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Abraham Gottlob Werner
WERNER, Abraham Gottlob.

WERNER, Abraham Gottlob.
(1749 - 1817)

(Born: Wehrau, Silesia, 25 August 1749; Died: Freiberg, Germany, 30 May 1817) German mineralogist & geologist.

Werner was born into a family with a mining tradition; therefore, it was expected he should enter the profession. In 1774, as a student at the Freiberg Bergakademie, he wrote his first book, Von den äußerlichen Kennzeichen der Foßilien, and based upon its merit, in 1775, Werner was appointed professor of mineralogy at that institution. He remained there the rest of his professional life. He was by accounts an electrifying teacher, who devoted himself to developing the sciences of mineralogy and geology. His students, many of whom became famous instructors in there own right, spread his theories throughout Europe and North America. However, Werner's idea that basalt was aqueous in origin sparked the great controversy between his theory and that of Scottish geologist James Hutton [1726-1797]. Werner accumulated an extensive personal mineral collection of over 10,000 specimens, which he sold for 40,000 talers to the Freiberg Bergakademie. Today, it is together with Werner's library among the earliest of the great collections that still remains intact.

Biographical references: ADB: 42, 33-39. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 277. Becher, F.L., Die Mineralogen, Georg Agricola zu Chemnitz, im sechzehnten, und A.G. Werner zu Freiberg, im neunzehnten Jahrhunderte, Winke zu einer biographischen Zusammenstellung aus Sachsens Culturgeschichte. Freiberg, Craz und Gerlach, 1819. 67 p. DBA: I 1354, 2-15; 1354, 358; II 1391, 196-214. Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: nos. 5857-63. DSB: 14, 256-64 [by A. Ospovat]. Eyles, V.A., "A.G. Werner and his position in the history of the mineralogical and geological sciences", History of Science, 3, (1964), 102-15. Fischer, Mineralogie in Sachsen, 1939: 171 ff. Frisch, S.G., Lebensbeschreibung Abraham Gottlob Werners. Nebst 2 Abhandlungen über Werner's Verdienst um Oryktognosie und Geognosie von Christian S. Weiss. Leipzig, 1825. Guntau, M. & W. Mühlfriedel, "Die Bedeutung von Abraham Gottlob Werner für die Mineralogie und die Geologie", Geologie, 17, (1968), no. 9, 1096-1115, illus. Guntau, M., "Abraham Gottlob Werner", Biographien hervorragender Naturwissenschaftler, Techniker und Mediziner, 75, (1984), 1-112, 12 illus. (portraits). ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 619. La Rocque, History of Geology, 1964: 1, 123-6 [by R.E. Metter]. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 455-6. Leonhard, K.C.v., "Biographical account of M. Werner, late Professor of Mineralogy, Freiberg", Saturday Magazine, 4, (1820), 248-51. Leonhard, K.C.v., Zu Werner's Andenken, gesprochen in der Versammlung der königl. Akademie der Wissenschaften München, 25 Oktober 1817. Frankfurt-am-Main, 1817. 32 p. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 1300-1. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2402-6, Suppl. 1 (1985), 2, 883-4 & Suppl. 2 (1996), 2, 1190-1 [other refs]. Schiffner, Alter Freiberger Bergstudenten, 1935-40: 1, 6-12, portrait. WBI. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 99-100 & 198, portrait. World Who's Who in Science: 1781.

Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen, 1774

1. German, 1774 [First edition].
Von den | äußerlichen | Kennzeichen der Foßilien, | abgefaßt | von | Abraham Gottlob Werner, | [...3 lines of titles andm memberships...] | [ornate rule] | [ornate rule] | Leipzig, | bey Siegfried Lebrecht Crusius, | 1774.

8°: [A]-T8; 152l.; [1]-302, [2] p., 8 folding tables. Page size: 180 x 118 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso "In verbis non simus faciles, vt conveniamus | in re."; [3-4], Dedication to the "Hochansehnlichen und Preißwürdigen Leipziger Oeconomischen Gesellschaft," dated 1 December 1773.; [5]-12, "Vorbericht."; 13-302, Text.; [2 pgs], "Inhalt."

