The Mineralogical Record
The Mineralogical Record - Join us on Facebook!  The Mineralogical Record - Sign up for our newsletter
>

Johann Andreas Cramer
CRAMER, Johann Andreas.

CRAMER, Johann Andreas.
(1710 - 1777)

(Born: Quelinburg, Germany, 14 December 1710; Died: Berggiesshübel, near Dresden, Saxony, Germany, 6 December 1777) German mining official.

Cramer first studied law, then from 1734 mining and chemistry. He visited England in 1738 to 1739, then the Erzgebirge in Saxony, becoming in 1743 Kammerrath of mines and smelters for Brunswick at Blankenburg. He lost this post in 1773 through the actions of his enemies. In 1775 he visited the Hungarian mines before returning in 1777 to Germany.

Biographical references: ADB: 4, 549. DBA: I 205, 224-234; II 240, 226-227. DSB: 15, 94. Ferchl. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, 180. Hirsching, Historisch-literarisches Handbuch, 1794-1815. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. Meusel, Verstorbenen Teutschen Schrifsteller, 1802-16: 2, 187. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Poggendorff: 1, cols. 493-4. WBI.

1. Latin, 1739 [First edition].
Joann. Andr. Crameri | Elementa | Artis Docimasticæ | Duobus Tomis comprehensa, | Quorum Prior | Theoriam, | Posterior | Praxin, | Ex vera Fossilium indole deductas, atque | indubitatâ Experimentorum, summâ | cum accuratione institutorum, side sir, | matas, ordine naturali & doctri- | na apertissima exhibet. | Pars Prima | Theoretica. | [ornament] | Lugduni Batavorum, | Apud [two lines braced on both ends:] $ \{ $ Conradum Wishoff, | Georg Jac. Wishoff, Fiz. Cone. $ \} $ | 1739.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [Vol 2] 8°: Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906: 35. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 2, 795-6. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, 180. Wallerius, Brevis Introductio, 1779: 77.

2. Latin, 1744 [2nd edition].
Elementa Artis Docimasticae, duobus tomis comprehensa, quorum prior Theoriam, posterior Praxin, ex vera Fossilium indole deductas, atque indubitata Experimentorum, summa cum accuratione institutorum, fide firmatas, ordine naturalilocupletata. Pars Prima Theoretica. Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Conradum Wishoff, et Georg. Jac. Wishoff, 1744.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [14], 366, [28] p.; [Vol 2] 8°: [18], 380, [10] p., 6 folding plates. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906: p. 35. Berlinische Sammlungen: 3, 626. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 2, 795-96. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, p. 180. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 259. Wallerius, Brevis Introductio, 1779: p. 77.

English editions

Elements, 1741

3. English, 1741 [English transl.].
Elements | Of the Art of | Assaying Metals. | In Two Parts. | The First containing | The Theory, | The Second | The Practice | of the said Art. | The Whole | Deduced from the true Properties and Nature of | Fossils; confirmed by the most accurate and unquestionable Experiments, explained in a | natural Order, and with the utmost Clearness. | By John Andrew Cramer, M.D. | Translated from the Latin. | Illustrated with Copper Plates. | To which are added, | Several Notes and Observations not in the Original, | particularly Useful to the English Reader. | With an Appendix, containing a List of the | Chief Authors that have been published in English | upon Minerals and Metals. | London, | Printed for Tho. Woodward at the Half-Moon between | the Temple-Gates, and C. Davis in Pater-noster-Row, | Printers to the Royal Society. M DCC XLI.

8°: π1 A5 B-Z8 2A-2G8 2H7; 245l.; [12], 1-470, [8] p., 6 plates (numbered Pl. I-VI). Page size: 204 x 122 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Dedication to John Winthrop, dated 3 May 1741.; [4 pgs], "Preface."; [1 pg], "Addenda to the Notes."; [1 pg], Errata.; [2 pgs], "Table | Of the Chapters and Titles of the | Theoretical Part of the Art of Assaying."; 1-449, Text.; 450-456, "An | Appendix. | Containing a List of the chief Authors in | English, who have treated of Minerals | and Metals. By the Author of the | Notes."; 457-470, "Explanation | Of The | Figures."; [8 pgs], "Index."

Plates: The six engraved plates show various apparatus and techniques in assaying. Each is signed J. Mynde sc. They consist of: Plates I-III, showing various apparatus. Plate IV show furnaces. Plate V, depict bellows, scales, weights. Plate VI, renders a storage diagram for a glass furnace.

Scarce. Translation of Elementa Artis Docimasticæ (1st ed., Leipzig, 1739), the most famous metallurgical textbook of its time. Cramer was the best assayer of his time, and he brings all of his practical experience into his books. It was the first work to reduce the art of assaying in metallurgy into a system, and Cramer's textbook is the first of its kind. It divides the subject into two sections: one theoretical, the other practical. Cramer acknowledges the prior work in the area of Agricola, Ercker and Stahl. Cramer was the first to recommend the use of the blowpipe in assaying small quantities of ores on a charcoal block with borax acting as a flux. He describes his blowpipe as being made of copper with a ball included to condense moisture in the breath. Cramer is equally meticulous in describing the other tools of the trade, many of which are depicted on some of the finely engraved plates.

