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Urban Hiarne
HIÄRNE (Hjärne), Urban.

HIÄRNE (Hjärne), Urban.
(1641 - 1724)

(Born: Skworitz, Ingermanland, Sweden, 20 December 1641; Died: Stockholm, Sweden, 22 March 1724) Swedish physician & polymath.

At the age of five, Hiärne began his studies with private tutors. He then attended in Nyen what was called a trivial school where he studied logic, rhetoric, poetry, grammar, Swedish, German, Latin, Greek, Russian and music. In 1657 he decided to study at Uppsala, and in 1658 moved to Stockholm where he was employed as a teacher. At this time, Hiärne decided to study medicine at Uppsala. To support his University education, he painted portraits, and wrote numerous poems and plays, some of which were performed. He taught himself chemistry. He completed his studies at Uppsala before 1666. He then became personal physician to the governor-general of Livland, which enabled him to study abroad in Holland, England and France. He eventually took his degree in medicine from Angers in 1670. Three years of study in Paris provided him with a good foundation in analytical and experimental chemistry. Hiärne was a dedicated Paracelsian, and his work in chemistry was directed to supporting Paracelsianism. In 1674, he settled in Stockholm, where he opened a medical practice. For a long time he was Sweden's leading authority in medicine, and his practice became very profitable.

Biographical references: Åberg, B., "Urban Hiaerne. The first Swedish chemist", Journal of Chemical Education, 27, (1950), 334-7. Akerstrom, A., "Urban Hiärne's resa till Tyskland och Holland 1667", Lychnos, 1937, pp. 187-211. Beskow, B.v., Minne öfver Landshöfdingen, Vice Presidenten och Förste Arkiatern Urban Hjärne. Stockholm, P.A. Norstedt & Söner, 1857. 78 p., one plate. [A biography of Hiärne.]. DBA: I 535, 244-251. Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: nos. 2466-8. DSB: 6, 380-1. Frängsmyr, Geologi och Skapelsetro, 1969. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8: 3, 224 [by Hedenius]. ISIS, 1913-65: 1, 583. Lindroth, S., "Hiärne, Block och Paracelsus. En redogorelse för Paracelsusstriden, 1708-1709", Lychnos, 1941, 191-229. Lindroth, S., "Urban Hiärne and Laboratorium Chymicum", Lychnos, 1946-47, 51-116. NY Academy Portrait Catalog: 3 [1 portrait listed]. Poggendorff: 1, col. 1113. Sarjeant, Geologists, Suppl. 2, 1995: 1, 722. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-119, 071. Strandberg, O., "[Contributions to the Biography of Urban Hiärne]", Lychnos, 1, (1936), 208-15. Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexikon: 1, 502-3, portrait. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 19, 141-50. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 797.

Een kort Anledning, 1694

1. Swedish, 1694 [Quarto edition].
Een Kort | Anledning | Till Åtskillige Malm= och Bergarters/Mineraliers | Wäxters/ och Jordeslags/ sampt flere sällsamme | Tings effterspöriande och angifwande | Effter | Kongl. May:tz | Allernådigste Behag | Stält till | Alla uti Rijket/ som kunna hafwa Lust at låta i | Dagzliuset komma / hwad som i hwar och | en Ort kan finnas. | Anno 1694. | [double rule] | Stockholm, | Tryckt uti Kongl. Booktryckerijet/ hoos Sal. Wankijfs Änckia.

4°: A-C4; 12l.; no pagination or foliation. Page size: 190 x 150 mm.

Contents: A1r, Title page.; A1v-A2v, "Bewägne Läsare!"-signed Urban Hiärne.; A3r-C4v, "Förste Delen." [=text of questionnaire].

Very rare. An important contribution to mineralogy, which focused the activities of other Swedish researchers to the chemical anaylsis of minerals and mineral waters. Many subsequent naturalists considered this work to be one of the key publications setting mineralogy on a chemical foundation. The monograph describes the results of various analyses on stones and mineral waters that Hjärne performed. For example, he notes that carbon dioxide evolves from some minerals after treatment with acid. Underlying the descriptions is a classification showing elements of a traditional type. The author distinguishes seven divisions: water, earths, stones, metals, semi-metals, salts and sulphurs. Other subdivisions are noted under some of these categories including common stones, precious stones, figured stones, useful stones, and stones derived from animals.

Contents of the three "editions" above are the same, allthough with small differences in spellings here and there and to the layout due to the differencies in page format. There is a short introduction signed Urban Hiärne (4 p. in the 8°, 3 p. in the 4° and 2 p. in the folio). "En kort anledning..." is a questionaire in 13 short chapters, each inquiring into the local existence of different parts of the Regnum Minerale such as water, landscape, soils, rocks, common stones, useful stones, gems etc. sent out to the Swedish provinces by Hiärne. Kort Memorial is an abridged reminder of the previous since, as it states, "En kort anledning" ... hasn't met too much response ... especially not from the clergy. The intention was to publish the answers received with comments in parts corresponding to each of the 13 questions/chapters. Two parts (Hiärne used the swedish word flockar - flocks) of these were published, Den Korta Anledningen (1702) and Den Beswarade och Förklarade Anledningens (1706), the former treating water and the latter about the earth and landscapes in general.

