De lapidibus (pp. 215-220), De piscibus, De igne, De signis, De odoribus, De ventis, De sudoribus. Also present is the Characteres Morales, which would inspire the French moralist Jean de La Bruyere [1645-1696] in the seventeenth century.

Jean Oporinus. (Born: 1507; Died: 1568) French Printer. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: Adams, Cambridge Books, 1967: 1, ??????. BL [985.h.4.]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 5 & 11. Dryander, Catalogus Banks, 1796-1800: 4, p. 6. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142311]. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: no. 9190. Wellcome Catalog (Books): no. 6268. (Oporinus) ABF: II 495, 94. WBI.

Theophrasti De Lapidibus Liber, 1578

5. Latin, 1578 [2nd Latin edition].
Theophrasti | De Lapidibus | Liber, | Ab Adriano Tvrnebo | Latinitate donatus. | [ornament] | Lvtetiæ, | Ex Officina Federici Morelli Typographi Regij, | in vico Iacobęo, ad insigne Fontis. | M. D. LXXVIII. | Cvm Privilegio Regis.

4°: [1]-15, [1] p. Printer's mark on title page (Renouard 796).

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank. [3]-15, Text (in Latin).; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. Adrien Turnèbe [1512-1565] was translator and editor of this first separate appearance in Latin of Theophrastus' De Lapidibus. Fédéric Morel was the printer on this edition.

Adrien Turnèbe. (Born: 1512; Died: 1565) French printer. Adrien Turnèbe, or Adrianus Turnebus, was one of the most eminent French humanists of the Renaissance. He was born at Les Andelys, a former province of northwestern France on the English Channel, now Normandy. At the age of twelve he was sent Paris to study, and attracted great notice by his remarkable abilities. After having held the post of professor of belles-lettres in the university of Toulouse, in 1547 he returned to Paris as professor, or royal reader, of Greek at the College Royal. In 1552 he was entrusted with the printing of the Greek books at the royal press, in which he was assisted by his friend Guillaume Morel. He died of tuberculosis on June 12, 1565.

Turnebe's works chiefly consist of philological dissertations, commentaries on Aeschylus, Sophocles, Theophrastus, Philo and portions of Cicero, and translations of Greek authors into Latin and French. His son Adrien published his Adversaria, with a preface addressed to Michel de l'Hospital, containing explanations and emendations of numerous passages in classical authors. This is the first edition of the ‘Adversaria' which is considered Turnebe's most important work. It was published a year before his death.

Bibliographical references: BL [726.d.1.(2.)]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 5 & 11. Dumoulin, Vie et Oeuvres de Fédéric Morel, 1901: no. 305. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142451]. Renouard, Imprimeurs Parisiens, 1898: no. 796. (Turnèbe) ABF: I 1003, 406-459; II 617, 9-11. Feller, Biographie Universelle, 1851. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Renouard, Imprimeurs Parisiens, 1898. WBI.

6. Latin & Greek, 1605 [3rd Latin edition].
Theophrasti | Eresii, | Peripateticorum post Aristotelem principis, | pleraque antehac Latinè numquam, nunc Græcè | & Latinè simul edita. | Interpretibus, | Daniele Fvrlano Cre- | tensi, Adriano Tvrnebo. | Accesserunt liber de innato spiritu, Aristoteli attributus & | Danielis Fvrlani Vberes | ad omnia Commentarii. | Ex bibliotheca Ioan. Vincentii Pinelli. | [ornament] | Hanoviæ. | Typis Wechelianis, apud Claudium Marnium, | & hæredes Ioannis Aubrii. | MDCV.

2° (in 6s): π2 A-Ii6 Kk8; 203l.; [4], [1]-397, [3] p. Printer's device on the title page and verso of leaf following page 397. Page size: 344 x 204 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs/=π1], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg/=π2r], Blank.; [1 pg/=π2v], "Liborvm Fragmento- | rvmqve Theophrasti Hoc Volv- | mine contentorum, syllabus." (=table of contents listing 19 entries).; 1-397 (=A1r-Kk7r), Text.; [2 pgs/=Kk7v-Kk8r], "Index Rervm..."; [1 pg/=Kk8v], Printer's device repeated from the title page.

