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Johann A.F. Breithaupt
BREITHAUPT, Johann August Friedrich.

BREITHAUPT, Johann August Friedrich.
(1791 - 1873)

(Born: Probstzella, Germany, 16 May 1791; Died: Freiberg, Germany, 22 September 1873) German mineralogist.

Breithaupt studied mathematics and science at the University of Jena. He found an interest in geology, and subsequently matriculated at the Freiberg Bergakademie, where he received his instruction from A.G. Werner. He was granted an honorary doctorate by the Universities of Jena and Marburg. Subsequently, he was appointed Inspector of the Academy collections and also adjunct professor of mineralogy and geology at Freiberg, 1813-26. He became full professor in 1826, a position he retained for 40 years. He held membership in many European scientific academies. Throughout his career Breithaupt independently discovered 47 mineral species, made over 3,000 measurements of calcite, studied amorphous crystal structures, developed the law of paragensis in minerals, and contributed to reforming mineralogical nomenclature. In recognition of his mineralogical skills, an antimonickel mineral was named "Breithaupt" in his honor by ??, 18??.

Biographical references: ADB: 3, 292. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 33. DBA: I 141, 302, 141, 225; II 174, 43-52. DSB: 2, 440-1 [by Adolph Pabst]. NDB: 2, 577 [by B. Sauer]. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 289-90. Rösler, H.J., "August Breithaupt-sein Leben und Werk", Freiberger Forschungshefte, C-230, (1968), 9-19. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 616-7 & Suppl. 2 (1995), 1, 462-3. Schiffner, Alter Freiberger Bergstudenten, 1935-40: 1, 27-9, portrait, 2, 47 & 3, 107, 127. Thomas, Dictionary of Biography, 1884: 431. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 236.

Handbuch der Mineralogie ... Fortgesezt von A. Breithaupt. Band II-IV. (Freyberg, 1815-18).
See under: Hoffmann, Christian August Siegfried.

Uiber die Aechtheit der Krystalle, 1815

1. German, 1815.
Uiber die | Aechtheit der Krystalle, | von | August Breithaupt, | Kön. Sächs. Edelsteininspektor, Lehrer der Mine- | ralogie an der akademischen Bergschule, und | Administator der akademischen Mineralien- | niederlage zu Freiberg; korrespondiren- | dem Mitgliede der mineralogischen | Geselschaft [!] zu Jena. | [ornate rule] | Freiberg, | bei Craz und Gerlach. | 1815.

8°: A-D8; 32l.; [1]-63, [1] p.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3-6], Dedication to Johann Karl Freiesleben, dated 29 March 1815.; [7-8], "Vorrede."; [9]-48, Text.; [49], Sectional title page, "Beilagen."; [50], Blank.; [51]-56, "Erste Beilage."; [57]-63, "Zweite Beilage."; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. The first monograph devoted exclusively to those strange mineral formations Werner had termed "Afterkrystalle," and what are now called mineral pseudomorphs. The publication of Ueber die Aechtheit der Krystalle marked the beginning of Breithaupt's most important study, and the research he is best remembered for today, paragensis.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 229. Freidrich August Breithaupt, 1791-1873. Professor für Mineralogie an der Bergakademie Freiberg. Freiberg, 1974. 77 p. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 163.

A.G. Werner's letztes Mineral-System ... mit Erläuterungen versehen [By J.F.A. Breithaupt]. (Freyberg und Wien, 1817).
See under: Werner, Abraham Gottlob.

2. German, 1820 [First edition].
Kurze Charakteristik des Mineral Systems von August Breithaupt. Freiberg, 1820.

8°: xxiv, 79 p.

Very scarce. Mineralogy - systematic.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 229. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67.

3. German, 1820 [First edition].
Vollständige Charakteristik des Mineral-Systems. Dresden, 1820.

8°:

Extremely rare. This is the first appearance of Breithaupt's text describing his new mineral classification system. In some and now missing reference (preface to 2nd edition?), this edition is described as having appeared only in manuscript for the use of Breithaupt's students. But this has not been confirmed. In any event it is a very rare work.

Bibliographical references: BMC [wanting]. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67.

Vollständige Charakteristik, 1823

4. German, 1823 [2nd edition].
Vollständige | Charakteristik | des | Mineral-Systems. | [rule] | Von | August Breithaupt. | [rule] | Zweite gänzlich umgearbeitete Auflage. | [tapered rule] | Dresden, | in der Arnoldischen Buchhandlung. | 1823.

