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Morten Thrane Brünnich
BRÜNNICH, Morten Thrane.

BRÜNNICH, Morten Thrane.
(1737 - 1827)

(Born: Copenhagen, Denmark, 30 September 1737; Died: Copenhagen, Denmark, 19 September 1827) Danish naturalist & mining expert.

Brünnich was a professor of economics and natural history at the University of Copenhagen. Then he became chief mining official in Norway and director of the Kongsberg silver mines. In 1814, he returned to Copenhagen were he lived out the remainder of his life. Brünnich was a member of the Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab [Royal Danish Scientific Academy].

Biographical references: Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 70. Dansk Biografisk Lexikon: 4, 276-8 [by A. Quenstedt]. Garboe, Geologiens Historie i Danmark, 1959-61: 1, 144-57, portrait. Garboe, Axel., "Morten Thrane Brünnich og hans fossil samlinger", Meddelelser fra Dansk Geologisk Forening, 15, (1963), pt. 2, 212-21, figs. 1-6. Gilbert, Deceased Entomologists, 1977: 51. Henriksen, K.L., "??", Entomologiske Meddelelser, 15, (1921), 41-7, portrait. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 64. Nyerup, R., Morten Thrane Brünnich, Naturvidenskabens Senior i Danmark. Et biographisk Omrids som Program til Jubilæet den 29 de September 1819. Kopenhagen, 1819. 8°: 29, [2] p. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 315-6. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 639. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: A-43, 386-395; A-43, 397-402. WBI. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994. Worm, Forsøg til et Lexicon over Danske, 1771-84.

1. Danish, 1777.
Forsøg til mineralogie for Norge ved professor M. Th. Brünnich. Et pris-skrift belønnet formedelst hans kongel. høyheds arve-prinsens gavmildhed af det kongel. Norske Videnskabers Selskab og paa dets bekostning udgivet til almindelig brug. Tronheim, Trykt hos Jens Christensen Winding, 1777.

8°: [2], 96 p.

Very rare. This prize winning essay was published at the expense of Royal Norwegian Society of Science [get real name].

Facsimile reprint, 1977: Forsøg til Mineralogie for Norge. Trondheim, 1977. 8°: 96 p. [Published in an edition of 1000 as Facsimilia Scientia et Technica Norvegica, no. 41.]

Bibliographical references: Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 2, 712. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 48. LKG: XII 72*. Pettersen, Norsk Boglexikon, 1972-4: 1, 56. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 175.

2. Danish, 1777 [First edition].
Mineralogie. | [double rule] | Afhandlende | Egenskaber og Brug | af | Jord- og Steenarter, Salter, mineralske | brænlige Legemer og Metaller. | [rule] | Forsattet | af | M. Th. Brünnich. | [double rule] | Kiøbenhavn, 1777. | Trykt med Simmelkiærs Skrifter.

8°: )(8 2)(4 A-U8 χ1: 173l.; [i]-xxiv, [1]-320, [1] errata, [1] blank p. Page size: 189 x 115 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], "Til kronprintsen."; [iv], Blank.; [v]-[vi], "Naadigste kronprints og Herre!"; [vii]-xiv, "Til Læseren."-list of references on pages xii-xiv (13 entries).; [xv]-xx, "Indledning."; [xxi]-xxiv, "Indlednings Table."; [1]-121, "Første Klasse ... Jord- og Steen-Arten (Terræ et Lapides)."; 122-166, "Anden Klasse ... Salter, (Salia)."; 167-178, "Tredie Klasse ... Mineralske Brænlige Legemer, (Inflammabilia Mineralia)."; 179-308, "Fierde Klasse ... Metaller, (Metalla)."; 309-312, "Femte Klasse ... Forsteeninger, (Petrificata)."; [313]-320, "Dansk Register."; [1 pg], Errata, "Trykseil og Kettelser."; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. This is the author's complete introduction to mineralogy. It emulates the work of Johan Gotschalk Wallerius [q.v.] upon which it is based by including in the species descriptions notes on synonoymes, hardness, physical appearance, origins, and uses. In addition, every mineral listed has a reference to Wallerius' system as presented in Systema Mineralogicum (1st ed., Holmiæ, 1772-5). Brünnich adopts a classification system founded on chemical principles that provides a good foundation for the logical organization of the species.

The preliminaries of the work include a short passage on why this work should be used, a list of literature cited, and a general introduction to mineralogical science covering some definitions and general remarks. The text then presents the classification of the mineral species. This systematic portion is divided into five classes: (1) earths and stones, (2) salts, (3) flammable substances, like pitch and amber, (4) metals and (5) petrifications. An index in Danish to the mineral names and a page of errata conclude the work.

Bibliographical references: BL [990.f.14.]. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 48. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 175.

