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Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten
KARSTEN, Dietrich Ludwig Gustav.

KARSTEN, Dietrich Ludwig Gustav.
(1768 - 1810)

(Born: Bützow, Mecklburg, Germany, 5 April 1768; Died: Berlin, Germany, 20/21 May 1810) German mineralogist & mining expert.

Dietrich was the son of the mathematician Wenceslaus Johann Gustav Karsten [1732-1787]. In 1791, Karsten was appointed mining advisor and assessor for the Royal Prussian Mining Works. From 1789, he was instructor in mineralogy and mining at the mining institute in Berlin. At this time, he helped found in 1781 the Royal Mineral Cabinet in Berlin. In 1803, Karsten was elected a extraordinary member of the Academie der Wissenschaften [Academy of Science] in Berlin, and in 1808, he was promoted to an ordinary member. He was also a member of the Gesellschaft der naturforscher Freunde [Society of Naturalists Friends] in Berlin.

Biographical references: ADB: 15, 422-25. DBA: I 629, 26-50; II 683, 231-235. Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: no. 2887. Hoppe, G., "Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten (1768 bis 1820). Mineraloge und Bergbeamte in Preussen," in: Prescher, H., ed., Leben und Wirken deutscher Geologien im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. Leipzig, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundsoffindustrie, 1985. ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 6. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 228. NDB: 11, 304 [by W. Weber]. Poggendorff: 1, cols. 1225-7. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 1423 & Suppl. 2 (1995), 1, 781. Schiffner, Alter Freiberger Bergstudenten, 1935-40: 1, 17-8. WBI.

Mineralienkabinett, 1789

1. German, 1789.
Des Herrn | Nathanael Gottfried Leske | [...13 lines of title and memberships...] | hinterlassenes | Mineralienkabinett | systematisch geordnet und beschrieben, | auch mit vielen wissenschaftlichen Anmerkungen und mehreren | äussern Beschreibungen der Fossilien begleitet, | von | Dietrich Ludwig Gustaf Karsten, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [tapered rule] | Erster Band. | Mit ill. Kupfern. | [double rule] | Leipzig, | im Verlage der I.G. Müllerschen Buchhandlung. | 1789.

[Series title page:]

Mvsevm | Leskeanvm | [tapered rule] | Regnvm Minerale | [tapered rule] | Qvod | Ordine Systematico | Disposvit Atqve Descripsit | D.L. Gvstavvs Karsten, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [ornate rule] | Vol. II. | Pars prima. | Cum iconibus pictis. | [tapered rule] | Lipsiae, | Svmptibvs Haeredvm I.G. Mülleri. | 1789.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: *1 A-Z8 2A-2N8 2O2; 317l.; [54], [1]-578, [2] p.; [Vol 2] 8°: 280 p., 5 plates (hand-colored). Page size: 200 x 115 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [2 pgs], Series title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to Friedrich Anton Freiherrn von Heinitz.; [1 pg], Blank.; [4 pgs], Text of dedication, signed D.L. Gustaf Karsten.; [22 pg], "Vorrede."; [1]-578, Text.; [2 pgs], "Berichtigungen."

[Vol 2] No copy examined.

Very scarce. This is a descriptive catalog of the mineralogical portion of Nathanael Gottfried Leske's [see note below] natural history collection. Since its publication this work has also been known by the name Museum Leskeanum. An earlier part comprising a single volume and not described here, dealt with the entomological collection.

Leske was one of the most prominent student's of Abraham Gottlob Werner. Between 1782 and 1787 it was under the supervision of Werner that Leske arranged his large mineralogical collection according to Werner's theory of mineral collections. Upon Leske's death and at the urging of his heirs, Karsten another supporter of Werner continued to enlarge the collection and wrote this descriptive catalog. It was an important publication for presenting a practical example of Wernerian doctrine, thus helping to cement the theory in geological science. This publication also helped secure the sale of the 7,331 specimen collection to the Dublin Natural History Museum in 1792 for 1,350 pounds.

