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Reinhard Anton Brauns
BRAUNS, Reinhard Anton.

BRAUNS, Reinhard Anton.
(1861 - 1937)

(Born: Eiterfeld near Kassel, Germany, 20 August 1861; Died: Bonn, Germany, 28 January 1937) German mineralogist, petrologist & gemologist.

Brauns attended the University of Marburg from 1881 to 1885, receiving his Ph.D in 1884. From 1883 to 1894 he was an assistant at the Mineralogical Institute in Marburg. In 1894, Brauns was appointed ordinary professor of mineralogy and geology at the technical high school in Karlsruhe, but in 1895 he took a similar post at the University of Giessen. In 1904 Brauns moved on to the University at Kiel, Germany, and in 1907 to the University of Bonn where he spent the remainder of his life. Brauns was a founding member of the Deutsche Mineralogische Gesellschaft, as well as an honorary member of many other societies. He was an editor of the Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie und Geologie and the Zeitblatt für Mineralogie. His major theoretical work centers upon the optical anomalies in crystals, chemical mineralogy and the production of synthetic gemstones.

Biographical references: American Mineralogist: 23 (1938), no. 3, 131-3, portrait. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 65. DBA: II 171, 136-147. Mineralogical Magazine: 25 (1939), no. 165, 2 284-5, portrait. NDB: 2, 562 [by W. Fischer]. Poggendorff: 4, 177, 5, 161-2 & 6, ???. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 614 & Suppl. 2 (1995), 1, 461. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 234. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie: A (1937), no. 4, 97-102, portrait.

1. German, 1891.
Die | Optischen Anomalien | Der Krystalle | von | Dr. Reinhard Brauns, | Privatdocenten An Der Universität Marburg. | [...2 lines of quotation, signed Goethe...] | Mit Sechs Tafeln. | Gekronkte Preischrift. | [tapered rule] | Leipzig | Bei S. Hirzel | 1891.

8°: [i]-xi, [1], [1]-370 p. Page size: 270 x 180 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Blank, verso series title page.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "Auf die von der ..."; [v]-viii, "Vorwort."-signed R. Brauns, September 1891.; [vi]-xi, "Inhalt."; [1 pg], "Abkürzungen."; [1]-362, Text.; [363]-368, "Erklärung der Abbildungen."; [369]-370, "Register."

Very scarce. A prize winning essay extending the pioneer work of Mallard on optical anomalies. It is a compendium of all known facts about optical crystal anomalies. Divided into two major parts, the first of which develops the subject through an historical review recalling the work of Mallard, Brewster, Biot, Scacchi, Neumann, among others (pp. 5-56). The second part describes optical anomalies Brauns had observed in a large variety of minerals (pp. 57-362).

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 226. NUC.

2. German, 1896.
Chemische Mineralogie | Von | Dr. Reinhard Brauns | O. Professor Der Mineralogie Und Geologie An Der Universität Giessen. | [rule] | Mit 32 Abbildungen Im Text. | [ornament] | Leipzig | Chr. Herm. Tauchnitz | 1896.

8°: [i]-xiii, [3], [1]-460 p., 32 illus. Page size: 232 x 154 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso "Alle Rechte..."; [iii], Dedication to Max Bauer.; [iv], Blank.; [v], "Vorwort."; [vi], Blank.; [vii]-xiii, "Inhalt."; [1 pg], "Abkürzungen in den Citaten."; [1 pg], Sectional title page, "Chemische Mineralogie."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-447, Text.; 448, "Nachtrage."; [449]-460, "Register."

Very scarce. Written for both the student and instructor in mineralogy, this text focuses on the chemical qualities of minerals and their corresponding importance in mineralogy. Topics covered include molecular combinations, processes and enviorments of mineral formation, crystal structure, relationships between chemistry and crystal form, the effects of chemistry on the physical properties of minerals, and theories on the formation of minerals in nature.

Contents: I. Die Bestandtheile der Mineralien und ihre Ermittlung. II. Der Aggregatzustand der Mineralien und seine Aenderung. III. Die Form der Mineralien und das Wachsen der Krystalle. IV. Beziehungen zwischen der Form und der chemischen Zusammensetzung der Krystalle. V. Die Nachbildung der Mineralien. VI. Die Entstehung der Mineralien in der Natur. VII. Die Verwitterung der Mineralien. VIII. Die Constitution der Mineralien.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 227. NUC.

3. German, 1893 [First edition].
Sammlung Göschen | [rule] | Mineralogie | von | Dr. R. Brauns | Privatdocent and der Universität Marburg | [rule] | Mit 130 Abbildungen | [ornate rule] | Stuttgart | G.J. Göschen'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung | 1893.

8°: 126 p., 130 illus.

