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Joannes Jonston
JONSTON, Joannes.

JONSTON, Joannes.
(1603 - 1675)

(Born: Sambter, Poland, 3 September 1603; Died: Ziebendorf, Poland, 8 June 1675) Polish naturalist.

Jonston or Johnstone was a naturalist of English ancestry who was born and buried in Poland. He studied at the universties of St. Andrews and Cambridge, lived for a time in London, received an M.D. and opened a medical practice in Leyden. Throughout his life he travelled extensively throughout the continent and published a considerable number of works.

Biographical references: Allibone, Dictionary of English Literature, 1859-71. BBA: I 623, 212-219. Bilikiewicz, T., "Johann Jonston (1603-1675) und seine Taetigkeit als Arzt", Suddhoffs Archiv, 23, (1930), 357-81. Biographie Universelle. DBA: II 661, 254. DNB: 10, 968-9. DSB: 7, 164. Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon, 1884-8. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). Orgelbranda, Encyklopedia Powszechna, 1898-1912: 7, 538. PBA: Polskie Archiwum Biograficzne: 187, 201-288. Poggendorff: 1, col. 1202. Pollack, Bibliografia Literatury Polskiej, 1963-83: 2, 293-5. Polski Slownik Biograficzny: 11, 268-70 [by T. Bilikiewicz]. Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824. WBI.

Thaumatographia Naturalis, 1632

1. Latin, 1632 [First edition].
Ioh. Ionstoni | Thavmato- | graphia Natvralis, | In decem classes distincta, | in quibus | Admiranda | I Coeli. | II Elementorvm. | III Meteororvm. | IV Fossilivm. | V Plantarvm. | VI Avivm. | VII Qvadrvpedvm. | VIII Exangvivm. | IX Piscivm. | X Hominis. | [ornament] | Amsterdami, | Apud Gvilielmvm Blaev. | cI[Backwards C] I[Backwards C]c xxxii.

12°: [12], [1]-501, [3] p. Page size: 110 x 70 mm.

Very scarce. First appearance of the author's most popular and important work. Jonston records his observations on the wonders of natures, which he organizes into the ten classes of: the heavens, the elements, meteors, minerals, plants, birds, quadrupeds, insects and bloodless animals, fish and men. It includes early references to nature in America.

Bibliographical references: DSB: 7, 164. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 3277 [not seen]. Thorndike, History of Magic, 1923-58: 7, 310. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1217. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 1, no. 3477.

2. Latin, 1633 [2nd edition].
Thaumatographia Naturalis, In Classes decem divisa ... Editio Secunda priore auctior. Amsterdami, J. Janssonius, 1633.

12°: [6], 578, [2] p. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 3278. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 1, no. 3478.

3. Latin, 1661 [3rd edition].
Joh. Jonstoni | Thaumato- | graphia | naturalis, | In decem Classes distincta, | in quibus | Admiranda | [In two columns] I. Cœli. | II. Elementorum. | III. Meteororum. | IV. Fossilium. | V. Plantarum. | [Vertical rule] VI. Avium. | VII. Quadrupedum. | VIII. Exanguium. | IX. Piscium. | X. Hominis. | [ornament] | Amstelodami, | [rule] | Apud Joannem Janssonium, M DC LXI.

12°: *6 A-V12 X6 Y6 (E4 missigned D4); ??l.; [12], [1]-498, [4] p. Page size: 128 x 74 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso 9 lines of quotation.; [9 pgs], Dedication, signed Johannes Jonstonus.; [1 pg], Blank.; [1]-498, Text.; [3 pgs], Poem, signed Venceslaus Clemens.; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. Mineralogy is covered on pages 123 to 176.

Bibliographical references: Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1219.

4. Latin, 1665 [4th edition].
Joh. Jonstoni | Thaumato- | graphia | naturalis, | In decem Classes distincta, | in quibus | Admiranda | [In two columns] I. Cœli. | II. Elementorum. | III. Meteororum. | IV. Fossilium. | V. Plantarum. | [Vertical rule] VI. Avium. | VII. Quadrupedum. | VIII. Exanguium. | IX. Piscium. | X. Hominis. | [ornament] | Amstelodami, | [rule] | Apud Joannem Janssonium | ŕ Waesberge, | Et Elizeum Weyerstraet. | M DC LXV.

12°: A-V12 X10; 249l.; [1]-495 (i.e., 497), [3] p., engraved title page (included as A1 or pages 1-2). Pages 130-131 are misprinted 128-129. Page size: 130 x 70 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Engraved title page, showing a scholar at work at a desk with an angel looking on and a scenic vista shown through the windows. Text on the plate reads: "Joh. Jonstoni | Thaumatographia | Naturalis," verso blank.; [3-4], Printed title page, verso 9 lines of quotation signed "Scalig. lib. I. de Plantis."; [5]-[12], Dedication, signed Johannes Jonstous, 15 May 1630.; [13], Sectional title page, first class, `...Classis Prima. | In quâ | Cœli | Admiranda."; [14], "Syllabus Capitum | Et Articulorum. [=table of contents, first class].; 15-48, Text, first class.; [49], Sectional title page, second class, "...Classis Secudna. | In quâ | Elementorum | Admiranda."; [50], Table of contents, second class.; 51-104, Text, second class.; 105, Sectional title page, third class, "...Classis Tertia. | In quâ | Meteororum | Admiranda."; 106, Table of contents, third class.; 107-[130], Text, third class.; [131], Sectional title page, fourth class, "...Classis Quarta. | In quâ | Fossilium | Admiranda."; 132, Table of contents, fouth class.; 133-182, Text, fourth class.; 183, Sectional title page, fifth class, "...Classis Quinta. | In quâ | Plantarum | Admiranda."; 184-[185], Table of contents, fifth class.; 186-240, Text, fifth class.; 241, Sectional title page, sixth class, "...Classis Sexta. | In quâ | Avium | Admiranda."; 242, Table of contents, sixth class.; 143 (i.e. 243)-292, Text, sixth class.; 293, Sectional title page, seventh class, "...Classis Septima. | In quâ | Quadrupedum | Admiranda."; 294, Table of contents, seventh class.; 295-338, Text, seventh class.; 339, Sectional title page, eighth class, "...Classis Octava. | In quâ | Exanquium | Admiranda."; 340, Table of contents, eighth class.; 341-404, Text, eighth class.; 405, Sectional title page, ninth class, "...Classis Nova: | In quâ | Piscium | Admiranda."; 406, Table of contents, ninth class.; 407-428, Text, ninth class.; 429, Sectional title page, tenth class, "...Classis Decima: | In quâ | Hominis | Admiranda."; 430-431, Table of contents, tenth class.; 432-495, Text, tenth class.; [3 pgs], Poem, signed "Venceslaus Clemens."

