The Mineralogical Record
The Mineralogical Record - Join us on Facebook!  The Mineralogical Record - Sign up for our newsletter
>

William Buckland
BUCKLAND, William, <i>Reverend</i>.

BUCKLAND, William, Reverend.
(1784 - 1856)

(Born: Axminster, England, 1784; Died: Oxford, England, 14 August 1856) English geologist, mineralogist & clergyman.

He was dean of Westminster from 1845. First to note in England the action of glacial ice on rocks, he did much to bring physical and natural science into high repute and was responsible for giving Oxford (where he was a student and later a fellow) an international name in science. He wrote Reliquiae Diluvianae (1823) and Geology and Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology (1836). Francis T. Buckland, English surgeon and naturalist, was his son. William Buckland may not be a household name, but to dinosaur lovers the world over, he should be. Professor of Geology at Oxford, Buckland is responsible for the world's first description of a recognized dinosaur fossil, although the term "dinosaur" didn't exist at the time. In 1824, Buckland published Notice on the Megalosaurus or Great Fossil Lizard of Stonesfield. In the same science meeting where he described Megalosaurus Buckland also announced - reassured by Cuvier that it was correct - the first fossil mammal from the Age of Reptiles. In its own way, this tiny mammal fossil was as surprising as the giant reptile he had just named. Conventional wisdom of the time said mammals came only after the great reptiles. Years later, Buckland tried to resolve the controvery he had raised by suggesting that the mammal was an "inferior" marsupial. Buckland's discoveries in paleontology were as varied as they were distinguished. In 1822, in An Assemblage of Fossil Teeth and Bones, he described a feeding frenzy of ancient hyenas based on fossil remains. That same year he discovered an ancient human skeleton. He initially and correctly identified it as male, but later reversed the decision and proclaimed the skeleton not only female but also (perhaps in jest) a witch! After calling it the Red Witch, he finally gave the skeleton the more palatable name of the Red Lady of Paviland. Unlike the scriptural geologists of his day, Buckland did not hold to a literal interpretation of Genesis, especially in terms of geologic time. Nevertheless, he was a deeply religious man who devoted much of his life to supporting scripture with geology, attracting criticism from theologians and scientists alike. Buckland had an open mind; persuaded by Louis Agassiz and his own observations, he eventually traded his belief in the diluvial theory for support of the Ice Age theory. And Buckland was a fantastic popularizer of science who had the grace not to take himself too seriously. One of his students recounted how Buckland once . . . rushed, skull in hand, at the first undergraduate on the front bench - and shouted, "What rules the world?" The youth, terrified, threw himself against the next back seat, and answered not a word. He rushed then on me, pointing the hyena full in my face - "What rules the world?" "Haven't an idea," I answered. "The stomach, sir," he cried. In another lecture, Buckland happily strutted about the room imitating the gait of giant birds he believed left their footprints in ancient deposits. (The "birds" could well have been bipedal dinosaurs.) Afterwards, one of Buckland's high-minded colleages scoffed, "the grossness of the Buffoonery acted on me like an emetic." For more information: The Great Devonian Controversy by Martin J.S. Rudwick The Dragon Seekers by Christopher McGowan The Meaning of Fossil by Martin J.S. Rudwick "The Awful, Terrible Dinosaurian Irony" by Stephen Jay Gould in Natural History Magazine, February, 1998 issue Hunting Dinosaurs by Louie Psihoyos The Reign of the Dinosaurs by Jean-Guy Michard Scenes from Deep Time by Martin J.S. Rudwick The Ice Finders by Edmund Blair Bolles Evolution by Linda Gamlin

Biographical references: Annual Register. Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 38. BBA: I 165, 359-376; II 1350, 399. Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 235 [2 portraits listed]. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 71. DNB. DSB: 2, 566-72 [by W.F. Cannon]. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. ISIS, 1913-65: 1, 203. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 66. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 331-2. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 649-52, Suppl. 1 (1986), 1, 319 & Suppl. 2 (1995), 1, 474-5. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 266.

