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Pehr Kalm
KALM, Pehr.

KALM, Pehr.
(1716 - 1779)

(Born: Angermanie, Finland, March 1716; Died: Uppsala, Sweden, 16 November 1779) Swedish traveler, botanist & geologist.

Kalm was born the son of a Lutheran minister. In 1735, he was admitted to Åbo University (Finland) and then to Uppsala University (Sweden) in 1740. The following year Kalm became a student and friend of Carl von Linné (Linneaus), the famous naturalist. Under the latter's influence Kalm developed a profound interest in the application of botany to agricultural and industrial problems. In 1747 he was designated by the Swedish Academy of Sciences to travel to North America to collect seeds of plants that might prove useful for feeding people or animals, or have some other industrial, domestic or medical purpose. Kalm remained in America, mainly in New England, from 1748 to 1751. After his return to Sweden, Kalm became an instructor at Åbo University, where he remained until his death.

Biographical references: Biographiskt Lexicon. DBA: II 676, 202. DSB: 7, 210-1. Finsk Biografisk Handbok: 1, cols. 1106-9. ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 2. Kalm, P., "Kalm som Student i Uppsala och Lärjunge till Linné åren, 1741-1747." Föredrag ... den 27 maj, 1923 av Johan Markus Hulth. Svenska Linné-Sällskapet. Årsskrift, Årg. 7, (1924), 39-49. Lucas, J., Kalm's Account of his visit to England on his way to America in 1748. Translated [from En Resa til Norra America, Stockholm 1753-61, with Life of Kalm, Preface and many notes]. London; New York, Macmillan & Co, 1892. xvi, 480 p., 3 plates, 2 maps, illus. Nordenskiöld, E., "Per Kalm och hans amerikanska resa", Finsk Tidskrift för vitterhet, vetenskap, konst och politik, 109, (1908), Heft 3, 121-34. Poggendorff: 1, col. 1221. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 1416-7 & Suppl. 1 (1986), 1, 539-40. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-146, 233-255. Schauman, G., "Ett minne af Linné och hans förhållande till Kalm", Finsk Tidskrift för Vitterhet, Vetenskap, Konst och Politik, 62, (Maj, 1907), Heft 5, 372-375. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 902.

Resa til Norra America, 1753

1. Swedish, 1753-61 [First edition].
En | Resa | Til | Norra America, | På | Kongl. Swenska Wetenskaps | Academiens befallning, | Och Publici Kontnad, | Förrättad | Af | Pehr Kalm, | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | Tom. I. | [wavy rule] | Med Kongl. Maj:ts Allernådigste Privilegia. | [rule] | Stockholm, | Tryckt på Lars Salvii kostnad 1753 [-1761].

3 vols. [Vol 1: 1753] 8°: 484 p. [Vol 2: 1756] 8°: 526 p. [Vol 3: 1761] 8°: 538 p.

Very scarce. This work describes Kalm's extensive travels in northern Europe and North America taken between 1747 and 1749. The first two volumes treat the author's travels in Norway and England, while the third contains observations on Canada and New England. The voyage was undertaken at the request of the Swedish government for the purpose of discovering whether any North American plants could be introduced advantageously into Sweden. Kalm being one of the ablest naturalists of his time, however, includes numerous observations on the landscape, mountains, rivers, geology and mineralogy of the regions visited. Pehr Kalm's journey to North America originated in a suggestion to Linnaeus by a member of the Swedish Academy of Sciences. It was proposed that a collecting trip be made to regions lying in about the same latitudes as Sweden, with the purpose of discovering new plants of economic and medicinal value. Linnaeus enthusiastically supported the project. He was particularly interested in bringing the Morus rubra, a kind of mulberry tree, from America to Sweden so that a domestic silk industry could be started. On Linnaeus' recommendation the Academy approved the trip, selected Pehr Kalm as its emissary and the necessary funds were provided. Kalm arrived in Philadelphia in 1748 and after numerous excursions in the districts around that city and New York, he set out for Canada in 1749. He travelled by way of Al-bany and Saratoga and eventually reached Montreal, Three Rivers and Quebec. The next year he visited Lake Ontario and- Niagara Falls. He returned to Sweden in July of 1751 bringing with him a large collec-tion of plant specimens and seeds which he considered might be use-fully grown in Sweden. His collections are preserved in the Botanical Museum at Uppsala. Kalm's account of his travels, En resa till Norra America, contain-ing detailed descriptions of conditions in the new country, became very popular and was translated into German, French, English (three editions), and Dutch.