This work was also reprinted in the first supplement to Franz Ernst Brückmann's Magnalia Dei in Locis Subterraneis (Wolffenbüttel, 1734) [which see]. \JKjellman

Bibliographical references: Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906. BL [B.229.(1.)]. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 73. Frängsmyr, Geologi och Skapelsetro, 1969. LKG: XII 6. NUC [no copy listed]. Sallander, Bibliotheca Walleriana, 1955: no. 10834.

2. Swedish, 1694 [Octavo edition].
Een Kort | Anledning | Till | Åtskillige Malm= och Bergarters/ Mineraliers | Wåxters/ och Jordeslags/ sampt flere sållsamme | Tings effterspöriande och angifwande/ | Esster | Kongl. May:tz | Allernådigste Behag | Stålt till | Alla uti Küket/ som kunna hafwa Luft at låta i | Dagzliuset komma/ hwad som i hwar och | en Ort kan finnas. | Anno 1694. | [double rule] | Stockholm, | Tryckt uti Kongl. Booktryckerijet/ hoas Sal. Wankijfs Ånckia.

8°: A-B8; 16l.; no pagination or foliation.

Very rare. Published similtaneously with the quarto sized edition, the content is the same as the other issue.

Bibliographical references: BL. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 73. Frängsmyr, Geologi och Skapelsetro, 1969. NUC [no copy listed]. Sallander, Bibliotheca Walleriana, 1955: no. 10835.

3. German, 1694 [German transl.].
Kurtze | Anleitung | Wie man | Unterschiedliche Ertz= und Berg= ar= | ten / Mineralien / Gewächse / und Erd= | Sorten/ nebst mehrern seltzamen Dingen | erforschen und angeben könne. | Auff | Ihrer Kön. Maj. | Allergnädigstes Belieben | An alle und jede dieses Reichs Einwoh= | ner/ welche Lust haben dasjenige/so an ei= | nem und andern Orte gefunden wer= | den kan/ ans Liecht kommen zu | lassen/ | Ausgeben Anno M DC XCIV. | [ornament] | [rule] | Stockholm/ | Gedruckt in der Königl. Buchdruckerey bey Sel. | Wankijfs hinterl. Wittwen.

8°: A-B8 C4; 20l.; no pagination or foliation. Very rare.

Bibliographical references: BL. LKG: XII 6. NUC [no copy listed].

Den Korta Anledningen, 1702

4. Swedish, 1702-6.
Den Korta | Anledningen/ | Til | Åthskillige Malm och Bergarters/ | Mineraliers och Jordeslags &c. | Efterspörjande och angifwande/ | Beswarad och Förklarad/ | Jämte | Deras natur/födelse oc i jorden tilwerckande/ | samt uplösning och anatomie, i giörligaste | måtto beskrifwen. | Anno 1702 | [ornament] | [ornate rule] | Stockholm / | Tryckt uthi Kongl. Booktr. hoos Sal. Wankifs Enckia. | af J. H. Werner.

[Verso of volume one's title page reads:]

Hans Kongl. May:tz högdtbetrodde Man/ | Kongl. Rådh/ och Öfwerste Marskalck/ | Högwälborne Her& Grefwe | Joh. Gab. Stenbock, | Grefwe och Frijherre/ Herre til Siöö/ | Penningeby och Lönnarp &c. | Kongl. May:tz högbetrodde Man/ Rådh och | Præsident uthi Kongl. Cammar och Commercie | Collegio, samt Stats Contoiret, | Högwälborne Her& Grefwe | Fabian Wrede, | Grefwe til Östanå/ Frijherre til Tiöleholm/ | Herre til Fåhnöö/ Häringe / Eekesiöö/ | Hoffgård och Ählhullt &c. | Kongl. May:tz högbetrodde Man/ Rådh och | Præsident uthi Kongl. Bergz Collegio, | Högwälborne Her& Grefwe | Diederich Wrangel, | Grefwe och Frijherre/ Herre til Biörcköö | &c. &c. | Hög=Gunstige Herrarøch nådige Patroner.

[Title of volume two reads:]

Den | Beswarade och Förklarade | Anledningens | Andra Flock/ | Om | Jorden och Landskap | i gemeen. | [globe vignette] | Stockholm / | [decorative rule] | Anno 1702 | Tryckt af Mich. Laurelio, Anno 1706.

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1702] 4°: [8], 132 p., frontispiece (inscribed "Sola Dei placent Magnalia, cætera Sperno" and inserted after the title page in some copies), one folded plate (at p. 50, in some copies this plate occurs at p. 150 in the second part). Woodcuts on pages 99, 102, & 127-8 (2 in full-page). Two states of the frist volume exist. The earliest (?) where there are vignettes on the first text leaf, the other without vignettes. [Vol 2: 1706] 4°: [4],133-416 p., three plates (at pages 165 folded, 279 folded, 408). Woodcut illustrations on pages 173 (full-page) & 225.

Rare. Introduction is signed Urban Hiärne. In this work, which contains much topographical information, Hjärne followed the pattern of the Englishman Robert Plot's landscape descriptions and laid the foundation for a natural history of Sweden, with emphasis on geology.

Bibliographical references: BL [457.c.33.]. LKG: XIII 37. NUC [no copy listed]. Wallerius, Brevis Introductio, 1779: no. 10833.

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