Geology and Mineralogy, 1836

1. English, 1836 [First edition].
Geology And Mineralogy | Considered With Reference To | Natural Theology | By | The Rev. William Buckland, D.D. | Canon Of Christ Church And Reader In Geology And Mineralogy | In The University Of Oxford | Vol I [-II] | [ornament] | London | William Pickering | 1836.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: π6 b6 B-2P8 2Q4; 312l.; [1]-8, [i]-xvi, [1]-599, [1] p.; [Vol 2] 8°: π5 b2 B-I8; 69l.; [6], [i]-vi, [2], [1]-128 p., 87 plates (numbered 1-69, 15', 25', 26', 26", 26"', 26a-b, 27a-f, 44', 44", 46', 46", and 56a). Page size: 224 x 140 mm. uncut.

Contents: [Vol 1] [1]-8, "Works Published By William Pickery."; [i-ii], Series title page, "The Bridgewater Treatises | On The Power Wisdom And Goodness Of God | As Manifested In The Creation | [rule] | Treatise VI | Geology And Mineralogy Considered With Reference | To Natural Theology | By The Rev. William Buckland, D.D. | In Two Volumes | Vol I | Thou Lord In The Beginning Hast Laid The Foundation Of The Earth. | Psalm CII. 25.," verso 2 long quoations.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "[rule] | C. Whittingham, Tooks Court, Chancery Lane | [rule]."; [v]-vi, Dedication to Davies Gilbert, signed William Buckland, 30 May 1836.; [vii]-viii, "Preface."; [ix], "The Scientific Reader ..."; [x]-xii, "Notice."; [xiii]-xvi, "Contents | Of The First Volume."; [1]-596, Text.; [597]-599, "Supplementary Notes."; [1 pg], "Errata."

[Vol 2] [4 pgs], Advertisements.; [2 pgs], Blanks.; [i-ii], Series title page, "The Bridgewater Treatises | On The Power Wisdom And Goodness Of God | As Manifested In The Creation | [rule] | Treatise VI | Geology And Mineralogy Considered With Reference | To Natural Theology | By The Rev. William Buckland, D.D. | In Two Volumes | Vol II | Thou Lord In The Beginning Hast Laid The Foundation Of The Earth. | Psalm CII. 25.," verso 2 long quoations.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "[rule] | C. Whittingham, Tooks Court, Chancery Lane | [rule]."; [v]-vii, "List Of Engravings."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-110, "Explanation Of The Plates."; [Plates 1-69, part folding, geological & palaeontological subjects.]; [111]-128, "Index."

Scarce. In this work, Buckland helped redefine the role of science and theology. Geologists of the day wanted to produce a detailed explanation that would constitute a geological history, period by period, of the events of a given locality ... Buckland was perhaps the best able of the British geologists and probably the most acute to build a careful local stratigraphy and local dnamic explations collobarated with the addition of fossil evidence.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 276. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 180. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: no. 896.

2. English, 1837 [2nd edition].
Geology And Mineralogy | Considered With Reference To | Natural Theology | By | The Rev. William Buckland, D.D. | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | Vol I | [ornament] | London | William Pickering | 1837.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [1]-8, [i]-xvi, [1]-619, [1] p. [Vol 2] 8°: [i]-vi, [2], [1]-129, 110a (dated 4 April 1837) p., 87 plates on 91 leaves (some folded; numbered 1-69, 2', 15', 25', 26', 26", 26"', 26a-b, 27a-f, 44', 44", 46', 46", and 56a). Some plates have multiple parts and some are double. Colophon: C. Whittingham, Tooks Court, Chancery Lane. Publisher's device on title page (printer's mark of the Aldine Press).

Scarce. Published as part of the series: The Bridgewater treatises on the power, wisdom and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation. Treatise VI. This edition uses the same sheets as the first edition but with the additional pages 597-619, "Supplementary Notes" found in volume one, and the additional plate 2'. According to Stafleu and Cowan, This edition was issued in octavo and quarto volumes, and the supplemantary material was also issued separately.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 276. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 181. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: no. 896.

3. English, 1837 [1st American issue].
Geology And Mineralogy | Considered | With Reference To Natural Theology | By The Rev. William Buckland, D.D. | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | In Two Volumes. | Vol. I. | Philadelphia, | Carey, Lea And Blanchard, | [short rule] | 1837.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 12° (in 6s): [i]-xv, [13]-443 p. [Vol 2] 12° (in 6s): [i]-vii, [1]-131 p., 87 plates as in the first London edition of 1836 (one colored, 6 folding, 3 double page).