Bibliographical references: BL [Mic.F.232]. Buckman, Catalog of a Linnaeus Exhibition, 1957: no. 43. LKG: XIV 900. Lucas, J., Kalm's Account of his visit to England on his way to America in 1748. Translated [from En Resa til Norra America, Stockholm 1753-61, with Life of Kalm, Preface and many notes]. London; New York, Macmillan & Co, 1892. xvi, 480 p., 3 plates, 2 maps, illus. Nordenskiöld, E., "Per Kalm och hans amerikanska resa", Finsk Tidskrift för vitterhet, vetenskap, konst och politik, 109, (1908), Heft 3, 121-34. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: no. 4572. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 36986.

Translations

2. German, 1754-64 [German].
Reise nach dem nordlichen America, welche auf Befehl der Königlichen Schwedischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, und auf allgemeine Kosten, von Peter Kalm ... ist verrichtet worden. Leipzig, Gottfired Kiesewetter; Göttingen, W.A. Vandenhoek, 1754-64.

3 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [18], [1]-568 p. [Vol 2] 8°: [1]-592 p. [Vol 3] 8°: [1]-648 p., 9 plates.

Very scarce. German edition, translated by Johann Philippo and Johan Andrea Murray from En resa til Norra America (1753-61).

Bibliographical references: BL [Mic.F.232]. LKG: XIV 901a. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 36987.

3. English, 1770-1 [English, First edition].
Travels | Into | North America; | Containing | Its Natural History, and | A circumstantial Account of its Plantations | and Agriculture in general, | with the | Civil, Ecclesiastical And Commercial | State Of The Country, | The manners of the inhabitants, and several curious | and important remarks on various Subjects. | By Peter Kalm, [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | Translated Into English [II: English] | By John Reinhold [III: Reinold] Forster, F.A.S. | Enriched wit a Map, several Cuts, for Illustration of | Natural History, and some additional Notes. | [rule] | Vol. I. [II.-III.] | [double rule] | Warrington: | Printed by William Eyres. | MDCCLXX. [Imprint in II-III: London: | Printed for the Editor; | And Sold by T. Lowndes, in Fleetstreet. | MDCCLXXI.]

3 vols. [Vol 1: 1770] 8°: a8 A-Bb8 χ1; 212l.; [i]-xvi, [8], [1]-400 p., 2 plates. [Vol 2: 1771] 8°: A-Y8; 180l.; [10], 3-352 p., 3 plates. [Vol 3: 1771] 8°: a4 A-U8 X2; 168l.; [i]-viii, [1]-310, [14] p., large folding map (showing New England, signed J. Gibson Sculp).

Very scarce. Translated by Johann Reinhold Forster from En resa til Norra America (1753-61). Volume one published at Warrington, printed by W. Eyers. This translation omits a great number of details, and everything relating to England. It contains drawings of birds and animals not found in the original.

Bibliographical references: Hunt Botanical Catalog: no. 616. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 36989.

4. English, 1772 [English, 2nd edition].
Travels in North America; containing its natural history, and a circumstantial account of its plantations and agriculture in general, with the civil, ecclesiastical and commercial state of the country, the manners of the inhabitants, and several curious and important remarks on various subjects. By Peter Kalm ... Translated into English by John Reinhold Forster ... Second edition ... London: T. Lowndes, 1772.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [i]-iv, iii-xii, [1]-414 p. [Vol 2] 8°: [i]-iv, [1]-423 p., 6 plates and map.

Very scarce. Translated by Johann Reinhold Forster from En resa til Norra America (1753-61). The portion of the original work dealing with England has been omitted from this translation.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 901a. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 36989.

5. Dutch, 1772 [Dutch].
Reis door Noord Amerika, gedaan door den heer Pieter Kalm ... Vercierd met kopern platen ... Te Utrecht, J. van Schoonhoven en comp., 1772.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 4°: [22], [1]-223 p., map, 3 plates. Engraved title page. [Vol 2] 4°: [6], [1]-240, [8] p., one plate.

Very scarce. Dutch edition, translated from En Resa til Norra America (1753-61). The portion relating to England has been omitted. This translation is considered to be superior to the Swedish and English renderings.

Bibliographical references: BL [Mic.F.232]. LKG: XIV 901a. Sabin, Dictionary, 1868-1936: no. 36988.

Dissertations

6. Latin, 1754 [Dissertation].
Resp. Jeremias Wallenius ... Exercitum Academicum de Ortu Petrificatorum ... Præs. P. Kalm, ... Aboæ, 1754.

4°: 1-22 p.

Very scarce. Dissertation - Jeremias Wallenius, respondent.

Jeremias Wallenius. (Born:      ; Died:      ) Swedish. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.394.(20.)]. LKG: XVII 39. (Wallenius)

7. Latin, 1756 [Dissertation].
D.D. | Dissertatio Mineralogica, | Ollares | In | Fennia Repertos | Delineans, | Quam | Suffrag. Ampdiss. Ord. Philosoph. In Re- | gia Acad. Aborensi, | Præside | Petro Kalm, | […2 lines of titles and memberships…] | Johannes Fridericus Müller, | Ostrorotniensis, | In Auditorio Majori Die XXIX, Junii | Anni MDCCLVI. | H.P.M.S. | [ornate rule] | Aboæ, Impressit Direct. & Typogr. Reg. Magn. Duc. | Finland, Jacob Merckell.