Very scarce. This short introductory text to mineralogy includes general discussions of mineralogical form and physical and chemcial properties, followed by a descriptive mineralogy that lists the most common species.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 226. NUC.

4. German, 1905 [3rd edition].
Mineralogie ... Mit 132 Abbildungen. Dritte, verbessert Auflage. Leipzig, G.J. Goeschen'sche Verlagshandlung, 1905.

12°: 134, [5] adverts., [1] p., text illus. Page size: 152 x 114 mm.

Very scarce. A simple introduction to mineralogy, beginning with theory and terminalogy and ending with descriptions.

5. Spanish, 1927 [Spanish transl.].
[In black:] R. Brauns | [in red:] Mineralogia | [in black:] Traducción del | Prof. M. San Miguel De La Cámara | De la Universidad de Barcelona | [rule] | Editorial Labor, S.A.: Barcelona - Buenos Aires.

8°: [1]-208, [2] p., 12 plates on six leaves, 20 photos, 132 illus. Title page in red and black. Published as: Ciencias Naturales, Sección XII, N° 135. Page size: 182 x 118 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Half title page, "Mineralogía," verso series title page, "Colección Labor | ..."; [3-4], Title page, verso "... 1927 | [rule] | Es Propiedad | ..."; [5]-6, "Índice."; [7]-199, Text.; [200], Blank.; [201]-202, "Bibliografía."; [203]-208, Índice Alfabético."; [1 pg], "Ilustraciones."; [1 pg], Blank.; [Plates].; [1 pg], "Talleres Tipográficos de Editorial Labor, S.A."; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. Spanish translation by San Miguel De La Cámara of Braun's Mineralogie.

Bibliographical references: BL. NUC.

Das Mineralreich, 1903

6. German, 1903 [First edition, issue A].
Das | Mineralreich | von | Dr. Reinhard Brauns, | ordentl. Professor an der Universität Giessen. | [ornate rule] | Mit vielen Text-Illustrationen | 73 Farbentafeln, 14 Lichtdrucktafeln und 4 Kunstdrucktafeln. | [Ornament incorporating the initials F L V] | Eßlingen und München | Verlag von J.F. Schreiber | 1903.

4°: [2], 4, [3], 6-440, [8] p., 93 plates (73 colored), 275 figs (photos, line drawings). Page size: 300 x 225 mm.

Very scarce. A classic work in popular mineralogical literature. Braun's Das Mineralreich is a large format, ambitious book sought after today for its c900 color illustrations that show the most important minerals in their natural form, color, and size on 73 chromo1ithographic and 14 black and white plates. But when Brauns wrote the book, he was at the pinnacle of his profession, and the text reflects his deep love and technical knowledge of minerals, which surprisingly can still be read with interest, especially for the details on old European localities. However, the text is now largely overlooked and thought to be obsolete due to the incorporation in the book of the chromolithographic plates.

These plates were at their publication a sensation for their quality. It required much planning and great technical and artistic ability to produce the illustrations that were modeled on actual specimens. So that no damage would occur from transport, minerals from various private and publish European collections were carefully packed and hand delivered to the Schreiber's studios in Stuttgart. Gustav Seligmann [1849-1920] whose collection was renowned for the aesthetic quality of its specimens was a strong supporter of the project with 132 of the depicted pieces being from his collection. Seligmann's collection was later incorporated into the Carl Bosch [1874-1940] collection, which was ultimately purchased in 1966 by the U.S. National Museum (Smithsonian Institution) in Washington. Today, the Seligmann specimens that are identifiable from the plates are especially noted within the collection. Good quality specimens were essential because the plates were intended to be easily recognizable to collectors. Medenbach notes that comparison between the actual specimens with the plates show that the manual work was implemented with much love and care, although some details were not included. Even without the lack of detail, the objective of depiction was met with species easily distinguished. Unfortunately, Braun's Mineralreich was among the last mineralogical works to be illustrated by the chromolithographic process. Technical advances in color photography and printing would soon supplant the labor intensive lithographic process.

This first edition was originally issued in 30 parts or "Lieferungen," presumably to allow the publisher to begin recovering costs for a very expensive production, and allow the buyers to acquire an expensive volume through a subscription spread over months. At the conclusion of publication, the 30 parts could then be bound into a single volume. That it was a successful venture is displayed by the appearance of other German editions, and translations sponsored by the publisher utilizing the same plates into English, Italian, Czech and Russian.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 90. Medenbach, O., "Der Brauns," Magma, 1 (1983), no. 1, 27-30. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 903.

7. German, 1912 [First edition, issue B].
Das | Mineralreich | von | Dr. Reinhard Brauns | ordentl. Professor an der Universität Bonn | [ornate rule] | Mit vielen Text-Illustrationen | 73 Farbentafeln, 14 Lichtdrucktafeln und 4 Kunstdrucktafeln. | Unveränderter Neudruck | Eßlingen und München | Verlag von J.F. Schreiber | 1912.

