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John Woodward
WOODWARD, John.

WOODWARD, John.
(1665 - 1728)

(Born: Derbyshire, England, 1 May 1665; Died: Gresham College, England, 25 April 1728) English physician, geologist & mineralogist.

Woodward was apprenticed to a linen draper in 1680. However, Dr. Peter Barwick discovered him, and brought him into his home for four years (1684-8). There he was educated in medicine and much else. Woodward thereafter pursued a medical practice in London. He was awarded by special dispension of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 1695, what was called a Lambeth degree, and in 1697, Cambridge conferred on him an M.D. He lectured on bile to the Royal College of Physicians, and was professor of physic at Gresham College from 1692 to 1728. He is said to have been recognized as an authority on comparative anatomy. Woodward's interests ranged very widely over natural history and antiquities, but he is generally considered the first major figure in English geology. He considered his theory of the earth to be a defense of Scripture. At his death he received the final sacrament of the church and professed his Anglican faith, and he was buried in Westminster Abbey. Woodward carried out systematic experimentation on plant nutrition in the early 90s, demonstrating for the first time that water taken in by the roots is exhaled (or transpired as the word is now). Woodward was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1693, and to the Royal College of Physicians in 1703.

Biographical references: BBA: I 1195, 22-83. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 317. DNB: 62, 894-6. DSB: 14, 500-3 [by V.A. Eyles]. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. Eyles, V.A., "John Woodward, F.R.S. (1665-1728), physician and geologist", Nature, London, 206, (1965), no. 4987, 868-70. Eyles, V.A., "John Woodward, F.R.S., F.R.C.P., M.D. (1665-1728): a bio-bibliographical account of his life and work", Journal for the Society of the Bibliography of Natural History, 5, (1971), no. 6, 399-427, portrait, illus., biblio. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 467. Levine, J.M., Dr. Woodward's Shield. Berkeley, 1977. Munk, W., The roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London. 2nd edition. London, 1878. 3 vols: 2, 6-10. Poggendorff: 2, cols. 1366-7. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 2459-60, Suppl. 1 (1986), 2, 897 & Suppl. 2 (1996), 2, 1213. Tjaden, W.J., "John Woodward, Hans Sloane, and Johann Gaspar Scheuchzer: some further information", Journal for the Society of the Bibliography of Natural History, 8, (1971), no. 1, 74-77. Ward, J., The lives of the professors of Gresham College. London, 1740: 283-301. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 1823.

An Essay

An Essay, 1695

1. English, 1695 [First edition].
[Contained within a double rule box:] An Essay toward a | Natural History | Of The | Earth: | And | Terrestrial Bodies, | Especially | Minerals: | As also of the | Sea, Rivers, and Springs. | With an Account of the | Universal Deluge: | And of the Effects that it had upon the | Earth. | [rule] | By John Woodeard, M.D. Professor of Physick in | Gresham-College, and Fellow of the Royal Society. | [rule] | London: Printed for Ric. Wilkin at the | Kings-Head in St. Paul's Church-yard, 1695.

8°: A-S8 T4 ($4 signed); 148l.;. [16], 1-277, [3] p. Page size: 212 x130 mm.

Contents: A1r, Blank.; A1v, Imprimatur, signed John Hoskyns, 3 January 1695.; A2r, Title page.; A2v, Blank.; A3r-A3v, Dedication to Sir Robert Southwell.; A4r-A7v, "Preface."; A8r-A8v, "The Contents" [errata on A8v].; B1r-T3r (1-277), Text.; T3v-T4r, "Books Printed for Richard Wilkin at the King's-Head in S. Paul's Church-Yard."; T4v, Blank.

