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Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
CRONSTEDT, Axel Fredrik.

CRONSTEDT, Axel Fredrik.
(1722 - 1765)

(Born: Stropsta, Turinge Parish, Södermanland, Sweden, 23 December 1722; Died: Säter, Sweden, 19 August 1765) Swedish mineralogist & chemist.

Cronstedt studied mathematics at Uppsala, where he came under the influence of J.G. Wallerius and S. Rinman and became interested in mining and mineralogy. He served in the Swedish army from 1741 to '43, but afterwards, he became a mining expert by visiting the various mines and smelters throughout Sweden. In 1747, He was appointed assistant to D. Tilas, before becoming in 1748, director of the East and West Bergslagen mining district. Cronstedt discovered the element Nickel while analyzing the mineral "kupfernickel" [niccolite] in 1751. He is also among the first researchers to use the blow-pipe in mineral analyses, generating better results than anyone up to that time. Berzelius said of him, "Cronstedt, the founder of the chemical system of mineralogy, a man who by his acuteness in that science rose so far above his age that he was never correctly understood by it." During his life he accumulated a large mineral collection of 3,000 items which was inherited by his son. The collection and its manuscript catalog were purchased by a wealthy Danish landowner and collector who moved it to Paris where it was lost. Cronstedt was elected in 1754 a member of the Kungliga Vetenskaps Akademiens, Stockholm (Academy of Sciences, Stockholm), and the mineral "Cronstedtite" was named in his honor by J. Steinmann in 1821.

Biographical references: Almquist, Bergskollegium, 1909: p. 187. Barstow, V., "Axel Fredrik Cronstedt", Journal of Chemical Education, 30, (1953), 247-52. DSB: 3, 473-4 [by Uno Bokuland]. Forsstrand, C., Sven Rinman, Minnesteckning. Stockholm, 1920. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 96. Lindroth, Swedish Men of Science, 1952: 92-104 [by N. Zenzén]. Nordenskiöld, A.E., Minnesteckning öfver Axel Fredrik Cronstedt. Stockholm, dagblad 1 April 1882. Nordin-Pettersson, Konstsamlingar, 1971: 353. Poggendorff: 1, col. 499. Rinman, S., Åminnelsetal öfver Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, hållet den 6 mars 1766. Stockholm, 1766. Sahlin, C., Hist. översikt över sv. Bergsmannasammanslutningar. Stockholm, 1920. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 781-2. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-049, 284-287. Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexikon: 1, 201. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 9, 279-95, portrait, bibliogr. [by N. Zenzén]. Thomas, Dictionary of Biography, 1884: 694. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 389. Zenzén, Bergskollegii Mineralsamling, 1921.

1. Swedish, 1754.
Intrades-tal, om Medel til mineralogiens vidare forkofran / hallit for Kongl. Svenskavetenskaps Academien den 9. Feb. 1754 af Axel F. Cronstedt ... Stockholm, Tryckt hos Lars Salvius, 1754.

8°: [2], 16 p. With title-vignette, engraved, head- and tailpieces, initials.

Rare. Cronstedt's announce of his discovery of the new element nickel.

Bibliographical references: Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 45. Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen: 1754, 736. LKG: XII 39. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, 1934: p. ??.

Swedish editions

Försök till Mineralogie, 1758

2. Swedish, 1758 [First edition].
Försök | Till | Mineralogie, | Eller | Mineral=Rikets | Upställning. | [Ornament: inverted triangle of *] | [rule] | Stockholm, | Tryckt uti Wildiska Tryckeriet. | 1758.

8°: π2 )(8 )()(8 )()()(2 A-P8 Q6; 146l.; [40], [1]-251, [1] p., printer's device, page 251. Page size: 162 x 100 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Imprimatur. N. von Oelreich."; [15 pgs], "Företal."; [23 pgs], "Inwisning til föliande Mineralogie." [=synopsis of the mineral system].; [1]-251, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

Scarce. Published anonymously. This is one of the most important and influential works in mineralogy. By precise chemical analysis, Cronstedt first realized that every mineral is created from a specific set of chemical constituents; he further realized that the chemical uniqueness of minerals formed an ideal concept on which a system mineralogy could be built. Pursuing this insight with all his great skill and perseverance, he applied every test at his disposal to determine a mineral's chemical composition more accurately than had any other previous investigator. In fact, Cronstedt was so successful using the blowpipe in making his determinations that he can rightly be called the founder of systematic blowpipe analysis. Using the results of his various tests, Cronstedt arranged minerals according to their contained chemical elements, thus creating the first mineralogical system to rely almost exclusively on chemical determinations. This new method had very wide appeal among mineralogists, and many subsequent systems would copy Cronstedt's lead. Another innovation was to distinguish, for the first time, between true minerals of homogeneous chemical composition and rocks, which are a mixture of several minerals; the later, together with fossils, the author separately classified in an appendix.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 69. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 137. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 45. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 549.