4°: [4], 440, [6] p., frontispiece, 91 plates (73 chromolithographic).

Very scarce. After the original 30 Lieferungen were issued, the publisher reissued the book. However, to make a cheaper edition, they made the unfortunate decision to use steel staples to bind the sections. Over time, these sections will become loose and even come apart. In addition, a cheaper grade of paper seems to have been used for printing the text.

Bibliographical references: Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 908.

8. German, 1923 [First edition, issue C].
Das | Mineralreich | von | Dr. Reinhard Brauns | ordentl. Professor an der Universität Bonn | [ornate rule] | Mit vielen Text-Illustrationen | 73 Farbentafeln, 14 Lichtdrucktafeln und 4 Kunstdrucktafeln. | Unveränderter Neudruck | Eßlingen und München | Verlag von J.F. Schreiber | 1923.

4°: [4], 440, [6] p., frontispiece, 91 plates (73 chromolithographic).

Very scarce. Reissue of the 1912 edition with a new title page.

Bibliographical references: NUC. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 909.

The Mineral Kingdom, 1908

9. English, 1908-12 [Translation, issue A].
The | Mineral Kingdom | By | Dr. Reinhard Brauns | Professor Of Mineralogy In The University Of Bonn | Translated, With Additions By | Leonard J. Spencer, M.A., F.G.S. | [...2 lines of titles...] | [ornate rule] | With 91 Plates (73 Of Which Are Coloured) | And 275 Text-Figures | [ornate rule] | Stuttgart | Fritz Lehmann, Publisher | 1908 | Esslingen A.N. | J.F. Schreiber, Publisher | 1912 | London Agents | Williams & Norgate, 14 Henrietta Street, Convent Garden.

4°: [4], 432 p., frontispiece, 91 plates (73 chromolithographic) each with descriptive letterpress.

Very scarce. This is the famous English translation done by Leonard James Spencer of Braun's Das Mineralreich (1st ed., Eßlingen und München, 1903), which utilizes the original German chromolithographic plates. The best English mineralogist of his time, Spencer has performed a splendid translation of Braun's text, adding his own notes, which like the German edition, became a popular mineralogical work in England.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 92. NUC. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 907.

10. English, 1912 [Translation, issue B].
The | Mineral Kingdom | By | Dr. Reinhard Brauns | Professor Of Mineralogy In The University Of Bonn | Translated, With Additions By | Leonard J. Spencer, M.A., F.G.S. | [...2 lines of titles...] | [ornate rule] | With 91 Plates (73 Of Which Are Coloured) | And 275 Text-Figures | [ornament] | Esslingen A.N. | J.F. Schreiber, Publisher | 1912 | London Agents | Williams & Norgate, 14 Henrietta Street, Convent Garden.

4°: [4], 432 p., frontispiece, 91 plates (73 colored) each with descriptive letterpress.

Very scarce. Apparently, the publisher took his remaining stock of plates and text, and reissued the work with a new title page.

Bibliographical references: NUC.

11. English, 1912 [American issue].
The | Mineral Kingdom | By | Dr. Reinhard Brauns | Professor Of Mineralogy In The University Of Bonn | Translated, With Additions By | Leonard J. Spencer, M.A., F.G.S. | Assistant In The Mineral Department OfThe British Museum | [ornate rule] | With 91 Plates (73 Of Which Are Coloured) | And 275 Figures In The Text | Philadelphia | J.B. Lippincott Company | London: Williams And Norgate | 1912.

4°:

Very scarce. American issue of the Spencer translation, which is suprisingly scarce.

Bibliographical references: NUC.

12. Italian, 1905 [Italian transl.].
Dott. Reinhard Brauns | Professore di Mineralogia noll'Univ. di Giessen | [rule] | Il | Regno Minerale | [rule] | Traduzione | Con | Note Ed Aggiunte | Per Il | Prof. Ettore Artini | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Con 275 figure nel testo e 91 tavole in nero e a colori | [rule] | Casa Editrice | Dottor Francesco Vallardi | Milano | Roma - Napoli - Torino - Genova - Firenze - Bologna | Pisa - Catania - Bari - Pavia - Cagliari - Sassari - Padova - Palermo | [rule] | Trieste - Buenos Ayris - Alessandria d'Egitto.

4°: Page size: 320 x 220 mm.

Scarce. Translation by Ettore Artini of Das Mineralreich (1st ed., Esslingen und Münich, 1903).

Bibliographical references: Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 904 [not seen].

13. Czech, c1905 [Czech transl.].
Říše Nerostná | Obrazem I Slovem. | Pro Všechny Kruhy Vzdělaného Obecenstva | Českého | Dle Stejnojmenného Spisu | Prof. Dra R. Braunse | Se Zřetelem K Domácím Poměrům | Upravil | Jan John, | Ředitel C.K. Reálky V Táboře. | [rule] | Text. | [rule] | [ornament] | V Praze. | Nakladatel Jos. R. Vilímek, | Spálená Ulice Číslo 13 Nové.