Rare. One of the most influential writings in the development of the mineralogical sciences. It is the first successful attempt at describing systematically determinative mineralogy. Werner who wrote this book, his first, as a student, at the youthful age of 24 had been around minerals and mining his entire life. He had practical experience in what was needed by the miners to identify minerals, and the reasons for identification. Werner had originally intended to publish an annotated translation of the dissertation written by Johann Carl Gehler titled: De Characterivs Fossilivm Externis (Lipsić, 1757). After showing the completed translation to his scientific circle, he was advised to that it was better to write a book that was wholly his own. The result was Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien, which took the young Werner only a few months to complete. Based upon this books merits, Werner was appointed to the staff of the Freiberg Bergakademie, where he stayed the remainder of his professional life.

The book is written not as a mineralogical classification system as was then typical, but rather as a compendium of external characteristics of a large number of minerals. Werner intended it to be used as a practical guide for mineral identification, and proposed that this study be given the name "oryctognosy."-a term previously applied in a wider sense, such as Bertrand's Dictionnaire Oryctologique Universalle (Paris, 1763). For his book Werner precisely defined an unprecedented number of external characteristics that could be used to accurately identify specimens through hand examination. Included in the distinguishing features identified for use are color, luster, form, streak, hardness, and specific weight. Werner claimed that determining all of these qualities for a given mineral specimen was enough to identify its species. In fact, these same characters are readily found in modern handbooks of determinative mineralogy because in most cases they are enough to distinguish the common species. The landmark character of Werner's work rests on the fact that no one before had so precisely defined the properties used to test minerals, and the effect on mineralogical science can be described as revolutionary, with many of his former students writing their own texts to spread Werner's theories in a multitude of other languages.

Facsimile reprint, 1965: Abraham Gottlob Werner | Von Den | Äusserlichen Kennzeichen | Der Fossilien | Neudruck Der Ausgabe Leipzig 1774 | Mit Vorwort In Englischer Sprache Von | Albert V. Carozzi | Professor at the University of Illinois, Urbana, USA. | A. Asher & Co. | [rule] | Amsterdam 1965. 8°: [i]-xvi, [1]-302, [2] p., 8 folding tables.

[i-ii], Title page, verso "Gesamtherstellung; fotofop, | ..."; [iii]-xvi, "Preface | by | Albert V. Carozzi | ..."; [1], Facsimile of the title page of the Leipzig, 1774 edition.; [2], "In verbis non simus faciles, vt conveniamus | in re."; [3-4], Dedication, dated 1 December 1773.; [5]-12, "Vorbericht."; 13-302, Text.; [2 pgs], "Inhalt."

Photographic reprint of Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien (Leipzig, 1774). An additional commentary in English by Albert V. Carozzi [see note under the 1962 English translation] has been added that describes this books position in the history of mineralogy.

Modern English translation, 1962: On the External | Characters of Minerals | By A.G. Werner Translated By Albert V. Carozzi | [ornament] | University of Illinois Press Urbana 1962. 8°: [i]-xxxi, [1], 1-118 p., illus., tables, diagrms., one plate.

[i-ii], Half title page, "On The External Character Of Minerals," verso blank.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso © 1962 by the Board of Trustees of the University of | Illinois. ..."; v-vi, "Preface."-signed Albert V. Carozzi, Fall 1961.; [vii-viii], "Contents."; ix-xv, "Introduction."; [xvi], Blank.; [xvii], "On the | External | Characters of | Minerals."; [xviii], Portrait of Werner.; [xvix], Reproduction of the title page of the 1774 Leipzig edition.; [xx], Blank.; xxi-xxii, "Foreword."; xxiii-xxix, "Introduction | [ornament] | Of Mineralogy In General."; [xxx-xxxi], Facsimile of pages from Werner's copy of the 1774 Leipzig edition.; [1 pg], Blank.; 1-115, Text.; 116-118, "Glossary Of Ancient Names Of Minerals."

Modern translation by Albert V. Carozzi [see note below] of Werner's own annotated copy of Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien (Leipzig, 1774). This edition is rich with commentary and notes, particularly in reference to other editions of Werner's book. It is not a direct translation of Werner's published work, but rather a translation of what the second edition might have been.

