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Arthur Aikin
AIKIN, Arthur.

AIKIN, Arthur.
(1773 - 1854)

(Born: Warrington, Lancashire, England, 19 May 1773; Died: London, England, 15 April 1854) English chemist & mineralogist.

Aikin originally trained to be a Unitarian minister; however, under the influence of the chemist Joseph Priestly [1733-1804], he was convinced to persue a career in chemistry and mineralogy. Aikin edited from 1803 to 1808 the Annual Review. He was a founding member of the Geological Society of London, and for many years held the position of its secretary. He was also secretary of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacturers and Commerce and the first treasurer and later president of the Chemical Society.

Biographical references: American Journal of Science: 2nd Series, 20 (1855), 391-2. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 3. BBA: I 11, 55-62; II 1242, 433-435. Burgess, Portraits of Doctors, 1973: no. 26.1. Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 103 [2 portraits listed]. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 39. DNB: 1, 118. ISIS, 1913-65: 1, 19. Kent, A., "Arthur Aikin (1773-1854) and other presidents (of the Chemical Society, London)", Proceedings of the Chemical Society, 1962, 133-4. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 5. Lisney, Bibliography of British Lepidoptera, 1960. Poggendorff: 1, col. 19. Proceedings of the Geological Society, London: 1855, xli-xlii. Quarterly Journal of Geological Society of London: 11, xli. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 406-7. Sarjeant, Geologists, Suppl. 2, 1995: 1, 376. Thomas, Dictionary of Biography, 1884: 69. WBI. Woodward, History of the Geological Society, 1907: 10. World Who's Who in Science: 19.

Journal of a Tour, 1797

1. English, 1797.
Journal Of A Tour | Through | North Wales | And | Part Of Shropshire; | With Observations In | Mineralogy | And Other Branches Of | Natural History. | [tapered rule] | By Arthur Aikin. | [tapered rule] | London: | Printed For J. Johnson, No. 72, St. Paul's | Church-Yard. | [rule] | 1797.

8°: A-Q8; 128l.; [i]-xvi, [1]-231, [9] p., one folding plate (unsigned, showing several cross sections). Page size: 202 x 124 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], Dedication to Charles Kinder and Charles Rochemont Aikin.; [iv]-xii, "Preface."; [xiii]-xvi, "Contents."; [one folding plate].; [1]-231, Text.; [1 pg], "Explanation of the plate."; [7 pgs], "Index."; [1 pg], Blank.

Scarce. This is an account of an extensive tour made by Aikin throughout northern Wales in the summer of 1796. It was undertaken in part as a pleasent excursion and also partly to increase the author's mineralogical knowledge by examining the geological formations encountered along the way. A great number of mineralogical observations are included, but the volume is also gives vivid descriptions of the grandeur of the Welsh landscape, written in Aikin's familiar style. The text is divided into nineteen chapters, each describing observations made on a relatively short journey from one town to another.

Bibliographical references: BL [982.a.9.]. BMC: 1, 21. LKG: XIV 442. NUC: 5, 603-4.

Dictionary, 1807

2. English, 1807-14.
A | Dictionary | of | Chemistry and Mineralogy, | with an Account of the Processes Employed | in Many of the Most Important | Chemical Manufactures. | To which are added a description of | Chemical Apparatus, | and various useful tables of | Weights and Measures, Chemical Instruments, &c.&c. | Illustrated with fifteen engravings. | [tapered rule] | By A. & C.R. Aikin. | [tapered rule] | Vol. I. [-II.] | [double rule] | London: | Printed for John and Arthur Arch, Cornhill; | and William Phillips, George Yard, Lombard Street. | 1807 [-1814]. | [tapered rule] | (W. Phillips, Printer.)

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1807] 4°: π4 A-Z4 2A-2Z4 3A-3Z4 4A-4H4 I1; 318l.; [i]-vii, [1] errata, [1]-628 p., frontispiece plate, "Arrangement of the Furnaces in Mr. Pepys's Laboratory."; [Vol 2: 1814] 4°: π2 A-Z4 2A-2Z4 3A-3Z4 4A-4C4 4D2 χ8; 300l.; [4], [1]-580, [1]-15, [1] p., 15 engraved plates. Page size: 263 x 193 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], Dedication to Charles Hatchett.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-vii, "Preface".; [1 pg], "Errata in Vol. I."; [1]-628, Alphabetical arrangement of subjects A to I.

