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 Joannes de Sancto Geminiano
JOANNES DE SANCTO GEMINIANO.

JOANNES DE SANCTO GEMINIANO.
(1270? - 1323)

(Born: San Gimignano, Italy, 1270?; Died: Siena, Italy?, 1323) Italian Dominican, preacher & encyclopaedist.

Giovanni de Goro (or Gorini), Giovanni Coppo (or de' Coppi), Joannes Gorinus de Sancto Geminiano or Giovanni da San Gimicnano assumed the Dominican habit in Siena, Italy. He was middle-aged by the beginning of the 14th century and by 1314 he was famous throughout Italy as a popular lecturer. He authored many ecclesiastical works, including sermons, orations and commentaries on the Gospels, but his lasting monument is a large encyclopedia intended for use by the Dominican preachers. He is also credited with documenting the legend of his home town's patron saint, Santa Fina (i.e., Serafina).

Biographical references: Mansfield, M., The legend of the Holy Fina, Virgin of Santo Gimignano, translated from The Trecento Italian of Fra Giovanni Di Coppo; with introduction and notes by M. Mansfield. London, Chatto and Windus; New York, Duffield & Co., 1908, 174 p. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 1196-7. Sarton, Introduction, 1928-52: 2 (1), 920-1.

1. Latin, 1477 [First edition].
Summa de exemplis ac similitudinibus rerum. Deventer: Richardus Pafręt, [1477].

2°: A-B8 a-y10 z6 aa-bb8 2a-2z10 2aa-2bb10 2cc-2dd8; 524l.

Extremely rare. A large encyclopedia of natural, legal and moral knowledge to provide as many concrete illustrations as possible in support of medieval sermons. The original manuscript to this work was completed by 1313, if not earlier, and first printed in this edition by Richardus Pafręt [see note below].

Joannes de Sancto Geminiano divides the text into 10 books, each of which is in-turn divided into various chapters. The commentary is devoted to setting forth resemblances, chiefly those of material things, to things of the mind and spirit. Typical of his age, the author sometimes indulges in what are now viewed as far-fetched examples, but would have been standard views of the educated class of the period. Although not explicitly stated, the ten books probably relate to the ten divisions in the Ptolemaic heavens. The ten books provide numerous examples or "Resemblances" to each of the following subjects in succession: (1) De Cœlo et Elementis, or those to be found in the "Heavens and the Elements," (2) De Metallis et Lapidibus, in "Metals and Stones," (3) De Vegetabilibus et Plantis, in "Vegetables and Plants," (4) De Natatilibus et Volatilibus, in "Fishes and Birds," (5) De Animalibus Terrrestribus, in "Terrestial Animals," (6) De Homine et Membris eius, in "Man and his Members," (7) De Visionibus et Somniis, in "Dreams and Visions," (8) De Canonibus et Legibus, in "Canons and Laws," (9) De Artificibus et Rebus Artificialibus, in "Arts and Artificial Things," (10) De Acitbus et Moribus Humanis, in the "Actions and Customs of Men."

Book II covers the metals and stones. Descriptions within it say that sapphire is the act of divine contemplation, while asbestos resembles hell fire, and bitumen bears a resemblance to charity. Some of the comparisons are strange and startling to say the least. For example, the comparison between asbestos and hell fire are based upon a misconception of this mineral. The name, "asbestos," is derived from the Greek ($ασβεστ{o}ζ$) and means `unquenchable," an allusion to the fact that even though it can be reduced to a fibrous condition that resembles the fibers of cotton or wool, it cannot be destroyed by fire. This property gave rise to the myth that it was a substance which when heated to the point of combustion, it would burn forever, and could never be extinguished. Hence, the resemblance to the fire of hell is derived.

Numerous editions of this book appeared.

Richardus Pafręt. (Born:      ; Died:      ) printer. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: Adams, Birth and Development, 1938: 73-4. BMC XV: 9, 45 [IB 47525]. Goff: J-427. Hoover Collection: no. 456. Klebs, Incunabula Scientifica, 1938: no. 562.1. Sarton, Introduction, 1928-52: 2 (1), 920-1. (Pafręt)

2. Latin, 1485.
Summa de exemplis et similitudinibus rerum. Cologne, Johann Koelhoff, c1485.

2°: 928 p. Very rare.