Text and atlas vols. [Text] 4°: π6 1-674; 274l.; [12], 1-529, [7] p. [Atlas] 4°: π4 [82 leaves of plates, with intersperced letterpress descriptions]; [8] p., 82 chromolithographic plates, each with descriptive letterpress. Page size: 288 x 214 mm.

Contents: [Text] [2 pgs], Half title page, "Říše Nerostná | Obrazem I Solvem," verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Tiskem UNIE v Praze."; [3 pgs], "Předmluva."-signed Jan John.; [1 pg], Blank.; [3 pgs], "Obsah."; [1 pg], Blank.; 1-529, Text.; [4 pgs], "Ukazovatel Nerostů" [Index to minerals mentioned].; [2 pgs], "Ukazovatel Znaků Nerostných." [Index to localities of mineral occurances].; [1 pg], "Opravy A Dodatky" [Errata].

[Atlas] [2 pgs], Half title page, Říše Nerostná | Obrazem I Solvem," verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Tiskem UNIE v Praze."; [1 pg], "Atlas Nerostů."; [1 pg], Blank.; [2 pgs], "Seznam Tabulí."; [At end], 82 plates, each with descriptive letterpress.

Very scarce. Translation by Jan John of Das Mineralreich (Eßlingen und München, 1912).

Jan John. (Born: Žmutice, Czech Republic, 1850; Died: Tábor, Czech Republic, 1920) Czech naturalist. John worked as an instructor in various grammar schools before becoming the director of the grammar school at Tábor. He authored several books in the Czech language on natural history subjects. John studied mainly parasitic worms, but he also authored an atlas about butterflies, flowers and minerals, which is excellent.

Bibliographical references: Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 905 [not seen]. (John) Personal communication [Petr Sztacho and Martin Bohatý, 2002].

Tsarstvo Mineralov, 1904

14. Russian, 1904 [Russian transl.].
Cарство | Минераловъ | Описанiе Главныhъ Минераловъ, иhъ Мъсторожденiя | И Значенiе Иhъ Для Промыxленности. | [short rule] | Дралоcънные Камни. | [short rule] | Сочиненiе д-ра Р. Браунса, | [...one line of titles...] | Переводъ съ нъмеcкаго В.Н. Лемана | съ дополненiями относительно Россiи А.П. Нечаева и П.П. Сущинснаго. | Подъ общей заслуженнаго профессора С.-Петербургскаго Уинверситета, | д-ра А.А. Иностранcева. | [short rule] | Со миоуму нолумундhсаму бъ мексмь, 73 маблуcаму бъ краскаhъ | у 18 фомомунiу. | [ornament] | С.-Петербургъ | Изданiе А.Ф. Деврiена. | 1904.

4°: π9 1-634 642; 263l.; [2], I-XV, [1], [1]-507, [1] p., 83 chromolithographic plates. Page size: 268 x 198 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Дозволено Cензурою. С.-Петербургъ, 9 апръля 1904 г.''; [I], "Предисловiе Редакciи."-А. Иноемранcевъ., 20 Марта 1904.; [II], Blank.; [III]-[IV], "Отъ Издателя."; [V]-VII, "Предисловiе автора."-signed Reinhard Brauns.; [VIII], Blank.; [IX]-XI, "Оглавленiе Таблиcъ."; [XII], Blank.; [XIII]-XV, "Оглавленiе."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-487, Text.; [488]-497, "Предметный Указатель."; [498]-507, "Географиуескiй указатель Мъетороxденiй."; [1 pg], "Замъуенныя Опечатки."

Rare. Translation by ??? of Das Mineralreich (Eßlingen und München, 1903). It contains the indentical plates as those of the German editions with the same imprint information seen at the bottom of each plate. Descriptions of the plates are supplied on onion skin paper descriptive letterpress in Cyrillic type.

Bibliographical references: Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 91. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 906 [not seen].

15. German, 1922.
Die Mineralien | der Niederrheinischen Vulkangebiete | Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung | ihrer Bildung und Umbildung | Mit Unterstützung der Rheinischen Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Forschung | verarbeitet von | Dr. Reinhard Brauns | ordentl. Professor der Mineralogie und | Petrographie an der Universität Bonn | Mit 40 Tafeln, 3 Porträts und 32 Figuren im Text | [ornament] | Stuttgart 1922 | E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung $\langle$Erwin Nägele$\rangle$.

4°: vii, 225 p., 40 plates, 3 portraits, 32 text illus.

Very scarce. A monograph on the minerals found in the ancient Niederrhein volcanic region of Germany.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67.

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