The Mineralogical Record
The Mineralogical Record - Join us on Facebook!  The Mineralogical Record - Sign up for our newsletter
>

Michael Bernhard Valentini
VALENTINI, Michael Bernhard.

VALENTINI, Michael Bernhard.
(1657 - 1729)

(Born: Giessen, Germany, 26 November 1657; Died: Giessen, Germany, 18 March 1729) German physician.

Valentini was educated in his home town, graduating from the University of Giessen in 1675. In 1680, through diligent work, he became a licenced physician. Afterward he traveled throughout Europe and England meeting many of the leading scientists of the time. He returned to Giessen in 1682 and opened a medical practice. In 1686, he accepted the added responsibility of an instructor in medicine at the University. Eventually this led to his appointment to a full professorship in 1697. Valentin was elected a member of the Leopoldin Academie, 1683, Berlinische Academie, 1704 and the Royal Society of London, 1717.

Biographical references: ADB: 39, 468. Augusta, J. and Z. Burian, The Age of Monsters. Prehistoric and Legendary. Translated by M. Schierl. London, Paul Hamlyn, 1966. [1]-79, [48], 23 plates. Biographie Universelle: 42, 452-3. DBA: I 1301, 1-25; II 1333, 332-333. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 2, 493-5. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8: 6, 57. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51: 4, col. 1404. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 439. Poggendorff: 2, col. 1166. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2314. WBI. Zedler, Universal Lexicon, 1732-50: 46, cols. 275-8.

Exercitatio De Generatione Mineralium, Vegetabilium, & Animalium In Aere, Occasione Annonae Et Telae Coelitus Delapsarum Anno MDCLXXXVI. (Norimbergae, 1689).
See under: Hartmann, Philipp Jacob.

1. Latin, 1702 [Dissertation].
Dissert. Physico-Medica De Filtro Lapide Quam ... Sub Praesidio Michaelis Bernhardi Valentini ... Publicae Ventilationi Sistit Johann-Georg Freüdenberg/ Argentinensis. In Auditorio Medico Horis Consuetis A. D. [ ] Septembr. MDCCII.. Gissæ-Hassorum, Henningi Mülleri, 1702.

4°: [2], 22 p.

Rare. Dissertation, Johann Georg Freudenberg respondent.

Bibliographical references: Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 2, 26. LKG: XVI 393.

Museum Museorum, 1704

2. German, 1704-14 [First edition].
[Engraved title page, with the text contained within an elaborate border design showing items typically contained in a natural history collection of the time:] Valentini | Natur= | ũnd | Materialien | Kammer | Aũch | Ost=Indianische | Send=Schreiben | ũnd | Rapporten.

[Printed title page:]

Museum Museorum | oder | Vollständige | aller | Materialien und Specereÿen | nebst deren | Natürlichen Beschreibung/ Election, Nutzen und Gebrauch/ | aus anderen | Material- Kunst- und Naturalien- | Kammern/ Oost- und West-Indischen Reisz- | Beschreibungen/ Curiosen Zeit- und Tag-Registern/ Natur- und | Artzney-Wündigern/ wie auch selbst-eigenen Erfahrung/ | Zum Vorschub | Der Studirenden Tugend/ Materialisten/ | Apothecker und deren Visitatoren/ Wie auch anderer | Künstler/ als Jubelirer/ Mahler/ Fäber/ u.s.w. | also verfasset/ und | Mit etlich hundert sauberen Kupfferstücken | Unter Augen gelegt | von | D. Michael Bernard Valentini | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Franckfurt am Mäyn/ | In Verlegung Johann David Zunneri | Im Jahr 1704.

5 parts. [Part 1] 2°: [24], 520 p., added engraved title, 6 plates (3 folding).; [Part 2] 2°: [20], 196 p., added engraved title, 36 plates (25 folding).; [Part 3] 2°: [8], 1-216, 209-228 (i.e., 236) p., 40 plates (5 folding). Pages 209-216 appear twice in the sequence.; [Part 4] 2°: [4], 76 p., 8 text illus., [4], 119 p., 9 plates (1 folding).; [Part 5] 2°: 108, [12] p.

Very scarce. "The first volume deals with plants, animals, minerals and metals, their properties and commercial and medical uses. The second volume covers stones, fossils, coins, tropical plants, shells, unicorns and monstrosities. It has an appendix, a catalog of all museums known to exist at the time, some 159. The illustrations include one of the first attempts at the reconstruction of a fossil skeleton, albeit of a unicorn. A separate appendix, Ost. Indianische Send-Schreiben, is a compilation from Rumph, Kaempfer, ten Rhyn and others on the rarities, mostly botanical, from the East Indies. The third volume is devoted to experiments in physics and natural philosophy, with apparatus illustrated. It concludes with a dissertation on the diving rod." [Ferguson (1906)].