Bibliographical references: Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum, 1826-38: no. *7542. Klebs, Incunabula Scientifica, 1938: no. 562.2.

3. Latin, 1497.
Summa de exemplis ac similitudinibus reruz. Nouiter impressa ... Colophon: Venice: Per Joane [et] Gregorium de Gregorijs fratres, 1497 die 10 Aprilis.

8°: 2A12 a-z8 &8 [old con]8 Χ8 A14 B-X8 Y10; [12], 392l. Double columns. Woodcut Initials, printer's device (full page) on the verso of leaf 382. Very rare.

Bibliographical references: BMC XV: 5, 350 [IA 21131]. Goff: J-429. Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum, 1826-38: no. 7545*. Hoover Collection: no. 457. Klebs, Incunabula Scientifica, 1938: no. 562.3.

4. Latin, 1499.
De exemplis et similtudinibus rerum. [Basel:] Johann Froben und Johann Petri, 25 Jan. 1499.

4°: 342l. This edition was edited by Sebastian Brant. Very rare.

Sebastian Brant. (Born: Strassburg, Germany, 1458; Died: Strassburg, Germany, 10 May 1521) German humanist & satirist. Brant studied at Basel and took the degree of doctor of laws in 1489. He was a longtime professor of jurisprudence there. He retired to Strassburg, where he was made syndic of the town. Today, he is remembered for his famous satire, Das Narrenschriff [English: Ship of Fools] (1494), which describes a ship laden with fools and steered by fools to the fools' paradise of Narragenia.

Bibliographical references: Bain, D.C., "Some notes on the printing of the Summa de Exemplis, 1499", The Library, 21, (1940), 192-8. [Typographical study of this particular edition]. BMC XV: 3, 792 [IA.37898.]. Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum, 1826-38: no. 7546*. Klebs, Incunabula Scientifica, 1938: no. 562.4. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 1, no. 5751. (Brant) ADB. DBA: I 136, 191-204; II 167, 309-331. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition: 4, 431. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. Nagler, Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon, 1835-52. NDB. WBI. Zischka, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1961: 103.

5. Latin, 1499.
Summa de exemplis ac similitudinibus rerum ... Venice, 1499.

8°: 2A10 a-z8 &8 [old con]8 Χ8 A-X8 Y10. Leaves 47, 56, 135, 137, 143, 183, 184, and 383-386 misnumbered 48, 59, 136, 134, 134, 184, 183, 385-387, and 387 respectively. Includes index. Woodcuts: initials; printer's device (full-page) on verso of last leaf. Very rare.

Bibliographical references: BMC XV: 5, 351 [I.A.21146.]. Hain, Repertorium Bibliographicum, 1826-38: no. 7547*. Klebs, Incunabula Scientifica, 1938: no. 562.5.

6. Latin, 1576.
Summa de exemplis et rerum similitudinibus locupletissima verbi dei concionatoribus cunctisque literarum studiosis maximo usui futura. Venetiis, Ex Officina Damiani Zenari, 1576.

4°: 388l. Very rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [1568/2841.].

7. Latin, 1583.
Summa de exemplis ac similitudinibus rerum ... Antwerp, 1583.

8°: Rare.

8. Latin, 1584.
Summa De Exemplis, Et Rerum Similitudinis Locupletissima Verbi Dei Concionatoribus cunctisque literarum studiosis maximo usui futura. Fr. Ioanne a s. Geminiano ... auctore. Nunc demum post omnes alias aeditiones summa industria & diligentia ab innumeris pene erroribus castigata, & aucta. Adiectus est primum Index certissimus optimam quamque ac desideratam materiam ordine alphabetico ostentans ... Venice, Domenico Farri, 1584.

4°: a8 b4 A-2N4 (2N4 blank).; 307l.; 566, [2] p. Rare.

9. Latin, 1585.
Summa de exemplis ac similitudinibus rerum ... Lyon, 1585.

8°: Rare.