Albert Victor Carozzi. (Born: Geneva, Switzerland, 26 April 1925; Died:      ) Swiss/American geologist & science historian. Carozzi was educated at the University of Geneva (M.S., geology and mineralogy, 1947; Dr. Sc., geology and mineralogy, 1948). Afterward, he was for a time a lecturer at the University of Geneva. Then in 1957, he accepted a position as associate professor of geology at the University of Illinois. He became full professor in 1959, and professor emeritus in 1989, after over 30 years of service at the University. His concentration on the exploration and evaluation of mineral deposits and petroleum resulted in his working as a consulting geologist to major American, European and South American companies. Through his numerous writings and translations (some completed with his wife, Marguerite Carozzi), he is recognized as a distinguished historian of geology.

Bibliographical references: Adams, Birth and Development, 1938: 201-5. BL. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 83. Dibner, Heralds of Science, 1955: 91. DSB: 14, 256-64 [by A. Ospovat]. Fischer, Sachsisches Oberbergamt Freiberg, 1943. Freilich Sale Catalog: nos. 549-50. LKG: IX 12. Norman Catalog: 2, 2205. Norman Sale Catalog: 3:850. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196348]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2299. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 99-100. (Carozzi) Personal communication.

2. German, 1785 [2nd edition].
Von den | äußerlichen | Kennzeichen | der | Foßilien, | abgefaßt | von | Abraham Gottlob Werner | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [double rule] | [double rule] | Wien, | gedruckt bey Johann Thomas Edlen von Trattnern, | k.k. Hofbuchdruckern und Buchhändlern. | [rule] | 1785.

8°: A-O8 P7; 119l.; [1]-237, [1] p., 7 folding tables. The tables are interspreced in the text at pages 101, 162, 163, 178, 201, 207 & 223. The text of the original edition has been reset with few changes in this "second" edition. Page size: 180 x 118 mm. Rare.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso "In verbis non simus faciles, ut conveniamus | in re."; [3]-10, "Vorbericht."; [11]-237, Text.; [1 pg], "Inhalt."

Bibliographical references: BL. LKG: IX 12. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196349]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2300.

Hungarian edition

A' Bányáfz Tudomány, 1784

3. Hungarian, 1784 [Hungarian transl.].
A' Bányáfz Tudomány, es a' Lipsiai Gaz- | daságról értekezö, Tudós Tárfaság' Ne- | mes Tagjának | VVerner Ábrahám Urnak | A' | Köveknek és Értzeknek | Külsö | Megesmértetö Jegyeik- | Röl | Irott, szép, és igen hafznos, Könyvetskéje, | mellyet, Hazájának, és a' Tanuló Ifjuságnak, | lehetö Hafznára Magyarra forditott és a' két | Magyar Hazabéli, 's más Idegen Kö 's | Ertz Nemekkel-is, a' Példákban meg- | bövitett, | Benkő Ferentz. | R. P. | Göttingába, 1782. Esztendöbe. | [Ornament: profile shading of Werner.] | Kojo 'svaratt, | [double rule] | Nyomt. A' Reform. Koll. Betüivel, 1784. Etzt.

8°: 213 p., title shading of Werner's profile.

Very rare. Translation by Ferencz Benkő from Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien (1st ed., Leipzig, 1774).

Bibliographical references: BL. NUC [no copy listed]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2301.

French editions

4. French, 1790 [French transl.].
Traité | Des Caracteres | Extérieurs | Des Fossiles, | Traduit de l'allemand de M.A.G. Werner, | [...5 lines of titles and memberships...] | Par le Traducteur des Mčmories de Chymie | de Scheele | [ornament] | A Dijon, | De l'Imprimerie de L.N. Frantin, Imprimeur du Roi, | Se vend chez Mailly, Libraire, place St. Fiacre. | Et se trouve ŕ Paris | Chez Onfroy, Libraire, rue St. Victor, n°. 11. | [ornate rule] | M. DCC. XC. | Avec Approbation Et Privilege Du Roi.

12°: A12 B4 2A-O12 P7; 191l.; [i]-xxx, [2], [1]-350 p., 8 folding tables. The tables are interspreced in the text at pages 81, 135, 145, 230, 259, 285, 295 & 313. Page size: 170 x 94 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], Dedication, dated December 1773.; [iv], Blank.; v-xxx, "Avertissement | Du Traduceteur."; [2], "Privilege Du Roi."; [1]-20, "Introduction."; 21-334, Text.; 335-337, "Table | Des Chapitres, &c."; [338], "Errata."; 338-350, "Table Alphabétique | Des Minéraux indiqués pour servir | d'exemples des divers caractres ex- | térieurs."