Försök till en Mineralogie, 1781

3. Swedish, 1781 [2nd edition].
[Contained within a double rule border:] Försök | till en | Mineralogie, | eller | Mineral Rikets | Upstallning. | [vingette] | Andra Uplagan Förbättrad. | [rule] | Stockholm. | Tryckt hos Johan Arv. Carlbohm 1781. | på Förlåggarens beloslnad.

8°: π1 )(-3)(8 A-T8; 176l.; [49], [1], [1]-302, [2] p., printer's device page 302, engraved title page, title vignette. Page size: 193 x 115 mm. uncut. Very scarce.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [18 pgs], "Företal."; [29 pgs], "Inwisning til föliande Mineralogie."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-302, Text.; [1 pg], "Kättelser."; [1 pg], "Förtekning på Böcker, som sinnas uti Joh. Arboréns Boklåda wid Stora Nygatan i Stockholm."

Bibliographical references: Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906: 39-44. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 69. DSB: 3, 474-75. Fischer, Mineralogie in Sachsen, 1939: 115-16, 139, 152 & 248. LKG: XII 40. Wallerius, Brevis Introductio, 1779: 95. Zittel, History of Geology, 1901: p. 122.

German editions

4. German, 1760 [Translation, First edition].
Versuch | einer neuen | Mineralogie | aus dem Schwedischen übersetzt. | [Ornament with initials RH included, 38 x 68 mm.] | Kopenhagen, | auf Kosten der Rothenschen Buchhandlung | 1760.

8°: a-b8 c4 A-Q8 R4; 152l.; [40], [1]-264 p.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], "Vorbericht."; [25 pgs], "Vorrede des Verfassers."; [11 pgs], "Einleitungs-Tabelle ins Mineralreich."; [1]-264, Text.

Very scarce. Translated by G. Widemann from Försök till Mineralogie (Stockholm, 1758).

Bibliographical references: Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 45. Leipziger gelehrte Zeitung: 1760, 481. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 262.

5. German, 1770 [Translation, 2nd edition].
Cronstedts | Versuch | einer | Mineralogie. | [ornate rule] | Vermehrt | durch Brünnich. | [ornament] | [rule] | Copenhagen und Leipzig, | verlegts C.G. Prost und Rothens Erben. | 1770.

8°: a-b8 c4 A-S8 T4; 168l.; [40], [1]-296 p. Page size: 170 x 102 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [4 pgs], "Vorberischt | des Herausgebers."-signed M.Th. Brünnich, 14 March 1770.; [22 pgs], "Vorrede | des Verfassers."; [12 pgs], "Einleitungstabelle | ins | Mineralreich."; [1]-296, Text.

Very scarce. Translated by Morten Thrane Brünnich.

Bibliographical references: Berlinische Sammlungen: 3, 653. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 69. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 46. Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen: 1770, 695. LKG: XII 42 & 45. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 262.

6. German, 1775 [Translation, 3rd edition].
Cronstedts | Versuch | einer | Mineralogie. | [ornate rule] | Vermehret | durch | Brünnich. | [ornament] | [rule] | Gedruckt bey den Widmanstätterischen Erben | Grätz 1775.

8°: xxxiv, 250 p.

Very scarce. Translated by Mortane Thrane Brünnich. Perhaps published as a pirate edition from the 1770 German edition.

Bibliographical references: Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 262.

Versuch einer Mineralogie, 1780

7. German, 1780 [Translation, 4th edition].
Axel von Kronstedts | Versuch | einer | Mineralogie. | [rule] | Aufs neue | aus dem Schwedischen übersetzt | und | nächst verschiedenen Anmerkungen | vorzüglich mit | äussern Beschreibungen der Fossilien | vermehrt | von | Abraham Gottlob Werner, | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Ersten Bandes erster Theil. | [rule] | Leipzig, | bey Siegfried Lebrecht Crusius. | 1780.