Scarce. On excursions, which started early in his medical career, he studied both plants and minerals, and especially fossils. Essay Toward a Natural History of the Earth, 1695, which established his reputation, advanced a theory to explain stratification (and the fossils embedded in strata) by the deposit of debris out of the deluge. He insisted that fossils were the remains of once living animals and plants, and he related fossils to specific rock formations. He formed a large collection of fossils and minerals, many of which were sent to him from abroad. He attempted to classify them-Naturalis historia telluris, 1714; Fossils of All Kinds Digested into a Method, 1728, which is primarily a classification of minerals (included in the generic term "fossil"); An Attempt Towards a Natural History of the Fossils of England, posthumous, 1729, dealing with minerals as well. He also wrote an unpublished treatise on the natural history of ores and metals.

Bibliographical references: Jahn, Bibliographical History of John Woodward, 1972: 190-1. LKG: XIII 26.

2. English, 1702 [2nd edition].
[Contained within a double rule box:] An Essay toward a | Natural History | Of The | Earth: | And | Terrestrial Bodies, | Especially | Minerals: | As also of the | Sea, Rivers, and Springs. | With an Account of the | Universal Deluge: | And of the Effects that it had upon the | Earth. | [rule] | By John Woodeard, M.D. Professor of Physick in | Gresham College: and Fellow of the Royal Society. | [rule] | The Second Edition. | [rule] | London, | Printed by T.W. for Richard Wilkin at the | Kings-Head in St. Paul's Church-Yard, 1702

8°: A-S8 T4 ($4 sigined; A3 sometimes canceled); 147l.; [14], 1-277, [3] p. Page size: 230 x 142 mm. Scarce.

Contents: A1r, Blank.; A1v, Imprimatur signed John Hoskyns.; A2r, Title page.; A2v, Blank.; A3r-A3v, Dedication to Sir Robert Southwell.; A4r-A7v, "Preface."; A8r-A8v, "The Contents" [errata on A8v].; B1r-T3r (1-277), Text.; T3v-T4v, "Books Printed for Richard Wilkin at the King's-Head in S. Paul's Church-Yard."

Bibliographical references: Jahn, Bibliographical History of John Woodward, 1972: 191-3.

3. English, 1723 [3rd edition].
[Contained within a double rule box:] An Essay towards a | Natural History | Of The | Earth, | And | Terrestrial Bodyes, | Especialy | Minerals: | As also of the | Sea, Rivers, and Springs. | With an Account of the | Universal Deluge: | And of the Effects that it had upon the | Earth. | [rule] | By John Woodward, M.D. Professor of | Physick in Gresham-College: Fellow of the Col- | lege of Physicians, and of the Royal-Society. | [rule] | The Third Edition. | [rule] | London: | Printed for A. Bettesworth and W. Taylor | in Pater-noster Row, R. Gosling at the Mid- | dle-Temple-Gate in Fleet-street, and J. Clarke | under the Royal-Exchange in Cornhill, 1723.

8°: A-U8 ($4 signed); 160l.; [12], 1-304, [4] p. Page size: 228 x 134 mm. Very scarce.

Contents: A1r, Title page.; A1v, Blank.; A2r-A5v, "The Preface."; A6r-A6v, "The Contents." (errata on A6v).; 1-304 (A7r-U6v), Text.; U7r, "Books wrote by the Author."; U7v, Blank.; U8, Blank.

Bibliographical references: Jahn, Bibliographical History of John Woodward, 1972: p. 194-6.

4. Latin, 1704 [Latin transl.].
[Contained within a double rule box:] Specimen | Geographiæ Physicæ | Quo agitur | De | Terra, | Et | Corporibus Terrestribus | Speciatim | Mineralibus: | Nec non | Mari, Fluminibus, & Fontibus. | Accedit | Diluvii Universalis | Effectuúmque ejus in Terra | Descriptio. | [rule] | Authore | Joh. Woodwardo, M.D. | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Tiguri, | Typis Davidis Gessneri, 1704.

8°: )(8 A-Q8 ($5 signed; leaves )(3-)(5 are missigned )(2-)(4); 136l.; [16], 1-231, [25] p. Pages 182 and 200 are misnumbered 82 and 00. Page size: 188 x 114 mm.