10. Latin, 1597.
Summa de exemplis et rerum similitudinibus locupletissima ... F. Johanne ą S. Geminiano ordinis praedicatorum auctore ; Nunc demum ... ą Aegidio Gravatio Rocchensi Eremitano ab ... erroribus castigata & aucta ... Antverpiae, Beller, 1597.

8°: 519 p. Edited by Aegidio Gravatio. Rare.

11. Latin, 1609.
Summa de exemplis et rerum similitudinibus locupletissima, verbi Dei concionatoribus... maximo usui futura, F. Joanne a S. Geminiano... auctore. Nunc demum... a magistro Aegidio Gravatio... castigata et aucta... Antverpiae, Sumpt. viduae et haeredum P. Belleri, 1609

8°: 519l. Rare.

12. Latin, 1615.
Summa de exemplis et rerum similitudinibus ... Nunc demum ... ą Magistro Ęgidio Gravatio ... ab ... erroribus castigata & aucta. Adjectus est ... index certissimus ... Antuerpię, sumptibus Petri & Ioannis Belleri; excudebat Andreas Bacx, 1615.

8°: 516l. Edited by Egidio Gravazzi. Rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [ 1568/2614.].

13. Latin, 1629.
Summa de exemplis et rerum similitudinibus locupletissima... F. Joanne a S. Geminiano,... auctore, nunc demum post omnes alias editiones diligenti cura a magistro Aegidio Gravatio,... castigata et aucta ... Antverpiae, Sumptibus J. Belleri et P. viduae, 1629.

8°: 516l. Edited by Egidio Gravatio. Rare.

14. Latin, 1630.
Summa de exemplis et rerum similitudinibus locupletissima: verbi Dei concionatoribus, cunctisque literarum studiosis maximo vsui futura. Johannes a Sancto Geminiano ; Nunc ... diligenti cura aucta a Magistro D. Aegidio Gravatio. Antuerpiae, Apud Ioannem Bellerum, 1630.

8°: 516, [16]l. Edited by Egidio Gravatio. Rare.

15. Latin, 1664.
Summa de exemplis ac similitudinibus rerum ... Francfurt, 1664.

8°: Rare.

16. Latin, 1665.
Universum Praedicabile, Sive Summa R.P.F. Joannis De S. Geminiano, Ordinis Praedicatorum, Sacrae Theologiae Doctoris Clarissimi, De Exemplis & Rerum Similitudinibus locupletissima In qua, quicquid a Deo patratum fuit in opere Creationis Mundi universi, Concionibus quam clarissime adaptatum invenies ; Non solum Verbi Dei Praedicatoribus, verum etiam omnibus studiorum amatoribus perquam utilis & necessaria ; Cum adiunctis Sacrae Scripturae, SS. Patrum, aliorumque tum Doctorum, tum Philosophorum Allegationibus, & Indice triplici ... Coloniae Agrippinae, Cholinus, 1665.

4°: [20], 496 p., l. 497-552, 545*-548*, 549+-552+, p. 553-816, [24] p. Rare.

Bibliographical references: VD17: 1:083845D & 547:665387H.

17. Latin, 1670.
Universum Praedicabile, Sive Summa R.P.F. Joannis De S. Geminiano Ordinis Praedicatorum, Sacrae Theologiae Doctoris Clarissimi, De Exemplis & Rerum Similitudinibus locupletissima : In qua, quicquid a Deo patratum fuit in opere Creationis Mundi universi, Concionibus quam clarissime adaptatum invenies ; Non solum Verbi Dei Praedicatoribus, verum etiam omnibus studiorum amatoribus perquam utilis & necessaria ; Cum adiunctis Sacrae Scripturae; SS. Patrum, aliorumque tum Doctorum, tum Philosophorum Allegationibus, & Indice triplici ... Coloniae Agrippinae, Cholinus, 1670.

4°: [24], 496 p., l. 497-552, 545*-548*, 549+-552+, p. 553-816, [24] p. Rare.

Bibliographical references: VD17: 1:074782C.

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