Mineralogie, 1781

3. German, 1781 [German transl.].
Martin Thrane Brünnich | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | Mineralogie. | [ornament] | Aus dem Dänischen übersetzt, | mit | Zusätzen des Verfassers und einer Anzeige | der bisher bekannten | Rußischen Mineralien | vermehrt. | [ornate rule] | St. Petersburg und Leipzig, | bey Johann Zacharias Logan, 1781.

8°: π8 A-X8 Y6 **2; 184l.; [16], [1]-347, [5] p., title vignette. Page size: 192 x 116 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [6 pgs], "An den Leser"-signed, "Der Verfasser," 14 September 1777.; [4 pgs], "Vorrede des Uebersetzers"-signed Joh. Gottl. Georgi, 12-23 October 1780.; [4 pgs], "Einleitung."; [1]-328, Text.; 329-347, "Register."; [1 pg], Blank.; [4 pg], "Einleitungstabelle."

Very scarce. Translated by Johann Gottlieb Georgi [see note below] from Mineralogie (Kiøbenhavn, 1777). This edition contains for the additional species and a notice of hitherto unknown Russian minerals by the translator, who spent many years in Russia making numerous mineralogical expeditions.

The preliminaries include Brünnich's letter to the reader, a forward from the translator and a short introduction. The translation of the text is presented, concluding with a species index and an overview of the classification system.

Johann Gottlieb Georgi. (Born: Gut Wachholzhagen, Pommern, Germany, 31 December 1729; Died: St. Peterburg, Russia, 27 October 1802) German apothecary. Georgi established an apothecary in Stendal, but moved his establishment in 1770 to St. Petersburg. Using this as a home base he made many explorations in the Russian territory. In 1783, he was elected a member of the Academy of Science in St. Petersburg.

Bibliographical references: Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek: 51, 451. Beckmann P.Ö.B.: 11, 581. BL [953.c.5.]. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 2, 712. Fischer, Mineralogie in Sachsen, 1939: 310. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 48-9. LKG: XII 73a. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 175. (Georgi) ADB: 8, 713-4. Berg, Russischen Geographischen Entdeckungen, 1954: 261-3. Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 473 [1 portrait listed]. DBA: I 380, 385-391; II 439, 160-161. Deutsche Apotheker Biographie: 1, 198-200. Gerber, Historisch-biographisches Lexikon, 1812-4. Great Soviet Encyclopedia: portrait. Hamberger & Meusel, Gelehrte Teutschland, 1796-1834. Moliavko, Geologi Biograficheskii, 1985: p. 75. NDB: 6, 242-3. Poggendorff: 1, col. 876. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: p. 119. Walden, P., "Der Apotheker als Kulturträger," Pharmaz. Zeitung, 75 (1930), 1323-??. WBI.

4. French, 1783 [Bibliography].
M. T. Brünnichii ... Literatura Danica scientiarum naturalium, qua comprehendentur I. Les Progrès de l'histoire naturelle en Dannemarc & en Norvège. (Traduit du danois par N. J. A. Yanssens des Campeaux.) Fr. II. Bibliotheca patria autorum & scriptorum, scientias naturales tractantium. Lat. Hafniæ & Lipsiæ, 1783.

2 parts. [Part 1] 8°: [2], 124 p. [Part 2] 8°: 242, xiv, [16] p.

Very scarce. Lists c2000 entries relevant to the natural history of Denmark and Norway, including titles in geology, mineralogy and paleontology. The second part provides a chronological listing of the entries.

Bibliographical references: Besterman, Bibliography of Bibliographies, 1965-6: col. 4157. BL [B.553.(1.)]. LKG: XIV 15. Margerie, Bibliographies Géologiques, 1896: no. 2762. Petzholdt, Bibliotheca Bibliographica, 1866: p. 534. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 175.

5. Latin, 1793 [Library catalog].
Catalogus | Bibliothecæ | Historiæ Naturalis, | Libris | Præsertim Ad Regnum Animale | Et Lapideum | Spectantibus Instructæ. | Qui Auctione Publica | Die     Mensis Juill 1793 | In Ædibus Communitatis Regiæ Universitatie | Havntensis Vendentur. | [ornate rule] | Havniæ | Typis Johannis Friderici Schuldiæ | Aulæ Et Universitatis Typographi.

8°: [1]-78 p.

Very rare. This is the auction sale catalog of Brünnich's library that occurred in July 1793. It was a collection of natural history books with extensive sections in animals and minerals.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.601.(1.)]. Bridson, History of Natural History, 1994: no. Bc579. Petzholdt, Bibliotheca Bibliographica, 1866: p. 550.

Cronstedts Versuch einer Mineralogie. Vermehrt durch Brünnich. (Copenhagen und Leipzig, 1770).
See under: Cronstedt, Axel Fredrik.

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