Scarce. Translation by Madame Guyton-Morveau with additional notes by her husband, Louis Bernard Guyton-Morveau [see notes below], of Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien (Leipzig, 1774). Recognizing Werner's work to be a reformation of mineralogy, Guyton-Morveau encouraged his wife (refered to as Mme. P.*** in the approbation, p. xxx, in reference to her maiden name of Picardet) to translate the textbook into French. However, it was not until 1790 that it appeared. Even so, the translation was readily accepted by the scientific community.

Mme Guyton-Morveau writes in the preface that in 1786 the Spanish scientist, Don Fausto d'Elhuyar, stopped by her home in Dijon and told her that Werner was occupied in translating Cronstedt's mineralogical textbook and would not write a second edition of his famous book. In addition, she records that d'Elhuyar sent her copies of his class notes obtained while attending Werner's lectures as a student in Freiberg. These arrived in the form of a copy of the textbook in which were interbound a great number of manuscript pages containing numerous modifications and corrections. As a result of these additions, the 1790 translation is the original text significantly modified in many respects. Mme Guyton-Morveau herself writes that she almost considers this a new edition when compared to the original. It is the best contemporary translation of Werner's textbook.

Madame Guyton-Morveau (formerly Picardet). (Born:1735; Died: Dijon, Côte d'Or, France (?), 1820) French translator. Sister of C.-N. Picardet [?-c1794], canon of Saint-Jean-Baptiste in Dijon. Wife of L.B. Guyton-Morveau, she prepared translations of several textbooks related to chemistry.

Biographical References: BRET, Patrice (2014) Mme Picardet, traductrice scientifique ou cosmétique des Lumičres? Pour la science, décembre 2014, p. 70-75. • BRET, Patrice (2008) Les promenades littéraires de Madame Picardet. La traduction comme pratique sociale de la science au XVIIIe sičcle », in Pascal Duris (dir.), Traduire la science, hier et aujourd'hui, Bordeaux, Publications de la Maison des sciences de l'homme d'Aquitaine, 2008, pp. 125-152. • BRET, Patrice (2015) Picardet (Claudine Poulet, épouse -, puis Mme Guyton-Morveau), in Huguette Krief, Valérie André (eds.), Dictionnaire des femmes des Lumičres, Paris, Honoré Champion, 2015, p. 914-918. • BRET, Patrice (2008) Mme Picardet, Claudine (1735-1820). New Dictionary of Scientific Biography, ed. Noretta Koertge, Farmington Hills, MI, Charles Scribner‘s Sons/Thomson Gale, 2008, t. 6, p. 97-98. • BRET, Patrice (2014) Stratégies et influence d'une traductrice : Mme Picardet et le Traité des caractčres extérieurs des fossiles d'Abraham Gottlob Werner », dans Adeline GARGAM et Patrice Bret (eds.), Femmes de sciences de l'Antiquité au XIXe sičcle : réalités et représentations, Dijon, Editions universitaires de Dijon, 2014, p. 177-208.

Louis Bernard Guyton-Morveau. (Born: Dijon, Côte d'Or, France, 4 January 1737; Died: Paris, France, 2 January 1816) French chemist & aristrocat. Guyton-Morveau was a lawyer by profession and served from 1755 to 1782 as a member of the Dijon Parliament. Science had always been his hobby, and after his retirement, he turned his attention to chemistry. He worked with Lavoisier to reform the nomenclature of chemistry. When the French Revolution occurred, Guyton-Morveau returned to politics on the side of the revolutionists and survived the period, although he did nothing to help Lavoisier. He served as master of the mint under Napolean, and was made a baron in 1811.