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], "Errata in Vol. II."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-508, Continuation of the alphabetical arrangement of subjects J to Z.; [509]-511, "Addenda."; [512], Blank.; [513]-544, "Appendix, No. 1. Description of the Chemical Apparatus most frequently used for general purposes, with reference to the plates."; [545], "Appendix, No. II. Containing Tables of Weights and Measures - English and Foreign; of Chemical Instruments; of the Compostion of Acids and Salts; and of Chemical Affinities."; [546], "Contents of Appendix II."; [547]-574, "Appendix, No. II."; 575-578, "Explanation of the Plates."; [579]-580, "Index."; [1]-15, "A Catalogue of Optical, Mathematical and Philosophical Instruments made and sold by W. and S. Jones [No. 30,] Lower Holborn, London."; [1 pg], "By the Late G. Adams, now sold by W. and S. Jones."

Plates: The frontispiece to volume one is "An Arrangement of furnaces in Mr. Pepy's Laboratory," signed E. Aikin del. Lowry sculpt. At the end of volume two there are fifteen engraved plates. Plates 10 and 11 are signed, E. Aikin del. Lowry sculpt., and plates 13 through 15 are signed, J. Simpkins, sc. Plates 1-12 show various chemical apparatus and furnaces, while plates 13-15 show various crystal drawings.

Scarce. Co-authored with Charles Rochemont Aikin [see note below]. "The intention has been to give a faithful and sufficiently detailed description of all the important facts hitherto discovered in the sciences of Chemistry and Mineralogy, enlarging more particularly on those parts which are of peculiar interest to the Manufacturer and to the Practical Chemist." (Preface).

This work was written as a practical tool to guide the manufacturer and chemist, having been inspired by the Chimie Appliquée aux Arts of the French industrial chemist, Jean-Antoine Chaptal [1756-1832]. Therefore, almost all information regarding historical perspectives and theoretical matters, including medicine, magenetism, galvantism, etc., has been omitted. Descriptions of the procedures are always guided by what is known to work, with only slight speculation on the reason why. For many years during the industrial period, this was the premier dictionary in English on the described subjects. An appendix was also published [which see next entry].

Charles Rochemont Aikin. (Born: Warrington, Lancashire, England, 1775; Died: London, England, 20 March 1847) English physician & chemist. Charles was the brother of Arthur Aikin. He was a member of the Royal College of Physicians and secretary of the London Medical and Chirurgical Society.

Bibliographical references: BL [8906.ee.9.]. BMC: 1, 21. Bolton, Bibliography of Chemistry, 1893: no. 38. Brock, History of Chemistry, 1993: p. 273. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 16. Duveen, Bibliotheca Alchemica et Chemica, 1965: p. 8. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 16. NUC: 5, 603-4 [NA 0108646]. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 18. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 35. (Aikin) BBA. DNB: 1, 118. World Who's Who in Science: 19-20.

3. English, 1814 [Appendix].
An Account | of the Most Important | Recent Discoveries and Improvements | in | Chemistry and Mineralogy, | to the present time; | being an | Appendix | to their | Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy, | [rule] | By A. & C.R. Aikin. | [rule] | London: | Printed for John and Arthur Arch, Cornhill; | and William Phillips, George Yard, Lombard Street. | 1814. | [rule] | (W. Phillips, Printer.)

4°: π2 A-P4 χ1 Q-U4 (U2 signed U3); 91l.; [4], [1]-119, [2], 120-176 p., engraved frontispiece (unsigned showing apparatus). Page size: 264 x 194 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Note about the work.; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-119, Text, with imprint on page 119, "London: Printed by William Phillips, | George Yard, Lombard Street."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "Appendix to Vol. II."; 120-176, Text, with imprint on page 176, "London: | Printed by W. Phillips, George Yard, Lombard Street."

Scarce. Separately printed appendix of A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy (2 vols., London, 1807-14) [which see previous entry]. Sometimes this appendix is found bound separately as described here, and in other instances is bound into the two volumes of the Dictionary.

Bibliographical references: BL [45.h.1.]. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 16. Duveen, Bibliotheca Alchemica et Chemica, 1965: p. 8 [appendix divided between the two volumes.]. NUC: 5, 603-4 [NA 0108646].

