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Pierre Joseph Buc'hoz
BUC'HOZ, Pierre Joseph.

BUC'HOZ, Pierre Joseph.
(1731 - 1807)

(Born: Metz, France, 27 January 1731; Died: Paris, France, 30 January 1807) French botanist & naturalist.

Buc'hoz was the son of Pierre Brughant, Bourgeois of Metz. He was persuaded to follow his father's profession and he embarked on a carrer to practice law. However, Buc'hoz did not find the profession agreeable and instead moved to Nancy where he took up the study of medicine, graduating on February 22, 1763. He was appointed physician ordinary to King Stanislas of Poland, but was accused of not fulfilling his duties and quit to devote his full energy to the study of botany. He collaborated on the founding of the Jardin des Plantes at Nancy, and for twelve years co-edited a newspaper on agriculture.

Buc'hoz eventually settled in Paris where he made a living by preparing many illustrated works about the three realms of natural history. In 1788, to mend his finances, Buc'hoz sold at auction his large library concerned with natural history.[1] He petitioned the French goverment for a pension, and to support his claim he published a bibliography of his own works, Dissertation en forme de catalogue des différents travaux de J.-P. Buchoz dans la carrière botanique pendant plus de cinquante ans. (Paris, 1794). Buc'hoz held membership in the academies of Metz, Nancy, d'Angers, Béziers, Bordeaux, Châlons-Saint Marne, Lyon, Rouen and Mayence.

Buc'hoz was a prolific author, who on the title pages of his many publications, usually reversed his christian names [i.e. Joseph Pierre, not Pierre Joseph]. However, his writings in science and natural history developed a bad reputation owing to their inaccuracies and the incomplete understanding of the author about the subjects. This has caused Buc'hoz to be labeled the Sir John Hill of France. Buc'hoz' reputation today is perhaps best summed up in the Hunt Catalog: "Buc'hoz is not beloved of botanists, bibliographer's or collectors of prints. He has a maddening way of using the same plates again and again and again, in book after book-sometimes colored, sometimes uncolored, sometimes badly colored, sometimes reversed, sometimes redrawn, sometimes with added details, sometimes with changes to nomenclature." As can be seen from the descriptions of his mineralogical works, this is a fair assessment.

Biographical references: ABF: I 164, 409-422,II 107, 438. Bégin, Biographie de la Moselle, 1829-32: 1, 177. Bridson, History of Natural History, 1994: no. Bc529. Biographie Universelle: 6, 98-9. Bulletin de la Societe d'histoire naturelle de la Moselle: 1932. DBF: 7, col. 605-6 [by J. Feller]. Feller, Biographie Universelle, 1851. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8: 1, 751. Hunt Botanical Catalog: 2, 416-20, no. 656. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer): 7, 706. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 330-1. Revue Encyclopédique [by Deleuze]. WBI.

1. French, 1769 [First edition].
Vallerius | Lotharingiæ, | Ou | Catalogue | Des Mines, Terres, | Fossiles, Sables Et Cailliox | qu'on trouve | Dans La Lorraine | Et Les Trois Évechés; | Ensemble leurs proprietés dans la Medicine & | & dans les Arts & Metiers. | Par M. Pierre-Joseph Buc'hoz, Médecin, Botanista | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | [ornament] | A Nancy, | Chez C.S. Lamort, Imprimeur, près des | RR. PP. Dominicains. | Se vend à Paris, | Chez Durand, Neveu, rue S. Jacques, à | la Sagesse. | [rule] | Avec Approbation Et Permission.

8°: [i]-vii, [1], [1]-382, [6] p.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], "Urbi Metensi."; [iv], Blank.; v-vii, "Préface."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-382, Text.; [6 pgs], Publisher's list.

Rare. This is a catalogue of the mines, stones, fossils, sands and such found in the region of Lorraine in france, together with their uses in medicine, arts and the trades.

Reissue, 1771: Nancy, C.-S. Lamart, 1771. Apparently identical to the 1769 edition.

Bibliographical references: Berlinische Sammlungen: 3, 650-1. BL [233.b.41.]. CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. Journal des Scavans: May, 1769, 568. LKG: XIV 374. NUC: 82, 103-8 [NB 0914253].