8°: [a]8 b-e8 1-178 1810; 188l.; [i]-lxxx, [2], [1]-292, [2] p. Page size: 204 x 124 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], Dedication.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-xvi, "Vorrede | zur zweiten Ausgabe."; [xvii]-xlviii, "Kurze Einleitung | und | Grundsätze der Klassification."; [xlvix]-lxxx, "Uebersicht | über die | äusseren Kennzeichen."; [2 pgs], "Inhalt."; [1], Sectional title page, "Das | Mineral-Reich."; 2-172, Text (=synopsis of the mineral classification system).; [173], Sectional title page, "Erläuterende | Anmerkungen | zur Charakteristik."; [174], Blank.; 175-280, Text (=description of individual species).; [281]-292, "Register."; [2 pgs], "Verbesserungen."

Very scarce. In this explanation of his mineral classificaton system, which is based principally on external characteristics, Breithaupt first provides an overview of the classification scheme followed by brief descriptions of individual mineral species.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 163.

5. German, 1832 [3rd edition].
Vollständige | Charakteristik | des Mineral-System's | [tapered rule] | Von | August Breithaupt, | [...17 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Dritte sehr bereicherte Auflage. | [tapered rule] | Dresden und Leipzig, | Arnoldische Buchhandlung. | 1832.

8°: π8 [1]-228 234; 188l.; [i]-xvi, [1]-358, [2] errata p. Page size: 213 x 125 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], Dedication to Prince Friedrich August.; [iv], Blank.; [v]-xvi, "Vorrede und Einleitung."; [1], "Charaktere der Klassen und Ordungen."; [2], Blank.; [3]-306, Text (descriptive mineralogy).; [307]-325, "Anhang. Mineraien, welche künftig im Systeme Platz finden werden."; [326]-334, "Zusätze."; 335-358, "Register."; [2 pgs], "Verbesserungen."

Very scarce. Mineralogy - systematic.

Bibliographical references: Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906: 113-4. BMC: 2, 229 [wanting]. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67.

6. German, 1829.
Vorläufige Nachricht von der Auffindung fünf sehr eigenthümlicher Abtheilungen hexagonaler und tetragonale Krystallgestalten. Freiberg, 1829.

8°: 16 p.

Very scarce. Crystal forms. Also reprinted in Kastner's Archiv gesammte Naturlehre, (1829), 18(1) and Bull. Soc. imp. Nats. Moscou., Ann. II, (1830).

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 229.

Uebersicht des Mineral-System's, 1830

7. German, 1830.
Uebersicht | des | Mineral-System's | von | August Breithaupt, | [...13 lines of titles and memberships...] | [tapered rule] | Freiberg, | bei J.C. Engelhardt. | 1830.

8°: xvi, 88 p.

Very scarce. Mineralogy - systematic.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 229. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67.

Vollständiges Handbuch, 1836

8. German, 1836-47.
Vollständiges | Handbuch | der | Mineralogie | von | August Breithaupt, | [...17 lines of titles and memberships...] | [double rule] | Erster Band. Allgemeiner Theil. | [rule] | Mit Sechs Tafeln Zeichnungen. | [ornate rule] |Dresden und Leipzig, | Arnoldische Buchhandlung. | [rule] | 1836 [-47].

[Vol 1: 1836] 8°: [i]-viii, [1]-432 p., plates 1-6, mostly of crystal drawings. [Vol 2: 1841] 8°: [i]-viii, [1]-406 p., plates 7-10, of crystal drawings. [Vol 3: 1847] 8°: [2], 407-902, [4] publisher's list p., plates 11-16, of crystal drawings. Page size: 214 x 124 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-viii, "Vorrede."- signed August Breithaupt, 14 April 1836.; [1]-28, "Einleitung."; [29], "Erste Theil. Allgemeine Mineralogie."; [30], Blank.; [31]-396, "Erster Abschnitt. Terminologie."; [397]-422, "Zweiter Abschnitt. Systematik."; [423]-429, "Dritte Abschnitt. Mineralogische Nomenklatur."; [430], "Inhalt."; 431-432, "Verbesserungen."; [At end], 6 plates.

[Vol 2] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-viii, "Vorrede."- signed August Breithaupt, August 1841.; [1], "Handbuch der Mineralogie. Zweiter Theil, oder vom besondern Theile der Gebrauch der Charakteristik und die Klassen der Salze und Steine."; [2], Blank.; 3-11, "Von dem Gebrauche der Charakteristik. I. Mineralogischer Theil der Charakteristik."; [12]-71, II. Chemischer Theil der Charakteristik. I. Allgemeines."; [72]-74, "III. Von dem geognostischen Verhalten der Mineralien."; [75]-404, Text (descriptive mineralogy).; 405-406, "Verbesserungen und Zusätze."; [At end], 4 plates.