Bibliographical references: BL. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196340]. Smeaton, W.A., " L.B. Guyton de Morveau: a Bibliographical Study", Ambix, 6, (1957), 18-34 [see pages 30-1]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2302. (Guyton-Morveau (formerly Picardet)) Bouchard, G., Guyton-Morveau, chimiste et conventionnel, 1737-1816, Paris, 1938, 365 p. DBF: I 497, 224-225. WBI. (Guyton-Morveau) ABF: I 497, 226-262; II 328, 177-178. Beauchamp, Biographie Moderne, 1816. Berthollet, C.L., Éloge Historique de Guyton-Morveau, Paris, 1816. Bouchard, G., Guyton-Morveau, chimiste et conventionnel, 1737-1816, Paris, 1938, 365 p. DBF: 17, cols. 439-42 [by C. Meyer]. DSB: 5, 600-4 [by W.A. Smeaton]. Feller, Biographie Universelle, 1851. Granville, A.-B., "An account of the life and writings of G. de Morveau," Journal of Science and the Arts, ?? (1817), ??. Grison, E., M. Goupil, and P. Bret, eds., A scientific correspondence during the chemical revolution : Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau and Richard Kirwan, 1782-1802. Edited by Emmanuel Grison, Michelle Goupil, and Patrice Bret. Berkeley, Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California at Berkeley, 1994. vi, 257 p., illus. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer): 22, cols. 968-72 [by L. Louvet]. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 981-2. Schaedler, Biographisch Handwörterbuch, 1891: 46-7. Smeaton, W.A., "The contributions of P.-J. Macquer, T.O. Bergman and Guyton de Moreavu to reform chemical nomenclature," Annals of Science, 10 (1954), 87-106. Smeaton, W.A., "Guyton de Morveau and chemical affinity," Ambix: 11 (1963), 55-64. Smeaton, Portable Chemical Laboratories, 1966. Smeaton, W.A., "L.B. Guyton de Morveau. Early platinum apparatus," Platinum Metals Review, 10 (1966), 24-28. Smeaton, W.A., "Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau, F.R.S. (1737-1816) and his relations with British scientists," Notes & Records, Royal Society of London, 1967, 113-130. WBI.

5. French, 1795 [French transl.].
Traité | Des Caracteres | Extérieurs | Des Fossiles. | [ornate rule] | Traduit de l'Allemand | de Mr. A.G. Werner, | [...7 lines of titles and memberships...] | par | le Traducteur des Mémoires de Chymie | de Scheele. | [tapered rule] | [ornate rule] | A Dresde, 1795. | chez les Freres Walther, | Libraires de la Cour.

8°: A-S8 T1; 155l.; [1]-296, [14] p., 7 folding tables. The tables are interspreced in the text at pages 125, 133, 197, 198, 238, 258 & 279. Page size: 176 x 102 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-15, "Avertissement | Du Traducteur."; 16-19, "Préface De L'Auteur."; 20-35, "...Introduction."; 36-296, Text.; [3 pgs], "Table | Des Chapitres & c."; [11 pgs], "Table alphabétique | des | Minéraux indiqués pour servir d'exemples | des divers caracteres extérieurs."

Rare. Text of the 1790 French edition, reset, and published in Dresden. Perhaps a pirated edition?

Bibliographical references: BL. LKG: IX 13a. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196341].

English editions

Treatise on the External Characters, 1805

6. English, 1805 [English transl.].
A | Treatise | on the | External Characters | of | Fossils. | [ornate rule] | Translated From The German | of | Abraham Gottlob Werner. | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [ornate rule] | By | Thomas Weaver. | [ornate rule] | Dublin: | Printed For M.N. Mahon, 109, Grafton-Street, And Sold In | London By Messrs. Longman, Rees, Hurst And Orme, | Pater Noster Row. | [ornate rule] | 1805.

8°: [a]-b8 B-U8; 168l.; [i]-xx, [1]-312, [2] p., 2 folding plates showning crystal drawings. Page size: 218 x 130 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Half title page, "A | Treatise | on the | External Characters | of | Fossils | [double rule] | Printed by Graisberry and Campbell, 10, Back-Lane, Dublin | [double rule]," verso blank.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; [v], Dedication to Richard Kirwan, signed "The Translator," 24th September 1804.; [vi], Blank.; [vii]-x, "Advertisement | of the | Translator."; [xi]-xvi, "Preface | of the Author."; [xvii]-xx, "Contents."; [1]-244, Text.; [245], "System | of the | External Characters | of | Fossils."; [246], Blank.; [247]-287, "Tabular Arrangement | of the | Generic External Characters of Fossils."; [288], Blank.; [289], "Index | of the | Fossils Employed in Illustration."; [290], Blank.; [291]-305, Text.; [306], Blank.; [307]-312, "Explanation | of the | Figures in Plates I & II."; [1 pg], "Errata."; [1 pg], Blank.; [At end], 2 folding plates.