Contains a critical account of the legends of unicorns.

Bibliographical references: Acta Eruditorium: 1704, 363 [Note on scope of the work]. BL. Eales: 1259. Freilich Sale Catalog: nos. 535-6. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 143. Nissen (BBI): no. 2035. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: no. 9663. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 98357.

Museum Museorum, 1714

3. German, 1714 [2nd edition].
[Engraved title page, with the text contained within an elaborate border design showing items typically contained in a natural history collection of the time:] Valentini | Natur= | ũnd | Materialien | Kammer | Aũch | Ost=Indianische | Send=Schreiben | ũnd | Rapporten.

[Printed title page:]

Museum Museorum, | Oder Vollständige | Schaü Bühne | Aller | Materialien und Specereyen/ | Nebst deren | Natürlichen Beschreibung/Election, Nutzen und Gebrauch/ | Aus anderen | Material=Kunst= und Naturalien=Kam= | mern/ Oost= und West=Indischen Reiß=Beschreibungen/ | Curiosen Zeit= und Tag=Registern / Natur= und Artzney= | Kündigern/ wie auch selbst=eigenen Erfahrung/ | Zum Vorschub | Der Studirenden Jugend / Materialisten / Apothecker/ | und deren Visitatoren/ wie auch anderer Künstler/ als Jubelirer/ | Mahler/ Färber/ u.s.w. also verfasset/ und | Mit etlich hundert/sauberen Kupfferstücken | Unter Augen gelegt/ | Von | D. Michael Bernard Valentini, | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Zweyte Edition. | [ornate rule] | Franckfurt am Mayn/ | Verlegt von Johann David Zunners Sel. Erben/ und | Johann Adam Jungen. | [rule] | Im Jahr Christi M DCC XIV.

5 parts. [Part 1] 2°: π4 )(4 )()(4 )()()(4 A-3T4; 272l.; [24], 1-520 p., added engraved title page; [Part 2] 2°: π2 A-I4 K2; 40l.; [4], 1-76 p. [Part 3] 2°: π2 (A)-(P)4 *4 **2 (*3 missigned uuu3); 68l.; [4], [1]-119, [13] p. [Part 4] 2°: π4 )()(6 A-Z4 2B2 a-o4 p2; 166l.; [20], 1-196, [1]-116 p., added engraved title page. The first sequence of pages numbered 100-101 are misnumbered 200-201. [Part 5] 2°: π4 A4 [B]-[Z]4 [Aa]-[Ff]4 [Gg]2 a6; 128l.; [8], 1-216, 209-228 (i.e., 236), [12] p. Pages 209-216 appear twice in the sequence. Page size: 380 x 230 mm.

Contents: [Part 1] [Engraved title page].; [2 pages], Printed title page, verso blank.; [5 pages], Dedication, signed Michael Bernhard Valentin.; [1 page], "Auffwunderende Glückwünsche," signed Ernest Frideman Schaelhss.; [1 page], "Inclytum Polyhistorem | ..."-dated Anno MDCCIII [=1703].; [3 pages], "An den Auctorem | Dreser vollständigen Schau=Bühne"-signed Johann Melchoir.; [4 pages], Poem, signed Johann Caspar, 3 May 1703.; [4 pages], "Einleitung oder Vorbericht / | ..."-dated 20 March 1704.; [4 pages], List of references.; 1-520, Text.

[Part 2] Pp. [1 page], Sectional title page, "Unvorgreissliches Bedencken | Von | Kunst= und Naturalien= | Kammern insgemein."; [1 page], "VB. | Specialer Vorbericht an den geneigten | Leser/ | ..."; [2 pages], Dem Wohl=Edlen / Fest= und Hochgelahrten | Herrn Johann Casper Pfenning | ..."-dated October 1674.; 1-76, "Vorstellung etlicher | Kunst= und Naturalien=Kammern/ | in America und Asia."

