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Georges Friedel
FRIEDEL, Georges.

FRIEDEL, Georges.
(1865 - 1933)

(Born: Mulhouse, France, 19 July 1865; Died: Strasbourg, Alsace, France, 11 December 1933) French crystallographer.

Son of Charles Friedel, Georges Friedel formulated basic laws concerning the external morphology and internal structure of crystals. He recognized, in 1892, that liquid crystals had three types of organization (mesophases). In 1893, he became professor at the École des Mines in Saint-Etienne. After World War I, he moved to the University of Strasbourg. Illness caused his premature retirement in 1930.

Biographical references: Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie: 57 (1934), 144-183, portrait. DSB: 5, 185-7. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 1045 & Suppl. 2 (1995), 1, 634. World Who's Who in Science: 609.

1. French, 1904.
Étude | Sur Les | Groupements | Cristallins | Par | G. Friedel | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | [short rule] | Extrait du Bulletin de la Société de l'Industrie minérale. | Quatrième série. - Tomes III et IV. | [short rule] | Saint-Étienne | Société De L'Imprimerie Théolier. - J. Thomas Et Cie | 12, Rue Gèrentet, 12 | [short rule] | 1904.

8°: 485 p.

Very scarce. The accumulation of an enormous literature on the subject which was accumulated by the end of the 19th century, the theory of twin development for a very long time was not based strictly in mathematical expression. In 1904 a large monograph by Georges Friedel titled \t{Étude sur les Groupeménts Cristallins} summed up the available knowledge about twins in the period prior to X-ray crystallography. He introduced much clarity to formations of this kind and helped develop theoretical crystallography. He also stated a general law on the elements required to call various crystals twins.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed]. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie: 1905, p. 33.

2. French, 1911 [First edition].
Cours de l'Ecole Nationale des Mines de Saint-Etienne | [rule] | Leçons | De | Cristallographie | Par | G. Friedel | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Avec 383 figures dans le texte | [rule] | Paris | Librairie Scientifique A. Hermann Et Fils | Libraires De S.M. Le Roi De Suède | 6, Rue De La Sorbonne, 6 | [short rule] | 1911.

8°: [i]-vi, [1]-310 p.

Very scarce. First edition of this great classic of crystallography. "As a teacher Friedel exerted an enormous influence, which is still felt: his admirable textbook «Leçons...» was reprinted in 1964. Its often quoted preface, entitled `A Warning' is a sort of scientific testament, stressing the importance of meticulous observation and scrupulous acceptance of well-established facts". (Dictionary of Scientific Biography V/185-86-87).

2nd edition, 1926: Leçons de Cristallographie Professées à la Faculté des Sciences de Strassbourg. Nancy-Paris-Strassbourg, Berger Levrault, 1926. 8º: [i]-xix, [1]-602 p., 578 figures.

Bibliographical references: BL [no copy listed].

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