Rare. Daniel Furlanus' edition published in Hanover containing the Greek text of some of Theophrasus' works, together with a Latin translation and commentary. De Lapidibus with a commentary by Daniele Furlano occurs on pages 1-54. Pages 1-14 are a parallel Greek and Latin columns, page 15 to the first half of 16 hold a dedication to Ioan. Vincentio Prinello and the remainder of the text is devoted to Daniele Furlano's commentary.

Bibliographical references: BL [C.77.f.13.]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 5 & 11. LKG: III 2. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142313]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 6588.

Theophrasti Eressii Græce & Latine, 1613

7. Latin & Greek, 1613 [4th Latin edition].
ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΥ | ΤΟΥ ΕRΕΣΙΟΥ | ΆΠΑΝΤΑ. | Theophrasti | Eresii | Græce & Latine opera omnia. | Daniel Heinsivs | Textum Græcum locis infinitis partim ex ingenio partim e libris | emendauit: hiulca suppleuit, male concepta recensuit: | interpretationem paßim interpolauit. | Cum Indice locupletissimo. | [ornament] | Lvgdvni Batavorum, | Ex Typographio Henrici ab Haestens, | [rule] | Impensis | Iohannis Orlers, And. Cloucq, & Ioh. Maire, | Anno CI[Backwards C] I[Backwards C] CXIII.

2°: [16], [1]-508 p. Title in red and black and with woodcut printer's device, text in double columns, Latin and Greek. Page size: 317 x 198 mm.

Rare. Daniel Henius' Leyden edition of Theophrastus' works in Greek with a Latin translation and commentary is considered by classical scholars to be an inferior effort. Some emendations to the text were published by Salmasius (Claude de Saumaise) in 1629 in his Plinianæ Exercitationes. The De Lapidibus is presented on pages 391-401. First edition of the critical edition of Heinsius, Scaliger's pupil. The majority of the volume (pp. 1-388) is taken up with Theophrastos's classic De causis plantarum and De historia plantarum. The Latin translation is by Theodorus Gaza. The two main works comprise 'the earliest work of scientific botany, consisting of two separate treatises: De historia plantarum, on description, classification, and analysis; and De causis plantarum, on etiology. Part of the work is devoted to plant lore and the medicinal uses of plants, making it the earliest complete extant herbal and pharmacopoeia as well. Theophrastus was a longtime associate of Aristotle and succeeded him as head of the Peripatetic School in Athens; his works on botany correspond to Aristotle's Historia animalium and De partibus animalium. Theophrastus described about 500 plants, ranging geographically from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean littoral and as far as India, using a method of classification that recognized the manifold nature of plants and the differences between plants and animals; the classification system, although necessarily primitive, maintained its authority until the advent of the microscope in the seventeenth century' (Norman catalogue). See A.G. Morton, History of Botanical Science, chapter 3, 'Theophrastus to Galen'. A further section, Opuscula, has its own title page and contains the Liber de lapidibus, Liber de ventis, De signis pluviarum, De igne liber, Liber de odoribus, Liber de sudoribus, Liber de piscibus, Characteres ethici, etc., translated by Daniel Furlanus, Adrien Turnebe and Isaac Casaubon. Krivatsy 11779; Simoni T52

Bibliographical references: BL [C.79.e.7.]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 5 & 11. Dryander, Catalogus Banks, 1796-1800: 4, p. 6. Graesse, Trésor de Livres Rares, 1859-69: 6, 2, 124. NLM 17th Century Books (Krivatsy): no. 11779. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142318]. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: no. 9196. Schweiger: 1, 319. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2164. Wellcome Catalog (Books): no. 6269.

Ioannis De Laet Antverpiani De gemmis et lapidibus libri duo quibus præmittitur Theophrasti liber De lapidibus Græce et Latine cum brevibus annotationibus. (Lugduni Batavorum, 1647).
See under: Laet, Jan (johan, Joannis) De.