4°: 1-21 p.

Very scarce. Dissertation - Johan Friderik Müller, respondent. Concerns soapstone.

Johan Fridric Müller. (Born:      ; Died:      ) Swedish. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.234.(4.)]. LKG: XIV 790. (Müller)

8. Swedish, 1756 [Dissertation].
J.H.W.N. | Några kännemärcken | Til | Nyttiga Mineraliers | Eller | Jord= och Bärgarters | Upfinnande/ | Med | Wederbörandes tilstånd | Oeconomiæ Professorens och Kongl. Swenska | Wettenskaps Academiens Ledamots | samt. p.t. Acad. Reot. | Hr. Pehr Kalms | Inseende, | Som et Academist Prof./ til all m{\ea{a}n grayskning fram= | gifne uti Åbo Academies öfre ???? för mid= | dagen den 5. Julii 1756. | Af | Erik Hægglund, | Öfterbotninge. | [rule] | Åbo, Tryckt hos direct. och Kongl. Boker i Stor=För= | stendömer Finland/ Jacob Merckell.

4°: [4], [1]-24 p.

Very scarce. Dissertation - Erik Haegglund, respondent. Concerns determinative mineralogy.

Erik Haegglund. (Born:      ; Died:      ) . No information found.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.240.(1.)]. Laitakari, Geologische Bibliographie Finnlands, 1934: p. 83-4. LKG: XII 49. (Haegglund) No references found.

9. Latin, 1757 [Dissertation].
D.F.G. | Dissertatio | Examen | Animadversionum | Pseudonymi Cujusdam | De | Hypothesi | Diminutionis | Aquarum | Sistens, | Cujus Partem Prioem, | Consentiente Facult. Philos. in Reg. Acad. Aboensi, | Præside | Dn. Petro Kalm, | […2 lines of titles and memberships…] | Pro Laurea, | In Aud. Majori Die XXVII. Julii Anni MDCCLVII. | H.A.M.S. | P:ublicæ disquisitioni submittit | Johannes Browallius J.F. | Ostroeotniensis. | [rule] | Aboæ, Impressit Direct. & Typogr. Reg. Magn. Duc. | Finland, Jacob Merckell.

4°: 1-14 p.

Very scarce. Dissertation - Johannes Bronwallius, respondent.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.396.(8.)]. LKG: XIII 86.

10. Swedish, 1757 [Dissertation].
M.G.H. | Kort Afhandling | Om | Gipsen, | Med Wederbörandes Minne/ | Under | […4 lines of titles and memberships…] | H:r Pehr Kalms | Inseende | Til offentelig granskning/ | F{ \ea{o}}r Lager=Krantsen/ | Utgifwen | Af | Johan Fridric Müller, | Österbotninge. | J Åbo Acad. Större Lärosal den 28. Julii s.m. 1757. | [ornate rule] | Åbo, Tryckt hos Direct. och Kongl. Boktr. i Stor=För= | stendömet Finland, Jacob Merckell.

4°: 1-14, [4] p.

Very scarce. Dissertation - Johan Fredric Müller, respondent. Describes how the mineral gypsum is mined and used.

Johan Fridric Müller. (Born:      ; Died:      ) Swedish. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.396.(4.)]. Laitakari, Geologische Bibliographie Finnlands, 1934: p. 84. LKG: XVI 281. (Müller)

11. Swedish, 1757 [Dissertation].
J.J.N. | Kort Afhandling | Om | Tak=Skifwers | Upletande/ Igen=Kännande | och Nytta, | Med Wederbörandes Minne | Under | Oeconomiæ Professorens, Kongl. Swenska Wet= | tenskaps Academiens och Upsala Wettensk. Societ. | Ledamoig/ [?] | Somt | Nu Warende Acade. Rect. | Hr. Pehr Kalms | Inseende, | för | Lager Krantsen | Utgiswen Af | Jacob Benedictius, | Osterbotninge. | J Åbo Större, Läro Sal/ s.m. den 26 Mart., 1757. | [rule] | Åbo, Tryckt hos Direct. Uren och Kongl. Boktr. i Stor=För= | stendömet Finland, Jacob Merckell.

4°: 1-10 p.

Very scarce. Dissertation - Jacob Benedictus [1730-1792], respondent. Describes various aspects of slate. In particluar roofing slate, an important product of the eighteenth century econmny.

Jacob Benedictius. . No information found.

Bibliographical references: BL [B.236.(11.)]. Laitakari, Geologische Bibliographie Finnlands, 1934: p. 84. LKG: XVI 429. (Benedictius) No references found.

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