Scarce. Series: The Bridgewater treatises on the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation ; Treatise VI.

Bibliographical references: Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 181. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: no. 896.

4. English, 1841 [2nd American issue].
Geology And Mineralogy | considered | With Reference To Natural Theology. | By The | Rev. William Buckland, D.D. | Caonon Of Christ Church And Reader In Geology And Mineralogy In The | University Of Oxford. | A New Edition. | With Supplementary Notes. | [rule] | In Two Volumes. | Vol. I. [-II.] | [rule] | Philadelphia: | Lea & Blanchard. | . . . . . . . . | 1841.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 12° (in 6s): [i]-xv, [13]-468 p. [Vol 2] 12° (in 6s): [i]-vii, [1]-131 p., 87 plates as in the first London edition of 1836 (one colored, 6 folding, 3 double page). Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: NUC. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 181.

5. English, 1858 [3rd edition].
Geology and mineralogy considered with reference to natural theology by the late Very Rev.William Buckland ... A new ed., with additions, by Professor Phillips ... Mr. Robert Brown...and memoir of the author. Edited by Francis T. Buckland ... London; New York, G. Routledge, 1858.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [4], [i]-lxxxiii, [1]-552 p., frontispiece (portrait of William Buckland). [Vol 2] 8°: [4], [1]-143, [1] p., plates 2-90.

Very scarce. A posthumous edition with a memoire on the life of Buckland, a bibliography and portrait edited by Francis Trevelyan Buckland [1826-1880], with his collaborators Robert Brown [1842-1895], Richard Owen [1804-1892], and John Phillips [1800-1874].

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 276. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: no. 896.

6. English, 1869-70 [4th edition].
Geology And Mineralogy | As Exhibiting The | Power, Wisdom, And Goodness Of God | By The | Very Rev. Wm. Buckland, D.D., F.R.S., | [...one line of titles...] | With Additions | By | Professor Owen, F.R.S., Professor Phillips, M.A., L.L.E., And Robert Brown, F.R.S. | Fourth Edition, Edited | By | Francis T. Buckland, M.A., | [...one line of titles...] | Vol. I. [-II.] | London, Bell And Daldy, York Street, Covent Garden. | 1869 [-1870].

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1869] 8°: [4], [i]-lxxxiii, [1]-552 p., frontispiece (portrait of William Buckland). [Vol 2: 1870] 8°: [4], [1]-143, [1] p., plates 2-90.

Very scarce. Reissue of the third edition(?).

Bibliographical references: NUC.

7. French, 1838 [French transl.].
La | Géologie Et La Minéralogie | Dans Leurs Rapports | Avec La Théologie Naturelle, | Par | Le Révérend Docteur William Buckland, | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | traduit de l'anglais, | Par M.L. Doyere, | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | Initio tu, Domine, terram fundasti. | Ps. Cip, 26. | Tome Premier. [-Seconde.] | Paris, | Crochard Et Cie, Libraires, | Place De L'École-De-Médecine, 13. | [short rule] | 1838.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [i]-xvi, [1]-545, [3] p. [Vol 2] 8°: [i]-vii, [1], [1]-149, [3] p., 69 plates.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Half title page, "La Géologie Et La Minéralogie | Dans Leurs Rapports Avec La Théologie Naturelle," verso "Imperie et Fonderie De Felix Locquin et Compagnie."; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; [v]-viii, "Note Du Traducteur."; [ix]-xi, "Préface De L'Auteur."; [xii], Blank.; [xiii]-xvi, Contents.; [1]-525, Text.; 526-545, "Notes Supplémentaires."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "Errata."; [1 pg], Blank.

[Vol 2] [i-ii], Half title page, "La Géologie Et La Minéralogie," verso "Imperie et Fonderie De Felix Locquin et Compagnie."; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; [v]-vii, "Liste Des Planches."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-128, "Explication Des Planches."; [129]-149, "Table" (=index).; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "Errata."; [1 pg], Blank.; [At end], 69 plates.

Very scarce. Translated by M.L. Doyere from Geology and Mineralogy considered with Reference to Natural Theology (1st ed., London, 1836).