2. French, 1770.
Lettres hebdomadaires sur l'utilité des minéraux dans la société civile pour servir de suite aux lettres sur les animaux & les végétaux par M. Pierre-Joseph Buc'hoz ... Paris, Durand neveu, 1770.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 4°: 413, [3] p. (p. 33 misnumbered 37). [Vol 2] 410, [4] p. (p. 3 misnumbered 5.)

Very scarce. Incorporated with other natural history writings and reissued under the title, La Nature Considérée sous sese différents aspects (8 vols., Paris, 1771-83).

Bibliographical references: Berlinische Sammlungen: 3, 656-7. Bolton, Catalogue of Periodicals, 1897: no. 2691. CBN: 20, 1147-75. Journal encyclopédique.: 4 (1770), 298. NUC: 82, 103-8 [NB 0914192].

3. French, 1771-83 [Periodical].
La Nature | Considérée | Sous Ses Différens Aspects, | Ou | Lettres | Sur Les Animaux, Les Végétaux | Et Les Minéraux. | Contenants des observations intérassantes sur | l'Histoire Naturelle, les Mœurs & les caractéres | des Animaux, sur la Minéralogie, la Borani- | que, & c. & un détail de leurs différens usages | dans l'économie domestique & rurale. | [rule] | Ouvrage Periodique. | [ornate rule] | Tome Premier. | [ornate rule] | A Paris, | Chez J.P. Costard, Libraire, rue | Saint-Jean-de-Beauvais. | [ornate rule] | M. DCC. LXXI. | Avec Approbation & Privilége du Roi.

8 vols.

Very scarce. According to Bolton (1897) this is a reissue of three previous works of Buc'hoz. It contains: Lettres Périodiques sur la Méthode ... Végétaux (5 vols., Paris 1768-70), Lettres Périodiques, curieuses, utiles et intéressabtes, su les avantages que la société Économique (4 vols., Paris, 1769-70) and Lettres Hebdomadaires su l'utilité des Minéraux dans la société civile {2 vols., Paris 1770). It was continued under the title: La Nature considérée sous ses différents aspects, ou lettres sur les animaux, les végétaux et les minéraux. Par l'Abbé Bertholon et Boyer (9 vols., Paris, 1787-89).

Bibliographical references: BL [957.g.5-12.]. Bolton, Catalogue of Periodicals, 1897: no. 2691. CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. LKG: VI 48.

Premier Centurie de Planches, 1778

4. French, 1778-81 [First edition].
[Engraved title printed in red and contained within a ornate double ruled box:] Premiere Centurie | De Planches | Enluminées Et Non Enluminées | Representant Au Naturel | Ce qui de trouve | de plus Intéressant et de plus Curieux | parmi | Les Animaux Les Vegetaux | Et Les Mineraux, | Pour servir d'intelligence | à l'Histoire Generale | Des Trois Regnes De La Nature. | Par M. Buc'hoz, Medecin Botaniste de Monsieur | Et Auteur des Dictionnaires des trois Regne de la France. | Decade 1e. | Regne Animal. | [ornate rule] | A Paris. | Chez Lacombe, Libraire rue Christine. | Et chez l'Auteur rue Hautefeuille. | Avec Privilege. | Mlle. Niquet, Scrip.

[Title page of second volume reads:]

[Engraved title printed in red and contained within a ornate double ruled box:] Seconde Centurie | De Planches | Enluminées | Et Non Enluminées | Representant Au Naturel | Ce qui de trouve | de plus Intéressant et de plus Curieux | parmi | Les Animaux, Les Vegetaux, Et Les Mineraux, | Pour servir | d'intelligence à l'Histoire Generale | Des Trois Regnes De La Nature. | Par M. Buc'hoz | Medecin Botaniste de Monsieur. | Et Auteur des Dictionnaires des trois Regne de la France. | Decade 1re. | Regne Animal. | A Amsterdam. | Chez Marc-Michel Rey, Libraire. | 1778.

2 vols. Folio, consisting of a total of 20 suites of plates, each with an engraved title page, engraved table of contents, and 10 subjects each in uncolored and colored impression. These plates are divided into "centurie" of 100 subjects per volume for a total of 200 plates (colored and uncolored), making together 400 plates between the two vols. This remarkable work has no general title page; however, each "decade" or livraison has its own engraved title page, which varies in minor detail and color from one decade to another. The titles transcribed above being the title pages from the first "decade" of the first "centurie," which dealt with the animal kingdom. Page size: 505 x 335 mm.