[Vol 3] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [407]-900, Text, the descriptive mineralogy continued.; 901-902, "Verbesserungen und Zusätze."; [4 pgs], "In der Arnoldischen Buchhandlung in Dresden und Leipzig..."; [At end], 6 folding plates of crystal drawings.

Very scarce. Mineralogy - systematic.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 229. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 67.

Die Paragenesis der Mineralien, 1849

9. German, 1849.
Die | Paragenesis der Mineralien. | [rule] | Mineralogisch, geognostisch und chemisch beleuchtet, | mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Bergbau. | [rule] | Von | August Breithaupt. | Mit einer Holzschnitt-Tafel. | [ornate rule] | Freiberg, | Verlag von J.G. Engelhardt. | [rule] | 1849.

8°: π5 1-178 182; 138l.; [10], [1]-276 p., one folding woodcut plate. Page size: 217 x 132 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to King Freidrich August of Saxony.; [1 pg], Blank.; [2 pgs], "Vorrede."-signed August Breithaupt, March 1849.; [2 pgs], "Inhalt."; [2 pgs], "Verbesserungen."; [1]-7, "Einleitung."; [8]-276, Text.; [At end], One folding plate, showing 14 figures.

Very scarce. In Die Paragenesis der Mineralien, Breithaupt published the first comprehensive study of associations and age relationships among minerals. Although other mineralogists such as the Russian Severgin had occassionally observed some regularity in associations among different minerals, Breithaupt was the first to actively conduct research in this area as a separate study. He was well situated for this purpose with the extensive mineral collection of the Bergakademie readily available and the mining activity along the Erzgebirge if full blossom. He collected together his observations about mineral relationships in the Paragenesis; the importance of which was immediately recognized by others studing mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry. For instance, Gustav Bischoff frequently cites the Paragensis in the first volume of his Textbook of Chemical and Physical Geology (4 vols., London, 185?-??), and the study of mineralogical and geological relationships is today still described by the term "paragenses." Oddly, Breithaupt apparently failed to recognize his Paragenesis as an important contribution. In summarizing his views and accomplishments at the end of his career for inclusion in the Festschrift published to commemorate the centennial of the Bergakademie (1866), Breithaupt does not even mention the paragensis of minerals.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 229. DSB: 2, 440-41 [by A. Pabst]. Festschrift zum hundertjärigen Jubiläum der Königl. Sächs. Bergakademie zu Freiburg am 30. Juli 1866. Dresden, 1866. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 163.

10. German, 1852 [First edition].
Die Charaktere der Klassen und Ordnungen des Mineral-Systems ... Freiberg, Gerlach'sen Buchdruckerei, 1852.

8°: 22 p. Very rare.

11. German, 1855 [2nd edition].
Die | Charaktere | der | Klassen und Ordnungen | des | Mineral-Systems | von | August Breithaupt. | [ornate rule] | Als Manuscript ausgegeben. | Zweite Ausgabe. | [tapered rule] | Freiberg. | Bei Craz und Gerlach. | 1855.

8°: π12; 12l.; [1]-22, [2] p. In printed wraps, with the title page being the front cover. Page size: 226 x 142 mm. uncut.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3], "Vorbemerkungen."; [4], Blank.; [5]-22, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], Back cover, colophon, "Druck der Gerlach's Buchdruckerei."

Very scarce. This work sets out a synopsis to Breithaupt's mineralogical classification as presented in his Handbuch der Mineralogie (3 vols., Dresden & Leipzig, 1836-47). It provides an overview of the classes and groups of mineral species and indicates some of their physical properties such as color, luster, hardness, specific gravity, streak, etc.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 229.

12. German, 1866.
Mineralogische Studien | von | August Breithaupt. | [rule] | Separat-Abdruck aus der Berg- und hüttenmännischen Zeitung | Jahrgang 1865 u. 1866. | [rule] | Leipzig. | Verlag von Arthur Felix. | 1866.

8°: 1-78 85; 61l.; [1]-122 p., illus. Page size: 192 x 120 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-116, Text.; 117-119, "Nachträge."-signed August Breithaupt, June 1866.; [120]-122, "Register."

Scarce. Separate printing from articles that appeared in the annual Berg- und hüttenmännischen Zeitung for 1865 & 1866. Described therein are the descriptions of various new and reexamined mineral species including frieslebenite and fauserite. The text is listed alphabetically by species name.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 229.

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