Contents: )(1, Blank.; )(2r, Title page.; )(2v, Blank.; )(3r-)(4v, Dedication of the translator, J.J. Scheuchzer to John Woodward.; )(5r-)(7v, "Præfatio."; )(8r-)(8v, "Contenta in Synopsi exhibita." [=contents].; 1-231 (A1r-P4r), Text.; P4v-P5r, "Loca S. Scripturæ citata & explicata."; P5v-Q6v, "Index."; Q7-Q8, Blanks.

Very scarce. Translated and edited by Johann Jacob Scheuchzer.

Bibliographical references: Jahn, Bibliographical History of John Woodward, 1972: p. 193-4. LKG: XIII 28b.

5. French, 1735 [French transl.].
Geographie | Physique, | Ou Essay Sur | L'Histoire Naturelle | De La Terre, | Traduit de l'Anglois, de Monsieur Wodward, par | M. Noguez, Docteur en Medecine: | Avec la Réponse aux Observations de M. le Docteur | Camerarius; plusieurs Lettres écrites sur la même | matiere; & la Distribution méthodique des Fossiles, tra- | du{\"\i}ts de l'Anglois, du même M. Wodward, par le | R.P. Niceron, Barnabite. | [ornament] | A Paris, | Chez Briasson, Libraire, ruë Saint-Jacques, | à la Science. | [rule] | M. DCC. XXV. | Avec Privilege Dv Roy.

4°: a4 **3 A-V4 X4 (+/-X4) Y-Z4 Aa-Zz4 Aaa-Ccc4 ($2 signed); 203l.; [I]-XIV, [1]-389, [3] p., frontispiece ("Coupe de la terre dans son diametre"). Page size: 290 x 218 mm.

Contents: [I-II] (a1r-a1v), Title page, verso blank.; [III]-VIII (a2r-a4v), "Preface De L'Auteur."; IX-XIV (**1r-**3v), "Table."; 1-166 (A1r-X3v), "Essay Sur L'Histoire Naturelle De La Terre."; [167/=X4r], Sectional title page, "Réponse | Aux Observations | Du Docteur Camerarius, | Concernant | L'Essay | Sur | L'Histoire Naturelle | De La Terre, | Avec une Preface de Benjamin Holloway, Traducteur | Anglois de cette Defense."; [168], Blank.; 169-240 (Y1r-Gg4v), Preface Du Traducteur Anglois."; 241-242 (Hh1r-Hh1v), "Preface De L'Auteur."; 243-307 (hh2r-Qq2r, "Résponse Aux Observations Du Docteur Camerarius."; [308], Blank.; [309/=Qq3r], Sectional title page, "Des Fossiles | De Toute Espece, | Rangés dans un ordre methodique, suivant leurs | rapports & leurs affinitez, avec les noms sous | lesquels ils étoient connus aux Anciens, & | ceux sous lesquels ils le sont aujourd'hui. | Avec des Notes où l'on examine les caracteres historiques | & les usages des principaux d'entre'eux. | On y a jouint quelques écrits concernant les mi- | neraux, & les autres productions soûterraines. | Par Jean Woodward."; 311-338 (Qq4r-Vv1v), "Distribution Methodique Des Fossiles."; 339-374 (Vv2r-Aaa3v), "Lettres Ecrites Au Sujet Des Fossiles."; 374-375 (Aaa3v-Aaa4r), "Instructions Sur les Observations qu'il y a à faire par rapport aux coraux, aux corallines, & aux autres corps semblables."; 375-387 (Aa4r-Ccc2r), "Courtes Instructions Pour faire des observations & des collections, & pour dresser un Catalogue de toute sorte de Fossiles."; 387-389 (Ccc2r-Ccc3r), "Addition A la seconde Partie de l'Essay sur l'Histoire Naturelle de la Terre."; Ccc3v, "Approbation."; Ccc3v-Ccc4r, "Privilege Du Roy."; Ccc4v, Blank.