8. Latin & Greek, 1818-21 [6th Latin edition].
Θεοφραστου Ερεσιου τα σωξομευα. Theophrasti Eresii quae supersunt opera et excerpta librorum quatuor tomis comprehensa; ad fidem librorum editorum et scriptorum emendavithistoriam et libros VI de causis plantarum conjuncta opera D.H.F. Linkii excerpta solus explicare conatus est Io. Gottlob Schneider. Lipsiæ, Sumtibus Vogelii, 1818-21.

5 vols. [Vol 1: 1818] 8°: xl, 896 p. [Vol 2: 1818] 8°: vi, 630, [2] p. [Vol 3: 1819] 8°: [2], 843 p. [Vol 4: 1820] 8°: [2], 873, [1] p. [Vol 5: 1821] 8°: lxvi, 549, [1] p

Very scarce. Edited by Heinrich Friedrich Link [1767-1851] and Johann Gottlob Schneider [1750-1822] this is an elaborate, nineteenth century edition of the complete works of Theophrastus. It is the most valuable of several collections published during the century because of its extensive critical notes and commentaries that discuss the readings of the earlier editions. It has not yet been surpassed.

Contents: I. Textvm Graecvm continens. II. Versionem latinam librorvm de historia et de cavsis plantarvm et plerorvmqve libellorvm phusicorm continens cvm cvris posterioribvs editoris Io. Gottlob Schneideri. III. Annotationes ad historiam plantarvm continens. IV. Annotationes ad libros de cavsis plantarum , opvscvla et fragmenta continens. V. Supplementvm et indicem rervm et verborvm continens.

Johann Gottlob Schneider. (Born: 1750; Died: 1822) German author. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: BL [7028.aaa.31.]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 6 & 11-2. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142319]. (Schneider) ADB. DBA: I 1125, 402-415; II 1170, 195-196. Hamberger & Meusel, Gelehrte Teutschland, 1796-1834. Poggendorff: 2, ??. WBI.

9. Latin & Greek, 1866-77.
ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΣ. | [ornate rule] | Theophrasti | Eresii | Opera, Quæ Supersunt, Omnia | Græca Recensuit, Latine Interpretatus Est, | Indices Rerum Et Verborum Absolutissimos Adjecit | Fridericus Wimmer | Doct. Philos. | [ornament] | Parisiis, Didot, | M DCCC LXVI.

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1866] 4°: [4], xxviii, 547 p. [Vol 2: 1877] 4°: ?? p. Greek and Latin in parallel columns.

Scarce. Collected works of Theophrastus, translated into Latin by Friederich Wimmer [1803-1868] and Friedrich Dübner [1803-1867]. Theophrastus the famous Peri Lithon is contained in volume one on pages 340-350 under the title "Libellus De Lapidibus." The text is printed in parallel columns with the Greek on the left and Wimmer's Latin translation on the right.

Facsimile reprint, 1964: Frankfurt am Main, Minerva GMBH, 1964.

Bibliographical references: Garrison & Morton: no. 1783. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142324].

English Editions

Theophrastus's History of Stones, 1746

10. English & Greek, 1746 [English transl., 1st edition].
ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΥ τγ ΕΡΕΣΙΟΥ | ΠΕΡΙ ΤΩΝ | ΛΙΘΩΝ | ΒΙΒΛΙΟΝ. Theophrastus's | History of Stones. | With an English Version, | and | Critical and Philosophical Notes, | Including the Modern History of the Gems, &c. | described by that Author, and of many other of | the Native Fossils. | [rule] | By John Hill | [rule] | To which are added, | Two Letters: | One to Dr. James Parsons, F.R.S. | On the Colours of the Sapphire and Turquoise. | And the other, | To Martin Folkes, Esq., Doctor of Laws, | and President of the Royal Society; | Upon the Effects of different Menstruums on Copper. | Both tending to illustrate the Doctrine of the Gems | being coloured by Metalline Particles. | [rule] | London, | Prined for C. Davis, against Grays-Inn in Holborn, | Printer to the Royal Society. | M DCC XLVI.