[Part 3] Pp. [1 page], Sectional title page, "Ost=Indianische | Send=Schreiben/ | von allerhand raren | Gewächsen/ Bäumen/ Tubelen/ | Auch andern | Zu der Natur= Kündigung und Artzney=Kunst gehörigen Raritäten/ | Durch | Die Gelehrteste und Berühmteste Europaer/ | So vormahlen in Ost=Indien gestanden/ | Als | D. Cleyeren/ Rumphen/ Herbert de Jager, ten Rhyne, &c. | Allda gewechselt/ | Und aus | ..."; [3 pages], Dedication, "Denen | Hoch=Edlen/ Fest= und Hochgelahrten | ..."-signed Michael Bernhard Valentini, 4 March 1704.; [1-2], "Einleitung."; 3-119, Text.; [1 page], Blank.; [12 pages], "Index."

[Part 4] Pp. [2 pages], Title page, verso blank.; [6 pages], Dedictation signed Michael Bernhard Valentini.; [4 pages], Poems.; [3 pages], "Vorbericht | An den Curiosen Leser."-dated 12 July 1712.; [5 pages], "Allegata | Oder | Verzeichniß | Derjenigen Bücher/ so in diesem II. und III. Tomo | angezogen werden."; 1-196, Text.; [1-2], Sectional title page, "Inhang | Von Versciedenen | Kunst= und Naturalien= | Kammern/ Welche Entweder rar zu bekommen/ oder | noch gar nicht im Druck sind.", verso blank.; 3-116, Text.

[Part 5] Pp. [2 pages], Title page, verso blank.; [4 pages], Dedication, signed Michael Bernhard Valentini.; [2 pages], "Vorrede | An den hoch= und vielgeehrten Leser."; [Plates I-XIX].; 1-102, Text.; 103-112, "Erster Anhang."; 113-216 & 209-228, "Zweyter Anhang."; [10 pages], "Index | Rerum Et Verborum."; [1 page], "Sphalmata."; [1 page], Blank.

Very scarce. Although called a second edition on the title page, this is in fact only a new issue of the first volume, together with first editions of the second and third volumes.

Valentini began his book, Museum Museorum, by reprinting in its entirety the text of an earlier museological tract of 1674 by Johann Daniel Major (1636-1693). Major discussed the ways in which general collections (naturalia and artificialia) could be arranged, and addressed the basic question of why people collect. He listed the important collections known to him, and gave practical advice on specimen conservation, and on the study of museum materials. He recommended in particular that collectors prepare a catalog or "rarities book" to accompany their collection, describing not only their own specimens but also all other things that would be necessary to fill it out to optimal completeness. Major's work was the first widely circulated essay defining the various types of collections, and by 1700 the "rarities book" had become customary among collectors.

Valentini concentrated primarily on addressing collections of natural history in the remainder of his large two-volume tract. He lists many collections in different cities, often giving detailed lists and descriptions of their contents. His own collection is among those featured. He also provides a general text on mineralogy, botany and zoology for collectors to refer to, illustrated bv engravings.

Valentini concentrated primarily on addressing collections of natural history in the remainder of his large two-volume tract. He lists many collections in different cities, often giving detailed lists and descriptions of their contents. His own collection is among those featured. He also provides a general text on mineralogy, botany and zoology for collectors to refer to, illustrated bv engravings. He gives a critical account of the legends of unicorns.

"The first volume deals with plants, animals, minerals and metals, their properties and commercial and medical uses. The second volume covers stones, fossils, coins, tropical plants, shells, unicorns and monstrosities. It has an appendix, a catalog of all museums known to exist at the time, some 159. The illustrations include one of the first attempts at the reconstruction of a fossil skeleton, albeit of a unicorn. A separate appendix, Ost. Indianische Send-Schreiben, is a compilation from Rumph, Kaempfer, ten Rhyn and others on the rarities, mostly botanical, from the East Indies. The third volume is devoted to experiments in physics and natural philosophy, with apparatus illustrated. It concludes with a dissertation on the diving rod." [Ferguson (1906)]. The Museum Museorum is divided in three `books', dealing with animals, plants, minerals and metals, and their commercial and medical uses. The `Naturalien=Kammer' give short account accounts of museums, collections, galleries, manageries, known to exist at the time. The Send=Schreiben is a compilation from Rumph, Kaempfer, ten Rhyn, a.o. on the (mostly botanical) rarities of the East Indies.

Includes descriptions of the collection of the Royal Society of London, Botanic Garden at Leyden, Collections owned by German Princes, etc., and incorporating a portion of Petiver's Gazophylacii.

A universal scientific work which includes botany, zoology, mineralogy, among other physical phenomena. The interspereced plates illustrate all manner of subjects in medicine, technology, plants, fish, reptiles, animals, petrifications, minerals, etc. Text explanations include descriptions of experiments with air, optics, the camera obscura, etc.