Scarce. This volume contains translations of three books, all authored by Woodward. These are: (1) On pages 1-166, Woodward's "Essay," translated from the third English edition of 1723. (2) Pages 167-307 contain Woodward's reply to Camerarius' objections, made from Holloway's 1726 English Translation titled: "The Natural History of the Earth, illustrated, inlarged, and defended." (3) On pages 309-389 is the translation of "Fossils of all kinds," from which the author's preface and the plates have been omitted.

Bibliographical references: Jahn, Bibliographical History of John Woodward, 1972: p. 198-9. LKG: XIII 30d.

6. French, 1735.
Geographie physique, ou essay sur l'histoire naturelle de la terre, traduit de l'Anglois, de Monsieur Wodward, par M. Noguez ... avec la réponse aux observations de M. le Docteur Camerarius; plusieurs lettres écrites sur la même matiere & la distribution méthodique des fossiles, traduits de l'Anglois, du meme M. Wodward, par le R.P. Niceron, Barnabite. A Amsterdam aux depens de la Compagnie. MDCCXXXV.

8°: [16], 1-496 p., folding plate.

Very scarce. Eyles (1971) states that the title and contents are identical to the Paris edition, differing only in the imprint and the title vingette.

7. Italian, 1739.
Geografia fisica, ovvero saggio intorno alla storia naturale della terra, del Sig. Woodward medico inglese: con la giunta dell' apologia del saggio contra le osservazione del Dotter Camerario; e d'un trattato de' fossili d'ognispezie' divisi metodicamente in varie classi. In Venezia presso Giambatista Pasquali. MDCCXXXIX.

8°: [16], 533, [3] p., title in red and black, folding engraved plate ("Taglio della terra nel suo diametro") same as that of the French 1735 edition.

Very scarce. According to Eyles (1971), this work is persumably a translation from the French 1735 edition into Italian because the contents are identical and in the same order as the French.

8. German, 1744.
Physik. Eudbeschreibung, oder Versuch einer naturlichen Hidtorie des Erdbobens, wilcher zugleich die von dem beruhmten E. Camerarius dagegen gemachte Einwurfe und des Autoris Beantwortung etc. bergefugt sind. Nach dem Franz. ubers. Erfurt, 1744.

6 vols.

Very scarce. Edited and translated by E. Camerarius.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIII 31e.

9. German, 1746.
D. Johann Woodward, | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Beantwortung | derer | über seinen | Versuch | einer natürlichen Historie | des | Erdbodens | von dem Herrn D. Elia Cameraius | ... [Look at full size title] ... | [double rule] | Erfurt, | bey Johann Friedrich Weber, | Buchhändler, 1746.

8°: Very scarce.

10. Latin, 1714.
Johannis Woodwardi | Med. in Coll. Greshamensi Prof. &c. | Naturalis Historia Telluris | Illustrata & Aucta. | Una cum Ejusdem Defensione; | Præsertim contra | Nuperas Objectiones | D. El. Camerarii Med. Prof. Tubingensis. | Ad Illustrissimum & Nobilissimum Virum | Thomam Pembrochiæ Comitem, &c. | Accedit Methodica, & ad ipsam Naturæ Normam | instituta, Fossilium in Classes Distributio. | [rule] | Londini; | Typis J.M. Impensis R. Wilkin, ad Insigne Capitis | Bibliopol. Roterdami. MDCCXIV.

8°: A-I8 K4; 76l.; [2], i-v, [9], 1-105, [7], [1]-9, [4], 1-10, [1] p.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; i-v, "Præfatio."; [1 pg], Blank.; [7 pgs], "Syllabus Rerum" [=table of contents].; [1 pg], Blank.; 1-105, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], Sectional title page, "Methodica, | Et | Ad ipsam Naturæ Normam | Instituta, | Fossilium in Classes | Distributio. | Ad Illustrem Virum | D. Isaacum Newtonum, Eq. Aur. | Et | Soc. Reg. Præsidem."; [1 pg], Blank.; [4 pgs], "Præfatio."; [1]-9, Text of classification.; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], Sectional title page, "Syllabus | Rerum Corrigendarum | In | Geographiæ Physicæ Woodwardianæ | Versione Scheuchzreianâ, | Nunc demum recognitâ."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "Præfatio."; 1-10, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. Woodward's reply to the comments of Camerarius on his new geological and palaeontological teachings. The "Methodica" is addressed to Sir Isaac Newton. Woodward has included a synopsis of his system of minralogical classification.