8°: A8 a4 B-O8 P2; 118l.; [i]-xxiii, [1], [1]-211, [1] p. Page size: 196 x 113 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-vii, Dedication to Charles, Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Aubigny.; [viii], Blank.; ix-xiii, "List of the Subscribers."-printer's device p. xiii.; xiv-xxiii, "The Preface."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1], "ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΥ τγ ΕΡΕΣΙΟΥ ΠΕΡΙ ΤΩΝ ΛΙΘΩΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΝ. Theophrasus's History of Stones."; 2-159, Text [Greek language on the left page with English on the right].; [160], Blank.; [161], "Two Letters: One to Dr. James Parsons, F.R.S. On the Colours of the Sapphire and Turqoise ... And the other, to Martin Folkes, Esq; ... On the Effects of different Menstruums on Copper."; [162], Blank.; 163-173, Text of letter one.; 174-190, Text of letter two.; 191-198, "Greek Index."; 199-211, "The General Index."; [1 pg], "Books printed for C. Davis."

Very scarce. First translation of Theophrastus Peri Lithon into a modern language is this English translation by John Hill of the ancient Greek text. It also is the first to include an extensive commentary on the mineral substances mentioned by Theophrastus. Cayley and Richards say "It is still of condsiderable value for the light it throws on the state of chemical, geological, and mineralogical knowledge in the period during which it was written." (Introduction, p. 6). Subsequent translations into French and German use Hill's text as their source material.

Bibliographical references: BL [444.c.51.(3.)]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 5 & 11. Dryander, Catalogus Banks, 1796-1800: 4, p. 6. Freilich Sale Catalog: nos. 248 & 525. Hoover Collection: no. 784. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142524]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 6591.

11. English & Greek, 1774 [English transl., 2nd edition].
ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΥ | ΤΟΥ ΕΡΕΣΙΟΥ | ΠΕΡΙ ΤΩΝ | ΛΙΘΩΝ | ΒΙΒΛΙΟΝ. | [rule] | Theophrastus's | History of Stones. | With an English Version, and Notes, | Including the Modern History of the Gems described by | that Author; and of many other of the Native Fossils. | To which are added, | Two Letters: | I. On the Colours of the Sapphire and Turquoise. | II. Upon the Effects of different Menstruums on Copper. | Both tending to illustrate the Doctrine of the Gems being | coloured by Metalline Particles. | [rule] | The Second Edition; | Enlarged by the Addition of a Greek Index of all the Words in Theophrastus. | Also | Observations on the New Swedish Acid, | and of the Stone from which it is obtained; | and with | An Idea of a Natural and Artificial Method of Fossils. | [rule] | By Sir John Hill. | [double rule] | London: | Printed for the Author, in St. James's-Street: | And sold by L. Davis, in Holborn; Nourse, in the Strand; White in | Fleet-Street; Cater, in Holborn; Bell, in the Strand; Fletcher, | at Oxford; Woodyer, at Cambridge; and Bell, at Edinburgh. | [rule] | M DCC LXXIV.

8°: A4 B-U8 X7 *X8 †X5 Y-Z8 2A8 2B2; 198l.; [i]-viii, [1]-342, [45], [1] p. Page size: 212 x 125 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-viii, "Preface."; [1], ΘΕΟΦΡΑΣΤΟΥ | ΤΟΥ ΕΡΕΣΙΟΥ | ΠΕΡΙ ΤΩΝ | ΛΙΘΩΝ | ΒΙΒΛΙΟΝ. | Theophrasus's | History | Of Stones."; 2-265, Text [Greek language on the left page with English on the right].; [266], Blank.; 267-278, "Appendix I. | [rule] | Observations | On | The new-discovered Swedish Acid; | And On | The Stone from which it is obtained."; [279]-291, "Appendix II. | [rule] | An Idea of an Artifical Arrangement | of Fossils, according to unalterable Characters, | and supadded Qualities: | Also | Of a Natural Method; according to their | Ascent toward their greatest Perfection."; 292-318, "Native Fossils. | [rule] | Class III. | Spar." [Reset text of the author's Spatogensia, London, 1772].; [319], "Two | Letters: | One, | On the Colours of the Sapphire | and Turquoise. | And The Other, | On the Effects of different Menstruums | on Copper."; [320], Blank.; [321]-327, Text of letter one.; 328-342, Text of letter two.; [30 pgs], "Greek Index | Of | Names of Stones."; [15 pgs], "The | General Index."; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. English translation by John Hill of the ancient Greek text. This is a largely unaltered reprinting of the original 1746 edition with regards to the text and translation, but containing additional commentary in the appendix and a fuller index.