Bibliographical references: ADB: 4, 547-9. Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906: p. 35. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 2, 795-96. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, p. 180. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 134. Hoover Collection: no. 239. Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, 1843-7: 2, 44 & 4, 157. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 2, 710-1. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 259. Wallerius, Brevis Introductio, 1779: p. 77.

4. English, 1764 [English transl.].
Elements of the Art of Assaying Metals. In two parts ... The second edition, corrected, London, Printed for L. Davis and C. Reymers, 1764.

xxiv, 471, [1] p., 6 folding plates. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Hoover Collection: no. 239. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 259.

German editions

5. German, 1746 [German transl.].
Anfangsgründe der Probierkunst. Nach der andern verb. Ausgabe aus dem Lateinischen ins Deutsche übersetzet von C. E. Gellert. Stockholm, Kiesewetter, 1746.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: 32, 320 p., 6 plates.; [Vol 2] 8°: [18], [323]-682, [22] p.

Very scarce. Translation of Cramer's Elementa Artis Docimasticæ.

Bibliographical references: Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906: p. 35. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 2, 795-96. Darmstädter, Berg-Büchlein, 1926: 202. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, p. 180. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 135. Hoover Collection: no. 238. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 1, 493-4. Wallerius, Brevis Introductio, 1779: p. 77.

6. German, 1766 [German transl.].
Anfangsgründe der Probierkunst. Nach der andern verb. Ausgabe aus dem Lateinischen ins Deutsche übersetzet von C. E. Gellert. 2. Aufl. 2 Bde. Leipzig, Heinsius, 1766.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: 32, 320 p., 6 plates.; [Vol 2] 8°: [18], [323]-682, [22] p.

Very scarce. Translation of Cramer's Elementa Artis Docimasticæ.

Bibliographical references: Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906: p. 35. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 2, 795-96. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, p. 180. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 136. Wallerius, Brevis Introductio, 1779: p. 77.

Anfangsgründe der Metallurgie, 1774

7. German, 1774-7 [German transl.].
Anfangsgründe | Der | Metallurgie, | darinnen die Operationen | so wohl | im kleinen als grossen Feuer | ausführlich beschrieben | und | mit deutlichen Gründen und Erläuterungen | und XLIII Kupfertabellen begleitet sind, | in dreyen Theilen verfasset | durch | Johann Andreas Cramer. | [vignette] | Erster [-Dritter] Theil | mit XIX Kupfertabellen und deren Erklärung. | [rule] | Blankenburg und Quedlinburg, | bey Christoph August Reußner 1774.

3 parts. [Part 1: 1774] 4°: )(4 A-2Q4 2R-2U2 )(4 )()(4 )()()(4; 178l.; [1]-8, [1]-312, [36] p., 19 plates (folding).; [Part 2: 1775] 4°: π1 a4 A-2D4 2E2 2F1 )(2 )()(1; 119l.; [2], [I]-VIII, [2], [1]-212, [16] p., 2 plates.; [Part 3: 1777] 4°: π2 A-T4 U3; 81l.; [4], [1]-156, [2] p., 20 plates. Page size: 330 x 182 mm.

Contents: [Part 1] [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-8, "Vorrede des Verfassers."; [1], Sectional title page, "Anfangsgründe | der | Metallurgie."; [2], Blank.; [3]-312, Text.; [16 pages], "Register über der Metallurgie ersten Theil."; [20 pgs], "Erklärung der Kupfertabellen."; [At end], 19 plates.

[Part 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [I], "Nacherinnerung | des Verlegers | zum dem | Zweyten Theil | der | Cramerschen Metallurgie."; [II], Blank.; III-IV, "Vorrede | des Verfassers zum zweyten Theile."; V-VIII, "Inhalt | des zweyten Theils."; [1 pg], Sectional title page, "Anfangsgründe | der | Metallurgie | Zweyter Theil."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-212, Text.; [10 pgs], "Register über der Metallurgie zweyten Theil."; [6 pgs], Description of plates.

[Part 3] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], "Avertissement | des Cammerrath Cramer unter der Presse seyende | Metallurgie betreffend."; [1], Sectional title page, "Anfangsgründe | der | Metallurgie. | Dritter Theil."; [2], Blank.; [3]-156, Text.; [1 pg], "Druckfehler."; [1 pg], Blank.; [At end], 20 plates.

Very scarce. The last edition of the famous Elementa Artis Docimasticæ (1st ed., Leipzig, 1739) to be revised by the author. It has been expanded and revised through out by Cramer's significant additions to the original text and the inclusion of a third section describing metallurgical processes on a large, industrial scale. Many more plates showing equipment and processes have also been added, and while the title page of the third part calls for 22 plates, only 20 appear to have been issued.

French edition

8. French, 1755 [French transl.].
Elemens | De | Docimastique, | Ou | De L'Art Des Essais, | Divisés En Deux Parties; | La premiere Théorique, & la seconde Pratique: | Traduit du Latin de M. Cramer. | Tome Premier. | [ornament] | A Paris, | Chez Briasson, Libraire, rue Saint Jacques, | à la Science. | [double rule] | M. DCC. LV. | Avec Approbation & Privilége du Roi.

4 vols. [Vol 1] 12°: [Vol 2] 12°: [Vol 3] 12°: [Vol 4] 12°:

Very scarce. Translated by J.-F. de Villiers.

Contents copyright © 2017 The Mineralogical Record, Inc. All rights reserved.  
Graphic design of this website by Wendell E. Wilson. Website programming by ASPConnections.net