English translation by B. Holloway.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 83. LKG: XIII 29c.

11. English, 1726 [English transl.].
The natural history of the earth illustrated, enlarged, and defended / written originally in Latin ; and now first made English by Benj. Holloway ; to which are added, physical proofs of the existence of God, his actual incessant concurrence to the support of the universe, and of all organical bodyes, vegetables, and animals, particularly man ; with several other papers, on different subjects, never before printed ; by John Woodward. London : Printed and sold by Tho. Edlin, 1726.

2 pts. ( 169, 163 p.)

Very scarce. Translated by Benjamin Holloway [1691?-1759].

12. German, 1746 [German transl.].
D. Johann Woodward, ... Abhandlung von allen Gattungen derer Fossilien : Welche Nach der Aehnlichkeit und Verwandschaft, so sie unter einander haben, in eine richtige Ordnung sind gebracht worden, ... Nebst einem Anhang einiger Schriften, so die Mineralien und andere unter der Erde befindlichen Cörper betreffen ; Ehemals aus dem Englischen in die Frantzösische, und nunmehro aus dieser in die Teutsche Sprache übersetzt.. - [Erfurt], [1746]

Fossils of all Kinds

Fossils of all Kinds, 1728

13. English, 1728.
Fossils | Of all Kinds, | Digested into a | Method, | Suitable to their mutual | Relation and Affinity; | with | The Names by which they are known | to the Antients, [sic] and those by which they | are at this Day known: And Notes con- | ducing to the setting forth the Natural | History, and the main Uses, of some of | the most considerable of them. | As Also | Several Papers tending to further Advance- | ment of Knowledge of Minerals, of the | Ores of Metalls, and of all other Sub- | terraneous Productions. | [double rule] | By John Woodward, M.D. late Pro- | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [double rule] | London: | Printed for William Innys, at the West- | End of St. Paul's. M.DCC.XXVIII.

8°: A4 a4 B-Aa4 Bb2; 96l.; [i]-xvi, [folding table], 1-56, 1-92, [4], 93-131, [1] p., [1] folding table, 7 plates. Page size: 192 x 114 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-xvi, "The | Preface."; [Folding table].; 1-56, "A Methodical Distribution."; 1-92, "Letters ..."; [3 pgs], "The | Preface."; [1 pg], Blank.; 93-107, Text.; 107-119, Appendices.; 120-126, "Number IX. | An Addition to the second Part | of the Essay towards a Natural | History of the Earth."; 127-130, "A | Mineral Dictionary; | Or | An alphabetical | Index."; 131, "Index of Things occasio- | nally treated in these Papers."; [1 pg], "Books printed for William Innys."

Very scarce. Fossils of All Kinds is one of the earliest attempts to systemize mineralogy. First published as an appendix to Naturlis Historia Telluris (London, 1714), Woodward translated and enlarged this essay into the present work. Woodward's system divides minerals into six classes: 1) Earths, 2) Stones, 3) Salts, 4) Bitumens, 5) Minerals, 6) Metals. In turn each of these classes is subdivided by the physical properties of the specimens, including taste, color, touch, etc. By this method, about 200 minerals are classified and described. The volume also contains a folding table (384 x 220 mm., facing page 1) that outlines the overall classification. The six plates illustrate a discussion of the origins of stone artifacts.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 83. DSB: 14, 500-3 [by V.A. Eyles]. LKG: XII 11 & XIV 415. Porter, Making of Geology, 1980: 55-6. Smith, Early Mineralogy in Great Britain, 1978: 52.