Scarce. Translation by Thomas Weaver [see note below] of Von den äusserlichen Kennzeichen der Fossilien (Leipzig, 1774). In the introduction, Weaver writes that since Werner is not presently writing a new edition, he feels compelled to translate the original edition with additional material. Sources for the additions are stated to be principally copies of Werner's manuscript corrections and addtions circulated among his students, notes taken during his lectures given during 1791-2, and the mineralogies of his disciples Wiedenmann and Emmerling, and the Manual of Natural History by Blumenbach.

Thomas Weaver. (Born: 1773; Died: Pimlico, England, 2 July 1855) English geologist. From 1790 to 1794, Weaver attended the Freiberg Bergakademie, where he studied under Werner. After graduation, he was appointed a government geologist in Wicklow. Later he worked as a consultant in Mexico and the United States. Weaver was elected to the Royal Society in 1826.

Bibliographical references: BL. Hoover Collection: no. 880. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196343]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2303. (Weaver) Allibone, Dictionary of English Literature, 1859-71. BBA: I 1143, 124-127. Boase, Modern English Biography, 1892-1921. Biographie Universelle: 44, 401. DNB: 20, 1005 [by G.B. Shaw]. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 1269-70. Quarterly Journal of Geological Society of London: 12 (1855), xxxviii-ix [by W.J. Hamilton]. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2389. Schiffner, Alter Freiberger Bergstudenten, 1935-40: 1, 18. WBI.

7. English, 1849-50 [English transl.].
A treatise on the external characters of minerals by Abraham Gottlob Werner ... An improved translation from the German with explanatory notes edited by the Wernerian Club. London: G. Barclay, 1849-50.

8°: xi, [13]-143 p.

Very scarce. Translation by Charles Moxon. It is very close to Weaver's translation of 1805, but with some material that had become obsolete between 1805 and 1850 deleted. Only a few notes have been added by Moxon.

Bibliographical references: BL. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196344].

Axel von Kronstedts Versuch einer Mineralogie. Aufs neue aus dem Schwedischen übersetzt und nächst verschiedenen Anmerkungen vorzüglich mit äussern Beschreibungen der Fossilien vermehrt von Abraham Gottlob Werner … Ersten Bandes erster Theil. (Leipzig, 1780).
See under: Cronstedt, Axel Fredrik.

Verzeichnis des Mineralien-Kabinets, 1791

8. German, 1791-2 [Collection catalog].
Ausführliches und sistematisches | Verzeichnis | des | Mineralien=Kabinets | des | weiland kurfürstlich sächsischen Berghauptmanns | Herrn | Karl Eugen Papst von Ohain, | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | herausgegeben | von A.G. Werner, | [rule] | Erster Band. [-Zweiter Band.] | [rule] | Freiberg und Annaberg, | in der Crazischen Buchhandlung, 1791 [-1792].

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1791] 8°: a-b8 A-Z8; 200l.; [i]-xxxii, [1]-368 p.; [Vol 2: 1792] 8°: a-b8 c4 A-R8 S7; 154l.; [i]-xxxx, [1]-268 p. Page size: 194 x 118 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-xxii, "Vorbericht."-signed A.G. Werner, 28 September 1790.; xxiii-xxxii, "Anzeige."; [1], Sectional title page, "Erste Abtheilung | des | Mineralienkabinets. | [double rule] | Methodische | Mineralien=Sammlung. | [double rule]."; [2], Blank.; [3]-368, Text.

[Vol 2] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-iv, "Vorbericht."-signed A.G. Werner, 1 October 1792.; v-xxxx, "Anzeige des Inhalts."; [1], Sectional title page, "Zweyte Abtheilung | des | Mineralienkabinetes. | [double rule] | Geographische | Mineralien=Samlung. | [tapered rule]."; [2], Blank.; [3]-286, Text.

Very rare. A catalog describing the fine mineral collection of the Saxon mining official Karl Eugen Papst von Ohain [see note below]. The first volume begins with a lengthy introduction in which Werner explains in detail his mineral classification system. This is followed by descriptions of the minerals, arranged in five separate sections according to external characters, the use of the minerals, a natural method of classification, the localities of the specimens and the historical development of the earth's crust.