Manual of Mineralogy, 1814

4. English, 1814 [First edition].
A | Manual | of | Mineralogy, | By Arthur Aikin, | Secretary to the Geological Society. | [tapered rule] | London: | Printed by Richard and Arthur Taylor, Shoe-Lane, | for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, | Paternoster-Row. | [rule] | 1814.

8°: π8 b-d8 B-L8 M2; 114l.; [i]-lx, [1]-164 p. Page size: 184 x 115 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], "Advertisement."-dated June 10, 1814.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-lvii, "Introduction."; [lviii], Blank.; [lix]-lx, "General Synopsis."; [1]-7, "Class I. Non-Metallic Combustible Minerals."; [8], Blank.; [9]-72, "Class II. Native Metals and Metalliferous Minerals."; [73]-150, "Class III. Earthy Minerals."; [151]-154, "Class IV. Saline Minerals." [155]-164, "Index."

Scarce. This work was based upon lectures Aikin delivered during the winter of 1814 before members of the Geological Society of London. It is written in a clear, lucid manner so that even a beginner could gain insight to the science. The introduction provides preliminary information about the science of mineralogy, including definitions and reasons why the science should be studied. An outline of the classification system proposed by the author is provided. This is followed by the descriptive mineralogy, which takes up the remainder of the work. The work deals principally with the procedures used to identify mineral substances. The author describes the properties that are peculiar to each mineral and how they might be used to distinguish between similar species. Aikin was one of the most accomplished mineralogists of his time, and the easy narrative he adopts throughout this work undoubtedly helped popularize mineralogical studies.

Bibliographical references: BL [953.a.7.]. BMC: 1, 21. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 65. NUC: 5, 603-4. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 18.

Manual of Mineralogy, 1815

5. English, 1815 [American issue].
A | Manual | of | Mineralogy. | By Arthur Aikin, | Secretary to the Geological Society. | [double rule] | First American edition. | [double rule] | Philadelphia: | Published by Solomon W. Conrad, | No. 87, Market Street. | 1815.

8°: [A]-Z6; 138l.; [i]-viii, [9]-275, [1] p. Page size: 177 x 103 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], "Advertisement."; [iv], Blank.; [v]-viii, "Preface to the Second Edition."-dated January 10, 1815.; [9]-68, "Introduction."; [69]-70, "General Synopsis."; [71]-89, "Class I. Non-Metallic Combustible Minerals."; [90]-158, "Class II. Native Metals and Metalliferous Minerals."; [159]-258, "Class III. Earthy Minerals."; [259]-264, "Class IV. Saline Minerals."; [265]-275, "Index."; [1 pg], "S.W. Conrad has lately published ..."

Scarce. American issue, after the second London edition of 1815. This work was published as a textbook to be used in American schools and by individuals interested in minerals but who did not have the advantage of an instructor.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 17. Hazen & Hazen, American Geological Literature, 1980: no. 101. North American Review: 5 (1817), 74-81. Rink, Technical Americana, 1981: no. 774. Shaw & Shoemaker, American Bibliography, 1958-83: no. 33808.

6. English, 1815 [2nd edition].
A | Manual | of | Mineralogy, | By Arthur Aikin, | Secretary to the Geological Society. | [tapered rule] | Second edition, | with Additions and Corrections. | [tapered rule] | London: | Printed by Richard and Arthur Taylor, Shoe-Lane | for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, | Paternoster-Row. | [rule] | 1815.

8°: π4 B-R8 S4; 136l.; [i]-viii, [1]-263, [1] p. Page size: 176 x 104 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], "Advertisement."-dated 10 June 1814.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-viii, "Preface | To | The Second Edition."; [1]-252, Text.; [253]-263, "Index."-page 263, "Printed by R. and A. Taylor, Shoe Lane, London."; [1 pg], Blank.

Scarce. This edition is in the same format as the previous. The introduction has received only minor corrections. The majority of additions and augmentations have occurred in the descriptive mineralogy.

Bibliographical references: BL [953.a.8.]. BMC: 1, 21. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 65. NUC: 5, 603-4.

7. English, 1814.
Proposals for a mineralogical survey of the county of Salop, and some adjacent districts. [London, 1814.]

4°: 3, 3 p., one colored map. Rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [G.2054.]. BMC: 1, 21. NUC [no copy listed].

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