An Attempt

An Attempt, 1728

14. English, 1728-9.
An | Attempt | Towards a | Natural History | Of The | Fossils of England; | In | A Catalogue of the English Fossils | in the Collection of | J. Woodward, M.D. | Containing | A Description and Historical Account | of each; with Observations and Experiments, | made in order to discover, as well the Origin | and Nature of them, as their Medicinal, Mecha- | nical, and other Uses. | [rule] | Part I. [-II.] | Of the Fossils that are real and natural: | Earths, Stone, Marble, Talcs, Coralloids, Spars, | Crystals, Gemms, Bitumens, Salts, Marcasites, | Minerals, and Metals. | [rule] | Tome I. [-II.] | [rule] | London: | Printed for F. Fayram, at the Royal Exchange; J. Senex, in | Freet-street; and J. Osborn and T. Longman, in Pater- | noster-Row. M.DCC.XXIX.

2 vols. usually bound as one. [Vol 1] 8°: [A]-Q8 R6 S-Z8 2A8 2B2; 192l.; [i]-xvi, 1-243, [1] blank, [i]-viii, 1-115, [1] blank p.; [Vol 2] 8°: 2B3-2B4 2C-2I8 2K2 2L-2N8 2O4 2P-2Q8 2R4 2S8 2T4 2U8; 128l.; [i]-iv, 1-110, [2] blank, [i]-iv, 1-52, [i]-iv, 1-33, [1] blank, [i]-vi, 1-21, [1] blank, [2], 1-15, [1] blank p. Page size: 194 x 115 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; iii-vi, "The | Publisher to the Reader."; vii-xiv, "The Preface."; xv-xvi, "The General Index."; 1-243, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.; [i], A | Catalogue | of the | English Fossils | In the Collection of | J. Woodward M.D. | Part II. | ..."; [ii], Blank.; iii, "Index of the Preface to the Whole."; iv-viii, "Index Rerum."; 1-7, "Preface to the Whole."; 8-115, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

[Vol 2] [i-ii], Title page, "A | Catalogue | of the | Additional English Native Fossils, | in the | Collection | of | J. Woodward M.D. | Tome II. | [ornament] | London, | Printed in the Year M.DCC.XXVIII. | Bb3.," verso blank.; iii, "Preface."; iv, "General Index."; 1-110, Text.; [2 pgs], Blank.; [i], " A | Catalogue | of the | Foreign Fossils | In the Collection of | J. Woodward M.D. | Part I. | ..."; [ii], Blank.; iii-iv, "Index Rerum."; 1-52, Text.; [i], "A | Catalogue | of the | Foreign Fossils | In the Collection of | J. Woodward M.D. | Part II. | ..."; [ii], Text, dated 10 July 1725.; iii-iv, "Index Rerum."; 1-33, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.; [i], "An | Addition | to the | Catalogue | of the | Foreign Native Fossils | In the Collection of | J. Woodward M.D."; [ii], Blank.; iii-v, "Preface."-dated 23 August 1725.; vi, "Index Rerum."; 1-21, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "An | Addition | to the | Catalogue | of the | Foreign Exteraneous Fossils | In the Collection of | J. Woodward M.D."; [1 pg], "Index Rerum."; 1-15, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.;

Very scarce. An Attempt Towards a Natural History of the Fossils of England was Woodward's last book, having been issued postumenously. In itself, the work is a remarkable catalog of the very large collection of both foreign and English fossils and minerals the author amassed during his life time. Between four and five thousand specimens are arranged and described under eleven separate classes-the number of classes having been increased by five over Fossils of All Kinds Digested (London, 1728). Volume one describes the minerals and fossils found in England which Woodward bequeathed, along with an endowment for a professorship,to Cambridge University, where, to this day, they are maintained in their original cabinets, according to Woodward's scheme. The second volume consists of those minerals and fossils, both English and foreign, that he thought were of lesser importance. These specimens were auctioned off along with Woodward's library on 11 November 1728.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 84. Kázmér, M., "Carpathian minerals in the eighteenth-century Woodwardian collection at Cambridge", Journal of the History of Collections, 10, (1998), no. 2, 159-68.

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