Karl Eugen Pabst von Ohain. (Born: Freiberg, Germany, 8 April 1718; Died: Freiberg, Germany, 25 July 1784) German mining expert. Pabst von Ohain was director of the Freiberg Bergakademie from its founding in 1769 until his death. In his lifetime he was considered among the most knowledgeable mineralogists in Saxony, having built a collection of over 7,500 specimens. After his death, it was reorganized by Werner, and sold to the government of Portugal, which shipped it to the University of Rio de Janeiro to be used in teaching mineralogy and geology. Pabst von Ohain was a member of the Leipzig and St. Petersburg Academies.

Bibliographical references: BL. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 83. Freiesleben, Sächsische Mineralien-Verzeichnisse, 1828: no. 50. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 270. LKG: XV 41. NUC: 436, 543 [NP 0003070]. Partsch, Katalog der Bibliothek, 1851: no. 487. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2308. (Pabst von Ohain) Fischer, Sachsisches Oberbergamt Freiberg, 1943 [see page 153]. Schiffner, C., Alte Hutten und Hammer in Sachsen. Bearbeitet von Werner Grabner. Berlin. Akademie-Verlag, [1959]. [1]-313 p., illus., maps, portrait. [Published as: Freiberger Forschungshefte. D, Kultur und Technik, no. 14. On the history of foundries in Saxony.]: 3, ??. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 95-6 & 186.

9. German, 1792.
Oryktognosie | oder | Handbuch | für | die Liebhaber der Mineralogie | vermittelst welchem die Mineralien aus ihrer äußer= | lichen Beschaffenheit leicht zu erkennen, von einander | zu unterscheiden, und andern kenntlich zu ma= | chen sind. | [tapered rule] | [rule] | Leipzig, 1792. | bey Siegfried Lebrecht Crusius.

8°: [8], 3-274, [8] p.

Rare. Published with only the initials A.G.W. as the only clue to the author, the British Museum Library attributes this work to Werner.

Bibliographical references: BL [973.b.24.]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 553. LKG: XII 209. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196335]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2309.

10. German, 1811.
Kleine Sammlung mineralogischer Berg- und Huttenmannischer Schriften, Erstes Stuck. Leipzig: Friedrich Christian Vogel, 1811.

8°: 202 p.

Rare. No more published. This is the sole published volume of a collection of articles on mineralogy and mining, of which Werner authored three and co-authored another.

Bibliographical references: BL. LKG: VI 106a*. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196318].

Werner's letztes Mineral-System, 1817

11. German, 1817.
Abraham Gottlob Werner's | letztes | Mineral=System. | [ornate rule] | Aus | Dessen Nachlasse | auf | oberbergamtliche Anordnung | herausgegeben | und | mit Erläuterungen versehen. | [ornate rule] | [ornate rule] | Freyberg und Wien, | bey Craz und Gerlach und bey Carl Gerold. | 1817.

8°: *7 A-C8 D4 E1; 36l.; [i]-xiv, [1]-58 p. Page size: 205 x 118 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-xiv, "Vorbericht."-signed Johann Carl Freiesleben, 30 October 1817.; [1]-58, Text.

Very scarce. Published in the same year as Werner's death, this work, edited with commentary by his student Johan Carl Freisleben, is based on the last lectures Werner gave as an instructor at the Bergacademie in Freiberg. The long introduction gives curious details about Werner's life and the disposition of his estate.

Bibliographical references: BL. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 83. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 554. Hoover Collection: no. 877. Norman Catalog: 2, 2207. NUC: 656, 333-4 [NW 0196322]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2314.

12. French, c1785.
Table Synoptique des Caractčres exterieurs des Minéraux, pour servir ŕ déterminer la Série des Observations et les Expressions appropriées ŕ la Méthode descriptive de Werner. [Paris, c1785].

Large broadside. Page size: 400 x 500 mm. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Weil Catalogs: 31, no. 170.

Neuestes Mineral-Sistem, 1816

13. Geman, 1816.
A.G. Werner's neuestes Mineral-Sistem. | [Text of table] | München 1816 bey Joseph Lindauer.

Broadside. Page size: 530 x 730 mm.

Extremely rare. A broadside providing in tabluar form an overview of Werner's latest mineralogical classification scheme to 1816. At the head of the table is an interesting orthographical mistake of "Mineral-Sistem" (it shoud read "Mineral-System") that may indicate other errors. Only a few copies of this single leaf item have been traced in European libraries.