The collection is divided into five separate parts, in conformity with the rules outlined by Werner in his article "Von den verschiednerley Mineraliensammlungen, aus denen ein vollständiges Mineralienkabinett bestehen soll" [see Sammlungen zur Physik und Naturgeschichte: 1 (1778), 387-420]. According to Werner each part represented a separate study in mineralogical science as a whole, and therefore a complete cabinet of minerals must consist of as many distinct collections. The five parts correspond to: (1) oryctognosy, or the knowledge of the external characters of minerals, (2) systematics, or the arrangement of minerals into genera and species in a natural order, (3) geognosy, or the knowledge of the earth's internal structure, (4) mineralogical geography, or the distribution of minerals in the earth's crust, and (5) economic mineralogy, or the study of which minerals were valuable.

The "Vorrede" contains an extended table of Werner's Mineralogical system, and the text is divided into five sections, each corresponding to a separate collection.

Nathanael Gottfried Leske. (Born: Muskau, Lusatia, Germany, 22 October 1751; Died: Marburg, Germany, 25 November 1786) German physician. Following the award of a medical degree in 1774, Leske was appointed extraordinary professor of natural history in 1775 and ordinary professor of economics in 1778 at the University of Leipzig. Shortly before his death he was made professor of public finance and administration at the University of Marburg.

Bibliographical references: Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek: 114, no. 2, 501. Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung: Jan., 1791, 81. BL. BMC: 2, 960. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 74. Freiesleben, Sächsische Mineralien-Verzeichnisse, 1828: no. 48. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 267-8. GV (1700-1910): 72, 381-2. LKG: XV 39. NUC: 290, 155 [NK 0046072]. Partsch, Katalog der Bibliothek, 1851: no. 471. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 46, 47, 93, 96, 180 & 216. (Leske) DBA: I 756, 345-369. Hirsching, Historisch-literarisches Handbuch, 1794-1815. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, Supplement. Meusel, Verstorbenen Teutschen Schrifsteller, 1802-16. Poggendorff: 1, col. 1435. WBI. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 46, 47, 93, 96 & 180.

Description of the Minerals, 1798

2. English, 1798 [English transl.].
A | Description | of the | Minerals | in the | Leskean Museum. | By Dietrich Ludwig Gustavus Karsten, | [...6 lines of titles and memberships...] | Translated | By George Mitchell, M.B. | [tapered rule] | Vol. I. | containing the | Characteristic and Systematic | Collections. | [tapered rule] | London: | Printed And Sold By P. Elmsly And D. Bremner | In The Strand; And R.E. Mercier And Co. | Dublin. | [rule] | 1798.

[Title page of volume two:]

A | Description | ... | Vol. II. | containing the | Geological, Geographical, And | Œconomical Collections. | ... | Dublin. | [rule] | 1798.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: a5 B-Z4 2A-2Z4 3A4 3B1; 190l.; [i]-x, [1]-369, [1] p.; [Vol 2] 8°: π1 (3B2-3B4) 3C-3Z4 4A-4R4 4Q3; 159l.; [2], 371-667, [3] p. Page size: 214 x 126 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-x, "Preface."; [1]-369, Text.; [370], Blank.

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [371]-639, Text.; [640], Blank.; [641]-667, "A | Systematic Index | To The | Leskean Museum."; [1 pg], Blank.; [1 pg], "Errata."; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. Translation by George Mitchell from volume two of Des Herrn G. Leske hinterlassenes Mineralienkabinet, also known as Museum Leskeanum (Leipzig, 1789); the first volume dealing with entomology was not translated. Describes Leske's mineral collection, which was purchased by the Dublin Society after his death. Vol. I. Containing the Characteristic and Systematic Collections. Vol. II. Containing the Geological, Geographical, and Œconomical Collections.

The preface gives interesting details about the history of the Leske mineralogical collection and Karsten's descriptive catalog. Also explained in the prliminaries is an introduction to Werner's theories of mineral collections, by which the Leske cabinet was arranged. The text of the work than presents a descriptive catalog following Wernerian principles of the five collections. An index to mineral species concluded the work.

George Mitchell. (Born:      ; Died:      ) English geologist. Need Biography.

Bibliographical references: BL. LKG: XV 40a. NUC [no copy listed]. (Mitchell) Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980.

Freymüthige Gedanken über Herrn Inspector Werners Verbesserungen in der Mineralogie, nebst eingen Bemerkungen über Herrn Assessor Karstens Beschreibung des vom. sel. Leske hinterlassenen Mineral-Cabinetts. Von Abbé Estner. (Wein, 1790).
See under: Estner, Franz Joseph Anton.