8°: a-d8 e4 A-Q8 R3; 167l.; [72], [1]-254, [8] p. Page size: 202 x 120 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [10 pgs], Dedication, signed Abraham Gottlob Werner, 20 March 1780.; [30 pgs], "Vorrede | des Uebersetzers," signed A.G. Werner, 20 March 1780.; [20 pgs], "Vorrede | des Verfassers."; [10 pgs], "Einleitungs=Tafel | zu | dem ersten Theile | dieser | Mineralogie."; [1]-254, Text.; [5 pgs], "Mineral=System | des Uebersetzers."; [1 pg], Blank.; [2 pgs], "Verbesserungen."

Very scarce. A partial translation of the 1758 Swedish edition. Believing that Cronstedt's work represented the best chemical classification available, the noted mineralogist, Abraham Gottlob Werner translated the section dealing with earths and stones; however, Werner so expanded the work by incorporating his own theories on the external characteristics of minerals that this translation rapidly became accepted throughout Europe as the best reference and textbook of contemporary mineralogical science.

Bibliographical references: Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek: 46, 471. Allgemeines Verzeichniss neuer Bucher: 5 (1781), 277. Berlinische Sammlungen: 3, 653. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 83. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 138. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 46. Hoover Collection: no. 241. L'Esprit des Journaux: 10 (1781), 393. LKG: XII 41 & 43. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 262. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 552.

French edition

8. French, 1771 [French transl.].
Essai | d'une nouvelle | minéralogie. | Traduit du Suédois & de l'Allemand | de M. Wiedman, &c. &c. | Par M. Dreux fils, | Apothicaire | de l'Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. | [rule] | Prix 5 liv. relié. | [rule] | [ornament] | A Paris, | Chez P.Fr. Didot le jeune, Libraire, | Quai des Augustins. | [double rule] | M. DCC. LXXI. | Avec Approbation, & Privilege du Roi.

8°: π2 a-b8 c2 A-Z8 2A8 2B4; 216l.; [4], [i]-xxxvj, [1]-389, [3] p. Page size: 165 x 100 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Dedication to "Monseigneur Bertin."; [i]-xiv, "Avant-Propos."; [xv]-xxxvj, "Preface | De L'Auteur."; [1]-372, Text. [373]-389, "Table" [=table of contents].; [2 pgs], "Approbation."; [1 pg], Publisher's catalog.

Scarce. Translation by P.F. Dreux from Versuch der Mineralogie (Leipzig, 1760).

Bibliographical references: Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 46. LKG: XII 44.

English editions

Essay towards a System, 1770

9. English, 1770 [Translation, First edition].
An | Essay | towards a | System | of | Mineralogy: | By | Axel Frederick Cronstedt. | Translated from the Original Swedish, with Notes, | By Gustav von Engstrom. | To which is added, a | Treatise on the Pocket-Laboratory, | containing | An Easy Method, used by the Author, for | Trying Mineral Bodies, | written by the translator. | The Whole Revised and Corrected, with some Additional Notes, By Emanuel Mendes da Costa. | [double rule] | London: | Printed for Edward and Charles Dilly, in the Poultry. | M DCC LXX.

8°: π2 a-b8 c2 B-X8 Y4 Z2; 185l.; [4], i-xxxv, [1], [1]-272, [2], 175-188 [...] 289-329, [1] p., 2 folding plates showing blow-pipes. Pages 189 to 288 omitted in the blow-pipe treatise of Engström. Page size: 210 x 130 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Half title page, "An | Essay | Towards A | System | Of | Mineralogy," verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; i, "Mr. Da Costa's | Preface."; ii-iv, "The | Translator's | Preface."; v-xxi, "The | Author's | Preface."; [xxii], Blank.; xxiii-xxxv, "The | Contents."; [1 pg], "Errata."; [1]-272, Text of Cronstedt treatise.; [1 pg], "Description and Use | of a | Mineralogical Pocket Laboratory; | and especially the | Use of the Blow-pipe | in | Mineralogy. | By Gustav von Engestrom."; [1 pg], Blank.; 175-188 [...continues...] 289-318, "Description of a Mineralogical Pocket Laboratory, &c."; 319-329, "An | Alphabetical Table | Of Different | Minerals, | with the | Swedish and German Names added thereto, | ..."; [1 pg], Blank.; [Contained in the Cronstedt treatise], 2 folding plates, pages 178 and 181.