Bibliographical references: Partsch, Katalog der Bibliothek, 1851: no. 273.

14. German, 1791.
Neue Theorie von der Entstehung der Gänge, mit Anwendung auf den Bergbau besonders den freibergischen. Frieberg: Gerlach, 1791.

8°: xxxx, 256 p.

Very scarce. LKG: XIII 176a. A foundation book to modern studies of economic geology, this work describes the basic techniques used in ore deposit studies. One of the major books of Werner, this publication contains his theory of the origin of ore deposits, in which he hypothesises the origin and emplacement of veins, established criteria for detecting the relative ages of veins and vein materials, and gave a detailed study of vein structure and the rocks in which they occur.

Bibliographical references: Adams, Birth and Development, 1938: throughout book. DSB: 14, 256-264. Fischer, Sachsisches Oberbergamt Freiberg, 1943: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 552. Geikie, Founders of Geology, 1905: throughout book. Gesellschaft: 95, heft 3/4, pp. 143-183. Hoover Collection: no. 878. La Rocque, History of Geology, 1964: 1, 123-26. LKG: XIII 176a. Norman Catalog: 2, 2206. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2305.

15. French, 1802.
Nouvelle Theorie de la formation des Filons. Application de cette theorie a l'exploitation des mines, particulierement de celles de Freiberg. Par A.G. Werner... Nouvelle edition, traduite de l'Allemand, revue et augmentee d'un grand nombre de notes, dont plusieurs ont ete fournies par l'auteur meme, par J.F. Daubuisson. Paris: Chez Viller, an XI.

8°: xvi, 209 p. Very scarce.

16. French, 1802.
Nouvelle Theorie de la formation des Filons. Application de cette theorie a l'exploitation des mines, particulierement de celles de Freiberg. Ouvrage ... augmentee d'un grand nombre de notes, dont plusieurs ont ete fournies par l'auteur meme. Freiburg: Craz, 1802.

8°: xxxii, 311 p., portrait.

Very scarce. LKG: XII 176a. Translated by J.F. d'Aubuisson de Voisins.

17. French, 1805.
Nouvelle Theorie de la formation des Filons. Application de cette theorie a l'exploitation des mines, particulierement de celles de Freiberg. Par A.G. Werner... Nouvelle edition, traduite de l'Allemand, revue et augmentee d'un grand nombre de notes, dont plusieurs ont ete fournies par l'auteur meme, par J.F. Daubuisson. Paris: Chez Viller, 1805.

8°: xvi, 209 p. Very scarce.

18. English, 1809.
New Theory of the formation of veins; with application to the art of working mines, translated from the German with an appendix by C. Anderson. Edinburgh, 1809.

8°: xxxvi, 259, [1] p., portrait. Very scarce.

19. Geman, 1818-1826.
Auswahl aus den Schriften der unter Werner's Mitwirkung gestifteten Gesellschaft für Mineralogie zu Dresden. Leipzig : J.F. Gleditsch, 1818-26.

3 vols. ill., maps (some col.), port.

Very scarce. Collected papers of Werner? by the Gesellschaft für Mineralogie.

20. German, 1787.
Kurze Klassifikation und Beschreibung der verschiedenen Gebirgsarten, von A.G. Werner ... Dresden: In der Waltherischer Hofbuchhandlung, 1787.

8°: 28 p.

Very rare. This short monograph sparked one of geology's greatest controversies. In it, Werner states for the first time his belief that all basalt is of aqueous origin, thus precipitating the great basalt dispute between the Neptunists and the Plutonists. Originally issued in Abhandlungen der Boehmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1786), this is the first separate issue.

English transl., 1971: Short classification and description of the various rocks. Translated with an introduction and notes by Alexander M. Ospouat. Translation and facsimile of the original text (1786) in juxtaposition. New York: Hafner Publishing Company, 1971. 8°: x, 194 p., illustrations.

Translation by Alexander M. Ospouat. Contains chronological list of Werner's published writings and a list of references.

Bibliographical references: Adams, Birth and Development, 1938: throughout book. DSB: 14, 256-264. Fischer, Sachsisches Oberbergamt Freiberg, 1943: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen. Geikie, Founders of Geology, 1905: throughout book. Gesellschaft: 95, heft 3/4, pp. 143-183. La Rocque, History of Geology, 1964: 1, 123-26. LKG: XIII 175.

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