Rare. A little known, finely illustrated natural history covering the three realms of plants, animals and minerals. It is one of the best known works of the prolific Buc'hoz, and because of the author's reuse of the plates in later works, a difficult bibliographic problem. The work contains no text, but consists of a series of plates in royal folio. On unstated evidence, both Brunet and the BMC date the work "(1775) 1778-1781." Since no "decade" of the first volume contains any date, there is no direct reason for dating the first volume in 1775; however, the decades of the second volume are dated Amsterdam, 1778 (nos. 1-3); Paris, 1778 (no. 4); Amsterdam, 1779 (no. 5) and 1780 (no. 6); Paris, 1780 (nos. 7, 8); and Paris, 1781 (nos. 9, 10).

Premier [-Seconde] Centurie des Planches appears to be the first appearance of any portion of the work as it relates to mineralogy. Complete copies of the book are usually bound in 2 volumes, each covering 100 subjects or one "centurie." It is from this grouping that the designation of Premier or Seconde Centurie as used in the title is derived. The two volumes contain 20 suites of large folio engraved plates, each with an engraved title page (most printed in colors other than black), an engraved table of contents and plates illustrating 10 subjects. Each of the subjects is present in both uncolored and hand-colored impression making the complete 2 volume work total 400 plates (200 uncolored plates of subjects, 200 colored).

Each "decade" is devoted to a natural kingdom-animal, vegetable or mineral, in that order-each volume thus having "decades" 1, 4, 7 and 10 devoted to animals, 2, 5, and 8 to plants, and 3, 6, and 9 to minerals and fossils. Therefore, within this work there are 80 different plates (in both colored and uncolored state) depicting animals, and 60 each showing plants and minerals. As there is essentially no accompanying text, the merits of this book must rest on the quality of the illustrations, and although sometimes crude they are among the finest colored illustrations of minerals created in the eighteenth century.

Unreserved praise must go to the numerous artists who designed Buc'hoz' plates [see notes below]. Greatest among these was Jean Baptiste Desmoulins. Buc'hoz was also fortunate in retaining several of the foremost engravers of the times such as C. Bacquoy, Dupin fils and C. Fessard. These artisans and others engraved and magnificently hand-colored the plates of this work. In fact it is reported that after he became a widower, Buc'hoz married one of the lady colorists who had worked on this book. It can also be observed that a number of the mineralogical specimens illustrated have been copied directly from the works of other authors like Knorr and Schmiedel.

Claude Mathieu Fessard. (Born: Fontainebleau, France, 1740; Died: Paris, France, After 1803) French engraver & etcher. Fessard was a student of the great French artist Joseph de Longueil [1730-1792]. He travelled to England in 1765 to expand his experience, after which he illustrated several books of voyages and travels, including P.S. Pallas' Voyage en Russiè (Paris, 1788-93). Fessard signed his work "Fessard jeune" in order to distinguish it from the engravings of Etienne Fessard [1714-1777].

Jean Victor Dupin. (Born: Paris, France, 1718; Died: Paris, France?,      ) French engraver. Dupin was the son of the renowned engraver Pierre Dupin [1690-1755?], with whom he worked in his early career. Jean Victor usually signed his work "Dupin fils."

Jean Baptiste Desmoulins. (Born: Paris, France, 1740; Died:      ) French engraver. French copper engraver who worked in Paris and collaborated with Abbé de Saint-Non.

Jean Charles Baquoy. (Born: Paris, France, 16 June 1721; Died: Paris, France, 24 February 1777) French engraver. French copper engraver who signed his work C. Baquoy and belongs to the greatest vingette engravers of the eighteenth century.

Bibliographical references: Brunet: 1, col. 1371. CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 106. Mengel, Catalogue of the Ellis Collection, 1972-83: 1, 228-9, no. 406. Nissen (ZBI): no. 651. NUC: 82, 103-8 [NB 0914223]. (Fessard) Thieme & Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon, 1907-50: 11, 504. (Dupin) Thieme & Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon, 1907-50: 10, 156. (Desmoulins) Thieme & Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon, 1907-50: 9, 139. (Baquoy) Thieme & Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon, 1907-50: 2, 450.