Bibliographical references: Acta Eruditorium: 1714, 376-80 [review]. BL. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 2, 493-5. Hoover Collection: no. 803. Katalog Bergakademie Freiberg, 1879: p. 677. Nissen (BBI): no. 2035. Nissen (ZBI): no. 4217. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 98357. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 43. Wood, Literature of Vertebrate Zoology, 1931: no. 609.

Latin editions

4. Latin, 1716 [Latin transl.].
Historia Simplicium Reformata, sub Musei Museorum titulo antehâc in Vernaculâ edita ... à D. Joh. Conrado Beckero ... Latio restituta. Accedit India Literata, E Lingua Belgica primum in Germanicam translata, nunc verò, ad desiderium Exterorum Latinitate donata, longe auctior reddita, novisque Figuris æneis illustrata à C. B. Valentini ... Offenbaci ad Moenum ... MDCCXXXII.

2°: [30], [1]-376, [12] p., [377]-664, [16] p., folding chart, 30 plates.

Very scarce. Abbreviated Latin translation of the Museum Museorum by Johann Conrad Becker, and edited by Christoph Bernhard Valentini (the author's son).

Bibliographical references: BL [444.k.11.]. Journal des Scavans: 1716, 350 [review].

5. Latin, 1723 [Latin transl.].
Michaelis Bernhardi | Valentini, | Archiatri Hassiaci & Prof. Medici Gisseni, | Historia | Simplicium | Reformata, | sub | Musei Museorum | titulo antehâc in Vernaculâ edita, jam autem in gratiam | Exterorum, sub directione, emendatione & locupletatione | Autoris, | à | D. Joh. Conrado Beckero, | Medio Alsfeldensi, | Latio restituta. | Accedit | India Literata, | E Lingua Belgica primum in Germanicam translata, | nunc verò, | ad desiderium Exterorum Latinitate donata, | longe auctior reddita, novisque Figuris æneis illustrata | à | Christophoro Bernhardo | Valentini, | M.B. Filio. | [rule] | Veneunt posthae Offenbaci ad Moenum, | Apud Johannem Ludovicum König, Bibliopol. | M D CC XXXII.

2°: [36], 664, [28] p., folding chart, 30 plates. The India Literata of the second part has its own title page dated 1716.

Very scarce. This translation was previously issued with the Aurifodina Medica (Giessen & Frankfort, 1723), but is here again a separate work.

Bibliographical references: BL [456.f.11.].

6. Latin, 1707.
A. Ω | Michaelis Bernhardi | Valentini | Prodomus | Historiæ | Naturalis | Hassiæ, | Quem | Anno Academiæ Gissenae Jubilæo | MDCCVII, | Sub Præsidio Autoris, | Publicæ Curiosorum Ventilationi | Sistebat | Joh. Nicolaus Müllerus, | Gissa-Hassvs, LL. Cult. | [ornate rule] | Giessae-Hassorum, Typis & impensis Henningi Mülleri.

4°: [8], 36 p.

Rare. A prodromous or introductory book describing the natural history of the region of Hessia in Germany. It was written to commemorate the jubilee year of the Science Academy at Giessen.

Bibliographical references: BL [117.n.10.]. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8: 5, 693-5. Katalog Bergakademie Freiberg, 1879: p. 677 [III. 2t.]. LKG: XIV 122. NLM 18th Century Books (Blake): p. ????. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: no. 9665.

7. Latin, 1708.
Historia Literaria S.R.I. Academiæ Naturæ Curiosorum, complectens recensionem et contenta librorum, a Dnn. Præsidibus, Adjunctis et Collegis, loco pensi Academici, ad normam et formam in Legibus præscriptam, editorum, seorsim olim et per partes continuata, nunc vero auctior et emendatior conjuntim emissa. Gissæ-Hassorum, 1708.

4°: A-T4 a-c4; ??l.; 152, 38 p.

Very scarce. Valentini wrote this work for the Academiæ Naturæ Curiosorum of which he was a member. It consists of a collection of papers in abstract arranged under the three headings: mineral, vegetable, and animal. Each section is preceded by an introduction authored by Valentini in which he provides a short review of the principal writers on the subject.

Bibliographical references: BL [272.e.36.]. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 2, 494-5 (note).

Contents copyright © 2017 The Mineralogical Record, Inc. All rights reserved.  
Graphic design of this website by Wendell E. Wilson. Website programming by ASPConnections.net