Tabellarische Übersicht, 1791

3. German, 1791 [First edition].
Tabellarische Übersicht | Der | Mineralogisch-Einfachen | Fossilien, | Zum | Behuf Seiner Vorlesungen | Herausgegeben | Von | Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten, | [...6 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Berlin, MDCCXCI. | Auf Kosten Des Verfassers, | Gedruckt In Der Königl. Hofbuchdruckerei.

2°: *2 **2 A-G2; 18l.; [i]-viii, [1]-27, [1] p. Page size: 300 x 190 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-viii, "An | Meine Zuhörer."; [1]-27, Text [=tables listing classes, orders, families and species].; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. A listing in tabular format of mineral species, arranged by class, order and family. It was written in an effort to support Werner's reform of the science.

Bibliographical references: Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek: 114, pt. 1, 161. Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung: Nov., 1793, 411. BL. BMC: 2, 960 [wanting]. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 74. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 54 ["Sehr gut und nützlich"]. GV (1700-1910): 72, 381-2. LKG: XII 129. NUC: 290, 155 [NK 0046075]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1242.

4. German, 1792 [2nd editon].
Tabellarische Uebersicht der mineralogisch - einfachen Fossilien. Von Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten zum Behufe seiner Vorlesungen. Zweite Auflage vermehrte und verbessert. Berlin, 1792.

2°: xii, 35 p. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: BL. BMC: 2, 960. GV (1700-1910): 72, 381-2. LKG: XII 129. NUC [no copy listed].

5. German, 1793.
Ueber | Herrn Werners Verbesserungen | in | der Mineralogie; | auf | Veranlassung | der freimüthigen Gedanken u. | des Herrn Abbé Estner, | von | dem Bergrath Karsten. | [rule] | [rule] | Berlin, 1793. | bei Haude und Spener.

8°: A-E8; 40l.; [1]-79, [1] p. Page size: 168 x 104 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-79, Text, beginning "An den Herrn Abbé Estner!"; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. Karsten wrote this monograph as a response to criticisms presented by Franz Joseph Anton Estner [q.v.] in Freymüthige Gedanken über Herrn Inspector Werners Verbesserungen in Mineralogie (Wien, 1790). Estner had attacked Wernerian theories as presented by Karsten in his description of the Leske mineral cabinet [see entry above]. In this work, written in the form of a letter addressed to Estner, Karsten vigorously defends the Wernerian doctrine. After giving several pages in the way of a general introduction, he takes on Estner's work point by point, giving first a quotation from Estner's monograph followed by his response.

Bibliographical references: BL [972.g.31.]. BMC: 2, 960. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 74. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 300. GV (1700-1910): 72, 381-2. LKG: XII 195. NUC: 290, 155 [NK 0046077].

Mineralogische Tabellen

6. German, 1800 [First edition].
Mineralogische | Tabellen | mit Rüksicht auf die neuesten Entdekkungen [sic] | ausgearbeitet | und mit erläuternden Anmerkungen versehen | von | Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten, | [...6 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Berlin, 1800. | Auf Kosten des Verfassers und in Commission bei Heinrich August Rottmann.

2°: *2 A-U2; 44l.; [i]-viii, [1]-79, [1] p. Page size: 366 x 226 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-viii, "Vorrede."-signed Karsten.; [1], "I. | Die äusseren Kennzeichen der Fossilien, | in XII. Tafeln gebracht."; [2], Blank.; [3]-18, Text.; [19], "II. | Tabellarische Uebersicht | der | mineralogisch-einfachen Fossilien."; 20-57, Text.; [58], Blank.; [59], "III. | Tabellarische Uebersicht | der | Gebirgsarten."; 60-67, Text.; [68], Blank.; 69-79, "Anmerkungen."; [1 pg], Blank.

Very scarce. The forward extolls the virtues of Werner's theories. The tables are then presented. Part I gives tables of the characteristics of minerals, part II. gives a systematic overview with column headings of class, order, family, species, references, and composition, and part III. concerns rocks and has column headings of composition, class, formation, species, and type locality. The "Anmerkungen" contains notes that clarify certain items in the tables.

Bibliographical references: BL. BMC: 2, 960. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 74. GV (1700-1910): 72, 381-2. LKG: XII 130a. NUC: 290, 155 [NK 0046073].