5. French, 1778-82 [2nd edition].
Collection de Planches Représentant au Naturel Ce qui se trouve de plus Intéressant et de plus Curieux parmi les Animaux, les Végétaux, et les Minéraux, Pour servir a l'intelligence de l'Histoire Générale des trois Regnes de la Nature. Paris, Durand neveu, 1778-1782.

2 vols. Engraved title page in each volume, 20 suites, each with an engraved title page, engraved table of contents, and 10 subjects each in uncolored and colored impression (together, 400 plates of subjects).

Rare. Almost identical in content to the first appearance, titled: Premier [-Seconde] Centurie des Planches (Paris, [1775]-1781), which is described above. The difference being the addition of an engraved general title page in each volume.

Bibliographical references: BL [1819.c.4.]. CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. NUC: 82, 103-8 [NB 0914142].

Les Dons Merveilleux, 1782

6. French, 1782-97.
[Engraved title within a multibordered box:] Les Dons Merveilleux | Et Diversement Coloriés | De La Nature | dans le Regne Mineral, | Ou | Collection | De Mineraux | Precieusement Coloriés, | Pour servir à l'intelligence de l'Historie | générale et œconomique des trois Regnes. | Par Mr. Buc'hoz | Medecin Botaniste et de quartier | de Monsieur | [ornate rule] | A Paris. | Chez l'Auteur rue de la Harpe vis-à-vis la Place Sorbonne. | [ornate rule] | 1782.

2°: [2] p., 100 hand-colored plates, [8] p. Page size: 410 x 250 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Engraved title page, verso blank.; 100 hand-colored plates.; [7 pgs], "Explication | Des Planches.; [1 pg], Blank.

Very rare. Les Dons Merveilleux ... Regne Minéral is a marvelously illustrated work focused on mineralogical subjects. Is a reissue of the sixty colored plates first published in 1775-81 in Premiere [-Seconde] Centurie des Planches (2 vols., Paris, 1775-81), together with forty additional plates that appear for the first time. Although it is in the same style of the previous work and consists primarily of plates of illustrations, the large number of additional plates show that this volume should be considered a separate, new work.

Brunet dates this work as "1782-97," which indicates the work was issued in a series of parts. However, no direct evidence has been uncovered to support this contention. Although it would seem likely that Buc'hoz would have sold this work through a subscription system by periodically preparing additional plates for the book, no wrappers, advertisements or other evidence has been found. Only circumstantial support comes from a relatively large number of copies of this work being described as having fewer than 100 plates; that number usually being 88. In addition, the last 40 plates are new, with no indication of "Decade." Instead, each plate although unnumbered, has in its upper right-hand corner a "Pl." designation.

Bibliographical references: Brunet: 1, col. 1371. CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. Hunt Botanical Catalog: no. 656 [describes the botanical twin to this mineralogical volume, but the comments were useful in directing the commentary.]. LKG: VI 49a. NUC: 82, 103-8 [NB 0914170]. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 180. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 2, 264.

Dictionnaire Minéralogique, 1772

7. French, 1772-6 [First edition].
Dictionnaire | Minéralogique | Et Hydrologique | De La France, | Contenant I°. la Description des Mines, Fossiles, Fluors, | Crystaux, Terres, Sables & Cailloux qui s'y trouvent; | l'Art d'exploiter les Mines, la Fonte & la Purification des | Métaux, leurs différentes préparations Chymiques, & les | divers usages pour lesquels on peut les employer dans la | Médecine, l'Art Vétérinaire, & les Arts & Métiers; | II°. L'Historie Naturelle de toutes les Fontaines Minérales | du Royaume, leur Analyse Chymique; une Notice des | maladies pour lesquelles elles peuvent convenir avec quel- | ques observations-pratiques: on y a joint un Gneumon | Gallitus. | Pour servir de suite au Dictionnaire des Plantes, Arbres & | Arbustes de la France, & au Dictionnaire Vétérinaire & | des Animaux Domestiques, & completter l'Histoire des | Productions naturelles & économiques du Royaume. | Tome Premier. | [ornate rule] | Partie Premiere. | Des Fontaines Minérales. | [ornate rule] | [ornament] | A Paris, | Chez J.P. Costard, Libraire, rue S. Jean de Beauvais. | [ornate rule] | M. DCC. LXXII. | Avec Approbation & Privilége du Roi.