Scarce. First published in 1632, Jonston's Thaumatographia is a compendium of wonders of the world of nature. It is a collection of observations and references of natural marvels, retrieved from all ancient and contemporary literature, and organized by the author into a series of distinct sections. Jonston organizes the text into ten classes that describe: the heavens, the elements, meteors, minerals, plants, birds, quadrupeds, insects and bloodless animals, fish and men. The second on fossils and minerals is quite extensive with references to Albertus Magnus, Pliny and Theophrastus. A section within the class of plants, discusses tobacco and includes early references to nature in America.

Bibliographical references: DSB: 7, 164. Ferguson, Histories of Inventions, 1981: 6, 12-3. NLM 17th Century Books (Krivatsy): no. 6271. Thorndike, History of Magic, 1923-58: 7, 310. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1220.

An History, 1657

5. English, 1657 [English transl.].
[In black:] An | [in red:] History | [in black:] of the | [in red:] Wonderful Things of Nature: | [in black:] Set fourth in Ten severall [in red:] Classes. | [in black:] Wherein are contained | [The contents set in two columns separated by a vertical rule made by two opposing braces:] I. The Wonders of the | Heavens. | II. Of the Elements. | III. Of Meteors. | IV. Of Minerals. | V. Of Plants. | [Vertical braces separating the columns:] VI. Of Birds. | VII. Of Four-footed Beasts. | VIII. Of Insects, and things | wanting blood. | IX. Of Fishes. | X. Of Man. | [rule] | Written by [in red:] Johannes Jonstonus. | [in black:] An now Rendered into | [in red:] English, | [in black:] by | A Person of Quality. | [rule] | London, | Printed by John Streater, living in Well-Yard near the Hospitall of | St. Bartholomew's the Lesse, and are to be sold the Book- | Sellers of London, 1657.

4°: A-Xx4 Yy2; 185l.; [14], 1-354, [2] p. Title printed in red and black. Page size: 275 x 170 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [4 pgs], Dedication, signed John Jonston, 1631.; [7 pgs], "The Contents of all the Chapters and | Articles contained in this Book."; [1 pg], "Scalig. l. 1. de Plantis." (catchword "Of" does not connect).; [2 pgs], "Th the Right | Honourable, | Edvvard Lord Montague, | ..."-signed John Rowland.; 1-354, Text.; [1 pg], "Books Printed for John Streater, ..."; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. Translation by John Rowland? of Thaumatographia Naturalis ... (Amstelodami, 1661). The fourth class describing minerals, stones and fossils occupies pages 91-126.

Bibliographical references: NLM 17th Century Books (Krivatsy): no. 6272. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1221. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 3, 366. Wing: J1017.

Notitia Regni Mineralis, 1661

6. Latin, 1661.
Johannis Jonstoni, | Doctoris Medici, | Notitia Regni | Mineralis, | Seu | Subterraneorum | Catalogus, | Cum prćcipuis differentiis. | [ornament] | Lipsić | Sumptibus Viti Jacobi Trescheri | Bibliopol. Uratislav. | [rule] | Typis Hćred. Colerianorum, | Anno m dc lxi.

12°: A-E12; 60l.; 101, [19] p.

Rare. The whole of mining science, such as the scholars of the end of the XVIIe century included/understood it, finds its expression succinte in the opuscule of Jean Jonston, published in 1661 with Leipzig, heading Notifia regni mineralis seu subterraneorum catalogus. Coming from a Scottish family established in Poland, Jonston said itself one, Scoto-Polonus ". Born in Szamotuly in 1605, it took its doctorate of medicine in Leyde; the major part of its life ran out in Leszno at the court of Boguslas Leszczynski, of which he was the doctor and the tutor. It starts its treaty by a review of the gases which are released from the ground and by that of water which results from this. It distributes the matters of mines themselves in five groups, namely: 1), glčbes, 2) solidified juices, 3) resins, 4) stones, 5) metals. We cannot occupy us here of the detail of the classification of Jonston. It is based on qualities less essential, external, like state of aggregation, degree of limpidity, color. It could not be of it differently. At that time, analytical chemistry was hardly at its beginnings;the bases of systematic reasonable of minerals did not exist yet. It should be believed, according to the final words of the opuscule of Jonston, that it conceived it like a draft of a broader work. But this work never appeared.

Bibliographical references: Beekman, Systematische Mineralogie, 1906: p. 17 & 28. BMC: 2, 942. CBN: 78, col. 1065. Kobell, Geschichte der Mineralogie, 1864: 58. Koziorowski, Histoire de la Minéralogie en Pologne, 1933. LKG: III 52. VD17: 39:114213V. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1222.

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