Bibliographical references: BL [726.d.2.]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 5 & 11. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 1269. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142525]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 6592.

French Edition

12. French, 1754 [French transl.].
Traité | Des Pierres | de | Théophraste | traduit du Grec; | Avec des Notes Physiques | & Critiques, traduites de l'Anglois | de M. Hill; | [...5 lines of titles & memberships...] | [ornament] | A Paris, | Chez Jean-Thomas Herissant, Libraire, | rue S. Jacques, à S. Paul & à S. Hilaire. | [double rule] | M. DCC. LIV. | Avec Approbation & Privilége du Roi.

12°: [i]-xxiv, [1]-287, [1] p. Page size: 155 x 92 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-iv, "Avertissement."; v-xxi, "Préface."; xxii-xxiv, "Approbation."; [1]-221, "Traité de Théophraste sur les Pierres."; [222], Blank.; [223], "Deux Lettres de M. Hill; La Premiere, Sur les Couleurs du Saphir & de la Turquoise ... La Seconnde, Sur les effets que produisent différens Menstrues sur le Cuivre ..."; [224], Blank.; 225-241, Text of letter one.; 242-268, Text of letter two.; 269-287, "Table des Matieres."; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. French translation of John Hill's Theophrastus's History of Stones (London, 1746).

Bibliographical references: BL [972.g.9.]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 6 & 12. Dryander, Catalogus Banks, 1796-1800: 4, p. 6. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 526. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142532]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 6593.

German Editions

13. German, 1770 [German transl.].
Theoprastus | von den Steinen, | aus dem Griechischen. | [rule] | Nebst | Hills | physicalischen und kritischen | Anmerkungen, | und einigen | in die Naturgeschichte und Chymie | einschlagenden | Briefen, | aus dem Englischen übersetzt. | [rule] | Mit | Anmerkungen, | und | einer Abhandlung von der Kunst der Alten | in Steine zu schneiden, vermehret, | von | Albert Heinrich Baumgärtner. | [ornate rule] | Nürnberg, | bey Johann Adam Lochner. 1770.

8°: 16, 384 p. Page size: 185 mm.

Very scarce. German translation by Albert Heinrich Baumgärtner of John Hill's Theophrastus's History of Stones (London, 1746).

Albert Heinrich Baumgärtner. (Born: 1743; Died: 1809) German historian. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: Berlinische Sammlungen: 3, 657. BL [973.a.4.]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 6 & 12. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 527. Halle gelehrte Zeitung: 185. Jenaische gelehrte Zeitungen: 411. LKG: III 3a. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142538]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 6594. (Baumgärtner) DBA: I 64, 108-124. Meusel, Verstorbenen Teutschen Schrifsteller, 1802-16. WBI.

14. German, 1807 [German transl.].
Abhandlung von den Steinarten. Aus dem Greichisch übersetzt und mit Anmerkung begleitet von Carl Schmeider. Freyberg, Craz und Gerlachschen Buchhandlung, 1807.

8°: xii, 84 p.

Very rare. Translation by Karl Christoph Schmieder who felt that the previous German translation of Theophrastus' Peri Lithon published in 1770 was not very good so he created his own. Based upon the title this translation is a fresh rendering of Theophrastus' text into German from the original Greek text. This edition appears to be a very rare book.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Caley & Richards, Theophrastus, 1956: p. 6. Leonard's Taschenbuch: 2 (1808), 322-3. LKG: III 4b. NUC: 589, 383-94 [NT 0142326].

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