M.L. Doyere. (Born:      ; Died:      ) French translator. Doyere was the adjunct professor of natural history at the Collège Royal de Henri-Quatre.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 276. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 180. (Doyere)

8. French, 1838 [Abridged French transl.].
La géologie et la minéralogie considérées dans leurs rapports avec la théologie naturelle; par le Rév. William Buckland ... abrégé et trduit de l'Anglais par N. Joly ... 2. ed., rev. and enl. Paris, Germer-Bailliére, 1838.

12°: iv, 88 p.

Rare. Translation by Nicolas Joly [1812-1885].

Bibliographical references: NUC.

9. German, 1837 [German transl.].
Die Urwelt und ihre Wunder. Stuttgart, Die Natur, ihre Wunder und Geheimnisse by H. Hauff, aus dem Englischen des W. Buckland, von Friedrich Werner und herausgegeben von P. Neff, 1837.

8°: 406 p., 40 lithographs, 1 handcoloured engraved geological profile with 15 different colours.

Very scarce. Translated by Friedrich Werner this is the first German edition of the famous textbook of William Buckland being on Geology and Mineralogy with reference to Natural Theology.

Bibliographical references: NUC.

10. German, 1838 [German transl., 2nd edition].
Die Urwelt und ihre Wunder, oder, allgemeine Dartstellung der Geschichte des Erdkörpers von W.P. Schimper. 2. Aufl. des englischen Originals und mit einem Anhange. Stuttgart, P. Neff, 1838.

8°: 406 p., 40 lithographs, one handcoloured engraved geological profile with 15 different colours.

Very scarce. Series: Die Natur ihre Wunder und Geheimnisse, oder, die Bridgewater-Bücher ; 5 Bd.

11. German, 1838-9 [German transl.].
Geologie und Mineralogie in Beziehung zur natürlichen Theologie. Aus dem Englischen, nach der zweiten Ausgabe des Originals, übersetzt und mit Anmerkungen und Zusætzen versehen, von L. Agassiz. Neufchatel. E. Leibrock, Buchhändler in Braunschweig, 1838-39.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [Vol 2] 8°: 69 (i.e. 88) plates (part fold., part col.)

Very scarce. Agassiz, Louis, 1807-1873. translator.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 276.

12. Swedish, 1845 [Swedish transl.].
Geologi och mineralogi, betraktade med hänseende till den naturliga theologien. 1-2. Öfversättning från andra engelska original-upplagan af Gustaf Thomée ... Stockholm, Zacharias Hæggström, 1845.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: xii, 340 p. [Vol 2] 8°: [4], 410, [2] p., 31 plates.

Very scarce. Samtida marmorerade halvfranska band. Ryggarna något nötta. Samtliga för- och eftersättsblad samt de närmast intill liggande bladen med genomgående fläckar i hörnen. Inlagorna i övrigt rena, men något ojämna p.g.a. fukt. Planscherna delvis lätt åldersfläckade. (Bibliothek i populär naturkunnighet. VI: I-II)

Bibliographical references: BL.

13. English, 1894 [Biography].
The | Life And Correspondence | Of | William Buckland, D.D., F.R.S., | Sometime Dean Of Westminster, Twice President Of | The Geological Society, And First President | Of The British Association. | By His Daughter, | Mrs. Gordon. | [...4 lines of quotation, signed Chaucer...] | With Portraits And Illustrations. | London: | John Murray, Albemarle Street. | 1894.

8°: [iii]-xvi, [1]-288, 1-30 p. A biography of William Buckland written by a relative and incorporating quotes from his correspondence. Very scarce.

Contents: [iii-iv], Title page, verso "Printed by Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ltd. ..."; [v]-xii, "Preface."-signed W. Boyd Dawkins, 22 September 1894.; [xiii]-xvi, "Table Of Contents."; [1]-274, Text.; [275]-277, "Appendix. | A List Of Dr. Buckland's Appointments | And Literary Titles."; 278-284, "Published Writings Of Professor William | Buckland."; 285-288, "Index."; 1-30, Advertisements.

Bibliographical references: BL. NUC.

Contents copyright © 2017 The Mineralogical Record, Inc. All rights reserved.  
Graphic design of this website by Wendell E. Wilson. Website programming by ASPConnections.net