Very scarce. English translation by Gustav von Engeström and edited by Emanuel Mendes da Costa from Försök Till Mineralogie, Eller Mineral-Rikets Upställning (Stockholm, 1758).

Bibliographical references: Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 46. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 262.

10. English, 1772 [Translation, 2nd edition].
An | Essay | towards a | System | of | Mineralogy: | By | Axel Frederick Cronstedt. | Translated from the Original Swedish, with Notes, | By Gustav von Engström. | To which is added, a | Treatise on the Pocket-Laboratory, | containing | An Easy Method, used by the Author, for | Trying Mineral Bodies, | written by the translator. | The Whole Revised and Corrected, with some Additional Notes, By Emanuel Mendes da Costa. | [rule] | The Second Edition; | with | An Appendix, containing Additions | and Notes, | By Prof. M.T. Brunnich. | [double rule] | London: | Printed for Edward and Charles Dilly, in the Poultry. | MDCCLXXII.

8°: [4], i-xxxv, [1], [1]-272, [2], 175-188 [...] 289-329, [1], [1]-24 p., 2 folding plates showing blow-pipes. Pages 189 to 288 omitted in the blow-pipe treatise of Engström. Page size: 210 x 130 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Half title page, "An Essay towards a System of Mineralogy," verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; i, "Mr. Da Costa's Preface."; ii-iv, "The Translator's Preface."; v-xxi, "The Author's Preface."; [xxii], Blank.; xxiii-xxxv, "The Contents."; [1 pg], "Errata."; [1]-272, Text of Cronstedt treatise.; [1 pg], "Description and Use of a Mineralogical Pocket Laboratory; and especially the Use of the Blow-pipe in Mineralogy. By Gustav von Engestrom."; [1 pg], Blank.; 175-188 [...continues...] 289-318, "Description of a Mineralogical Pocket Laboratory, &c."; 319-329, "An Alphabetical Table of Different Minerals, with the Swedish and German Names added thereto, ..."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-24, "Appendix to Cronstedt's Mineralogy; Containing Additions and Notes. By Prof. M.T. Brunnich."; [Contained in the Cronstedt treatise], 2 folding plates, pages 178 and 181.

Very scarce. A reissue of An Essay towards a System of Mineralogy (London, 1770), with the addition of an appendix by Mortan Thrane Brünnich.

Bibliographical references: Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 46. LKG: XII 45.

11. English, 1788 [Translation, 3rd edition].
An Essay | Towards A | System of Mineralogy. | By Axel Frederic Cronstedt, | Mine-Master Or Superintendant Of Mines In Sweden. | Translated From The Original Swedish, | With Annotations, And An Additional Treatise On | The Blow-Pipe. | By Gustav Von Engestrom, | Counsellor Of The College Of Mines In Sweden. | The Second Edition, | Greatly Enlarged And Improved, By The Addition | Of The Modern Discoveries; And By A New | Arrangement Of The Articles, | By John Hyacinth de Magellan, | [...5 lines of titles and memberships...] | [tapered rule] | In Two Volumes. | [tapered rule] | Vol. I. [-II.] | [tapered rule] | London, | Printed for Charles Dilly, in the Poultry. | M DCC LXXXVIII.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [a]-c8 d4 B-Z8 2A-2E8; 244l.; [i]-lv, [1], [1]-432 p., one folding plate (mineralogical tool chest); [Vol 2] 8°: π1 2F-2Z8 3A-3S8 3T4 3U8 23P4; 305l.; [2], 433-1040 p., one folding plate (hydroloxy blow-pipe). Page size: 208 x 120 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii], Dedication to Count Louis De Barbino de Belgioioso by J.H. de Magellan.; [iv], Blank.; v-x, "The | Editor's | Preface."-dated 1788.; xi-xiii, "The | Translator's | Preface."; xiv-xxx, "The | Author's | Preface."; xxxi-xlviii, "The | Contents."; xlix-lv, "Corrections and Additions."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-432, Descriptive mineralogy.

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; 433-872, Descriptive mineralogy-continued.; 873-923, "Appendix."; [924], "Description | Of A | Mineralogical Pocket-Laboratory; | And Especially The | Use Of The | Blow-Pipe | In | Mineralogy. | By Gustav. Von Engstrom."; 925-976, "Description, &c."; 977-999, "Appendix The First. | A Description | Of The | Pocket-Laboratories | For | Assaying Minerals, | By The Editor."; 999-1015, "Appendix II. | Containing various particulars of useful infor- mation to Mineralogical Enquires."; [1016], Blank.; 1017-1040, "An | Alphabetical Table | Of The | Contents."