4 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [2], vi, xvi, 635, [1] p. [Vol 2] 8°: 520, clxiv p. [Vol 3] 8°: [2], xii, [5]-638 p. [Vol 4] 8°: [4], 710, [2] p. Vol. 4 published by Brunet. "Epitre" signed Buc'hoz.

Very scarce. 1. ptie., t. 1-2. Des fontaines minérales - 2. ptie., t. 3-4. Des mines et fossiles. Mineralogy - France. Mineral waters - France.

Bibliographical references: BL [1568/7058.]. LKG: XIV 332 & XIV 339. NUC: 82, 103-8 [NB 0914146]. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 180.

8. French, 1785 [2nd edition].
Dictionnaire | Minéralogique | Et | Hydraulogique, | Contenant 1°. la Description des Mines, Fossiles Fluors, | Crystaux, Terres, Sables & Cailloux; l'Art d'exploiter | les Mines, la Fontè & la purification des Métaux, leurs | différentes préparations chymiques, & les divers usages | pour lesquels ou peur les employer dans la Médecine, | l'Art Vètérinaire, & les Arts & Métiers. | II° L'Histoire Naturelle de toutes les Fontaines Minérales | de la France, leur Analyse chymique; une Notice des | maladies pour lesquelles elles peüvent convenir, avec | quelques observations-pratiques; ou {\`y} a joint un | Gneumon Gallicus. | Ouvrage nécessaire à tous ceux qui veulent éudier | l'Histoire naturelle. | Tome Premier. | [rule] | Fontaines Minérales. | [rule] | Les 4 volumes in 8°. rel. 18 liv. | [ornament] | A Paris | Du fonds de Goguí. | Chez [The next 4 lines braced on the left by a {:] Volland, Librire, quai des Augustins, près | la rue du Hurepoix. | Royez, quai des Augustins, à la descente | du Pont-Neuf. | [ornate rule] | M. DCC. LXXXV. | Avec Approbation, & Privilége du Roi.

4 vols. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: BL [1507/1461.]. CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. LKG: XIV 332. NUC: 82, 103-8 [NB 0914148].

9. French, 1776.
Histoire Générale des Animaux, des Végétaux et des Minéraux qui se trouvent dans le Royaume, représentés en gravure ... avec l'explication aussi gravée au bas de chaque planche ... Introduction représentant les principaux costumes de France. Par M. Pierre-Joseph Buchoz, ... Paris: l'Auteur, 1776.

2°, engraved title page, double suite of engraved plates both colored and uncolored.

Very scarce. Tome I contains an introduction to the history of the quadrupedes.

Bibliographical references: CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. LKG: XIV 332b*.

10. French, 1778.
Histoire generale des animaux, des vegetaux et des mineraux qui se trouvent dansle royaume etc. Paris, 1778.

8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 332a*.

11. French, 1782.
Les richesses de la France dans ses productions mineralogiques et hydrologiques par P.I. Buc'hoz. Paris, 1782.

8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 333c.

12. French, 1789.
Dissertation en Forme de Préface sur les fossiles. Paris: l'Auteur, [1789].

2°: 2 p. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. LKG: IX 17.

13. French, 1790.
Dissertatio sur l'Histoire naturelle des environs de Pont a Mousson en Lorraine. Paris, 1790.

8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 376b.

14. French, 1790.
Catalogue Latin et Francais des differentes substances qui composent le Regne mineral de Lorraine etc. Paris, 1790.

8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 375a.

15. French, 1792.
Dissertatio sur l'Analyse de Valerius Lotharingiae et sur les branches de commerce qui peuvent resulter pour la Lorraine du regne mineral. Paris, 1792.

8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 377c.

16. French, 1792.
Dissertation analytique sur le Dictionnaire minéralogique et hydrologique de la France. Par M. Buc'hoz ... Paris: Prévost et Barrois aîné, [1792].

2°: 2 p. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: CBN: 20, col. 1147-75. LKG: XIV 334d.

17. French, 1792.
Dissertatio sur le Cantal, montagne famguse de la haute Auvergne. Paris, 1792.

8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 358*.

18. French, 1798.
Dissertatio sur les Vosges, de meme que sur leurs productions naturelles et economiques. Paris, 1798.

8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 365*.

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