7. German, 1808 [2nd edition].
Mineralogische | Tabellen | mit Rüksicht auf die neuesten Entdekkungen [sic] | ausgearbeitet | und mit erläuternden Anmerkungen versehen | von | Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten, | [...8 lines of titles and memberships...] | [tapered rule] | Zweite verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. | [tapered rule] | Berlin, 1808. Bei Heinrich August Rottmann.

2°: *2 A-Z2 2A-2C2 2D1; 60l.; [i]-xiv, [1]-103, [1] p. Page size: 392 x 230 mm.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-x, "Vorrede | zur ersten Ausgabe."; xi-xiv, "Vorrede | zur zweiten Ausgabe."-signed Karsten, 5 August 1808.; [1], "I. | Die äusseren Kennzeichen der Fossilien, | in XII. Tafeln gebracht."; [2], Blank.; [3]-19, Text.; [20], Blank.; [21], "II. | Tabellarische Uebersicht | der | mineralogisch-einfachen Fossilien."; 22-75, Text.; [76], Blank.; [77], "III. | Tabellarische Uebersicht | der | Gebirgsarten."; 78-85, Text.; [86], Blank.; [87]-101, "Anmerkungen."; 102-103, "Anhang | von noch zu unbestimmten, aber vorzügliche Aufmerksamkeit verdienenden | Fossilien."; [1 pg], "Berichtigungen."

Very scarce. Although the text has been updated with the inclusion of additional mineral species and rocks, the format from the first edition has been retained. A supplement treating minerals not completely defined has been included at the end.

Bibliographical references: BL. BMC: 2, 960. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 74. GV (1700-1910): 72, 381-2. LKG: XV 130a. NUC: 290, 155 [NK 0046074].

Tablas Mineralògicas, 1804

8. Spanish, 1804 [Spanish transl.].
Tablas | Mineralogicas | Dispuestas | Segun Los Descubrimientos Mas Recientes | É Ilustradas Con Notas | Por D.L.G. Karsten | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | Tercera Edicion Alemana De 1800 | Traducida Al Castellano | Para El Uso Del Real Seminario De Minería | Por Don Andres Manuel del Rio. | [ornament] | Con superior permiso. | [ornate rule] | Impresas en México: por Don Mariano Joseph de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, calle del | Espíritu Santo Año de 1804.

2°: π2 A-O4; 58l.; [14], [1]-96, [6] p. Page size: 290 x 202 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication signed Andres del Rio.; [1 pg], Blank.; [2 pgs], "Introduccion."; [8 pgs], "Prólogo de Karsten."; [1]-73, Text of mineralogical tables.; [74], Blank.; 75-89, "Tablas | de las Rocas."; 89-96, "Apéndice Alfabético | De fósiles nuevos, que describe el C. Haüy en su Mineralogia, | agregada la equinolita."; 96, "Adiciones Y Correcciones."; [6 pgs], "Indice."

Very scarce. Translated by Andres del Río [q.v.] from Mineralogische Tabellen (Berlin, 1800). The mineralogical tables that occupy the first 73 pages contain chemical analyses and notes about associations, crystallizations, etc. as observed by various mineralogists of the time. The second section treats rocks in a similiar way, but Río has modified it according to Friedrich Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von Humbolt's [q.v.] ideas. At the end there is an appendix listing in alphabetical order the new minerals described by Haüy [q.v.] in his Traité de Mineralogie (1st ed., 4 vols., Paris, 1801). The modifications and critical notes added to this edition by the translator show that he was keeping abreast of the latest theories even though separated from Europe.

Bibliographical references: BL. Maffei & Rua Figuera, Bibliografía Mineral, 1871-2: 1, 381-2, no. 1284. NUC: 290, 155 [NK 0046076]. Palau, Manual, 1948-77: no. 268180.

Ueber der Herren Werner und Karsten Reformen in der Mineralogie. Nebst Anmerkungen über die ältere und neuere Benennung einiger Stein-Arten ... (Helmstedt, 1793).
See under: Veltheim, August Ferdinand, Graf Von.

Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, ausgearbeitet vom Bürger Haüy, Zum Druck befördert durch das Bergwerks-Conseil in Paris. Aus dem Französischen übersetzt, und mit Anmerkungen versehen von Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten ... (Paris & Leipzig, 1804).
See under: Haüy, René Just.

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