Very scarce. Translated by Gustav von Engeström, with considerable additions and editing by Joao Jacinto de Magelhaens. The book begins with a section on the formation of minerals followed by chapters describing the general divisions of minerals and fossils, the different kinds of earths, salts, inflammables, and metals. An appendix is present, containing an account of composed stones and petrifications; a treatise on the use of the blowpipe; a description of the three pocket laboratories; a method for analyzing earths; a description of an instrument to determine specific gravity; and a new method for making general weights.

Reprint, 1987: New York, AMS Press, Inc., 1987. 2 vols. [ISBN: 0404184626].

Jean Hyacinth de Magellan [Portuguese: João Jacinto de Magalhães]. (Born: Aveiro, Portugal, 1723; Died: London, England, 1790) Portuguese naturalist & author. Magellan entered the Catholic College of the Sapiência in Coimbra, where he studied for 11 years. During his classical education he became proficient in Latin, Greek, Spanish, French, German and English as well as the studies of mathematics, chemistry and physics. After graduation, he entered into a religious life. However, his scientific interests caused him to abandon the monastery in 1754 and make a "philosophical trip." He witnessed the devastating Lisbon earthquake of 1 November 1755, before leaving for France in 1756. From there he traveled extensively in throughout Europe meeting the leading scientists of the time. He arrived in London in 1763, and remained. His chief contribution to science were his mathematical, scientific and geodetic instruments, which are of the highest caliber. He supplied these instruments to the governments of Portugal, Spain, France and Russia. Magellan was a Fellow of the Royal Society of London and elected on Benjamin Franklin's recommendation to the Philadelphia Academy of Science.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 69. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 46. Hoover Collection: no. 242. LKG: XII 45. (Magellan [Portuguese: João Jacinto de Magalhães]) BBA: I 731, 21-24. Carvalho, R. de, "Magalhães, João Jacinto de (1722-1790)," (v. 4, p. 138) in: Serrão, J., Dicionário de História de Portugal. Porto, Liv. Figueirinhas, 1981. Malaquias, I., A Obra de João Jacinto de Magalhães no Contexto da Ciência do Século XVIII. Aveiro, 1994. Malpique, C., "João Jacinto de Magalhães, natural de Aveiro sócio da Academia das Ciências de Paris e da Real Sociedade de Londres," Sep. Arq. Distrito Aveiro, 1971, p. 37-49. Silva, Diccionario Bibliographico Portuguez, 1858-1923: 3, 385-6. Turner, G.L'E., "The Portuguese agent: J.H. de Magellan," Antique Horology, 9 (1974), 74-6. [Describes his role as a supplier of scientific insturments.]. Vilas-Boas, M., João Jacinto de Magalhães: um empreendedor cientifico na Europa do século XVIII. Aveiro, Fund. João Jacinto de Magalhães, 2000. Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824. WBI.

Italian editions

Saggio, 1775

12. Italian, 1775.
Saggio | Per Formare Un Sistema | Di | Mineralogia | Dettato in Lingua Svezzese dal Celerre | Signor | Alex Federico Cronstedt K.re Svezzse, | E tradotto dall' Originale Svezzese in Inglese, et | arricchito di Note dal Sig. Gustavo Von- | Engestrom, aggiuntovi un trattano sull' elabo- | ratorio da Tasca inventato dal Sig. Cronstedt, | ed inserviente a fare con somma facilità li Saggi | de' Corpi Minerali. | Signor | Von - Engestrom, | Tutto poi revisto, e corretto, con alcune Note | aggiuntevi dal Sig. Emmanuele Mendes da | Costa Inglese, ed ora recato in Italiano. | [ornate rule] | In Venezia, MDCCLXXV. | Presso Antonio de Castro | [double rule] | Con Approvazione, E Privilégio.

8°: [i]-lii, [1]-528 p., one plate (blowpipes).

Rare. First Italian edition, with the translation from the 1772 English edition attributed to Angelo Natal Talier.

Angelo Natale Talier. Italian physician, author & translator. Nothing is know of Talier's life. He authored a work in color theory, Dell'arte di Tingere, opera Ricavata dai piú Celebri Recenti Autori Inglesi e Francesi (Venezia, 1793).

Bibliographical references: BL [990.d.5.]. (Talier) No references found.

13. Italian, 1779.
Saggio per formare un sistema di mineralogia, del kav. A.F. Cronstedt, tradotto dal svezzese, ed arrichito di note del sig. G. von Engestrom, al quale vi si ha aggiunto un trattato sull' elaboratorio da tasca ... descritto dal suddetto dig. von Engestrom. Opera ribeduta e di note illustrata, da E. Mendes da Costa. Venezia, P. Sevioni, 1779.

8°: [i]-lii, [1]-528 p., one plate (blowpipes).

Rare. Perhaps a phantom, this appears to be a reissue of the 1775 Italian edition with a new title page?

Russian editions

14. Russian, 1776 [Translation, First edition].
Опыт Кронщтетова рудословня размноженный Бриннhом, и переведенный с немеcкаго на российский язык Горнаго училища студентом Матвеем Курдлманом. Разсмотренный учрежденным при оном Училище собранием. St. Peterburg, Pech. pri tom zhe Uchilishche, 1776.

8°: [40], 372, [10] p.

Very scarce. Translation by Matveem Kurdyanom from Versuch einer Mineralogie vermehrt durch Brünnich (Leipzig, 1770).

Bibliographical references: Sopikov, Essay in Russian Bibliography, 1904-8: no. 7879. Svodnyi Katalog Russkoi Knigi: no. 3320.

15. Russian, 1789 [Russian transl.].
Опыт рыдословной системы г. Кронщтета. С некоторыми прибавлениями г. Бринниhа. 1776 году переведен с немеcкаго на российский язык С. Петербургскаго Горнаго училища студентом Матвеем Курдыманом, а ныне вновь разсмотрен и исправлен. Изд. 2-е. St.~Peterburg, Tip.\ Togo zhe Uchilishcha, 1789.

8°: [4], LXXVIII, 414 [2] p.

Very scarce. Translation by Matveem Kurdyanom from Versuch einer Mineralogie vermehrt durch Brünnich (Leipzig, 1770).

Bibliographical references: Sopikov, Essay in Russian Bibliography, 1904-8: no. 7880. Svodnyi Katalog Russkoi Knigi: no. 3321.

16. German, 1781.
Mineralgeschichte über das Westmanländische und Dalekarlische Erzgebirge auf Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen gegründet, nach dessen Handschrift aus dem Schwedischen übersetzt von J.G. Georgi. Zum Drucke befördert von J.C.D. Schreber. Mit einer Kupferplatte. Nürnberg: in Verlag der Grattenauerischen Buchhandlung, 1781.

8°: )(8 A-O8 (Plate follows, O4); 118l.; [i]-xiv, [1]-216, [8] p., one plate. Includes index. Head and tail pieces.

Very scarce. Translated from an original manuscript by Johann Gottlieb Georgi [see note below] and published at the expense of Johann Christian Daniel Schreber. The volume describes the mineral wealth of a region in Sweden known as Dalecarils. Contained in this work are extensive discussions of the geological structure of the earth. The folding plate shows various mineral veins.

Johann Gottlieb Georgi. (Born: Gut Wachholzhagen, Pommern, Germany, 31 December 1729; Died: St. Peterburg, Russia, 27 October 1802) German apothecary. Georgi established an apothecary in Stendal, but moved his establishment in 1770 to St. Petersburg. Using this as a home base he made many explorations in the Russian territory. In 1783, he was elected a member of the Academy of Science in St. Petersburg.

Bibliographical references: BL [953.a.16.]. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 169-70. LKG: XIV 803. (Georgi) ADB: 8, 713-4. Berg, Russischen Geographischen Entdeckungen, 1954: 261-3. Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 473 [1 portrait listed]. DBA: I 380, 385-391; II 439, 160-161. Deutsche Apotheker Biographie: 1, 198-200. Gerber, Historisch-biographisches Lexikon, 1812-4. Great Soviet Encyclopedia: portrait. Hamberger & Meusel, Gelehrte Teutschland, 1796-1834. Moliavko, Geologi Biograficheskii, 1985: p. 75. NDB: 6, 242-3. Poggendorff: 1, col. 876. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: p. 119. Walden, P., "Der Apotheker als Kulturträger," Pharmaz. Zeitung, 75 (1930), 1323-??. WBI.

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