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Richard Kirwan
KIRWAN, Richard.

KIRWAN, Richard.
(1733 - 1812)

(Born: Cloughballymore, County Galway, Ireland, 1733; Died: Dublin, Ireland, 1 June 1812) Irish chemist, mineralogist, geologist & meterologist.

In 1750, Kirwan enrolled with the Jesuits at the University of Poitiers (France), but in 1755, upon death of his brother, he returned to Ireland to inherit the family estates. Kirwan frequently traveled to London, remaining there ten years beginning in 1777. In London, his house became a well known meeting place for those distinguished by birth, position, or achievement in science. In 1787, he returned to Ireland. Among the many societies Kirwan was elected to were the Royal Irish Academy, of which he was an original member and subsequently its president. In 1780, he was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, which awarded him the Copley Medal in 1782. The mineral "Kirwanite" was named for him by T. Thomson in 1831.

Biographical references: Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 141. BBA: I 651, 296-314. Brockman, C.J., "Richard Kirwan, chemist 1733-1812", Journal of Chemical Education, 4, (1927), 1275-82. Dictionary of Irish Biography: 210. Dixon, F.E., "Richard Kirwan the Dublin philosopher", Dublin Historical Record, 24, (1971), 53-64. DNB: 11, 228-30 [by A.M. Clerke]. Donovan, M., "Richard Kirwan", Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 4, (1850), lxxxi-cxviii. DSB: 7, 387-90 [by E.L. Scott]. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. Ferguson, Bibliotheca Chemica, 1906: 1, 472. Grison, E., M. Goupil, and P. Bret, eds., A scientific correspondence during the chemical revolution : Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau and Richard Kirwan, 1782-1802. Edited by Emmanuel Grison, Michelle Goupil, and Patrice Bret. Berkeley, Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California at Berkeley, 1994. vi, 257 p., illus. Heggarty, D.E., Richard Kirwan: the natural philosopher and the chemical revolution. Ph.D. Dissertation. Spokane, University of Washington, 1971. [See: Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 3785-A.]. Ireland, Index to Scientists, 1962: 348. ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 22. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 235. Mclaughlin, P.J., "Richard Kirwan: 1733-1812", Studies: Irish O. Review, 28, (1939), 461-74, 593-605 & 29, (1940), 71-83, 281-300. O'Flanagan, J.R., "Richard Kirwan", Dublin Saturday Magazine, 2, (1865), 242-4, 254-6 & 266-9. O'Reardon, J., "The life and works of Richard Kirwan", National Magazine, Dublin, 1, (1830), 330-42 & 469-75. Philosophical Magazine, 3rd Series: 14 (1802), 353, portrait. Poggendorff: 1, col. 1263. Reilly, J. and N. O'Flynn, "Richard Kirwan, an Irish chemist of the eighteenth century", Isis, 13, 298-319. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 2, 1456 & Suppl. 2 (1995), 1, 794. Scott, E.L., Life and work of Richard Kirwan (1733-1812), with particular reference to his influence on the chemistry, geology, and meterology of his time. Ph.D. Dissertation. London, London University, 1979. WBI. Webb, Compendium of Irish Biography, 1878: 277. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, 1934: 132-3, portrait. World Who's Who in Science: 939.

Elements of Mineralogy, 1784

1. English, 1784 [First edition].
Elements | of | Mineralogy. | By | Richard Kirwan, Esq; F.R.S. | [ornament] | London: | Printed for P. Elmsly, in the Strand. | M. DCC. LXXXIV.

8°: [A]8 a2 B-Z8 Aa-Cc8 Dd6 χ6; 222l.; [2], [i]-xviii, [1]-412, [12] index p. The 12 page index is not present in all copies. Page size: 214 x 128 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [i]-xiv, "Preface."; [xv]-xviii, "Contents."; [1]-173, "Elements | Of | Mineralogy," page starts: "Part I. | Of Earths and Stones."; 174-207, "Part II. | Saline Substances."; 208-225, "Part III. | Inflammables."; 226-372, "Part IV. | Metallic Substances."; 373-397, "... | Geological Observations."; 398, "Table I."; 399-402, "Table II."; 403-412, "Table III."; [12 pgs], "Index."

Very scarce. The first systematic mineralogy in English that classifies minerals by their chemical composition. In the preface, Kirwan deplores the insignificant position that mineralogy holds in British science. He contrasts this to the progress made in Europe, especially Sweden, Germany and France. He then presents his reasons for writing the work. Citing that until recent advances in chemistry, mineralogy had never had an adequate base on which a system of classification could be founded, Kirwan discusses other methods of classification. While describing these other arrangements, he questions the merits of systems such as Romé de l'Isle's based on crystal form and Werner's based on external characters. He concludes that mineralogy must be considered a branch of chemistry. In this regard, Kirwan follows Cronstedt and uses the later's basic classification, subjugating the mineral species into Earths and Stones, Salts, Inflammables and Metals, based upon the species' chemistry.

Kirwan copies from other author's in his mineral descriptions but gives interesting notes that suggest he duplicated the analyses of some species. He appends a chapter to the first part of the work that describes in some detail the procedures for determining analytically a minerals chemistry. Later, several tables are provided that give the results of many analyses. A table listing the specific gravities of gemstones is also included. The section of "Geological Observations" was of great controversy among the geologists of the day.

Of particular historical interest to the properites of minerals is a section on pages 171-73 proposing a hardness scale for minerals. The original to this was published in Stockholm by Bengt Andersson Quist [q.v.] as "Försök pä en del Kisel arter och i synnerhet de hårdare så kallade Äkta stenar," Kongl. Swenska Wetenskaps Acad. Handlingar: 29 (1768), 55. This scale of hardness slightly modified by Kirwan is the first to be published in an English book. It is comprised of twenty divisions ranging from chalk (3) to diamond (20).

Related work, 1799: Geological Essays. Besides his mineralogical works, Kirwan also authored Geological Essays (London, 1799) in which he vigourously opposed James Hutton's geological theories.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 987. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 716. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 75. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 38. Hoover Collection: no. 486. LKG: XII 104. Lowndes, Bibliographer's Manuel, 1857-64: 5, 1280. NUC: 298, 83 [NK 0167534]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1261.

2. English, 1794-6 [2nd edition].
Elements | of | Mineralogy. | [tapered rule] | By | Richard Kirwan, Esq. F.R.S. & M.R.I.A. | of the Academies of Stockholm, Upsal, | Berlin, Manchester, Philadelphia, &c. | [rule] | Second Edition, | with | considerable improvements and | additions. | [rule] | Vol. I. [-II.] | Earths and Stones. [-Salts, Inflammables, and Metallic Substances.] | [rule] | London: | Printed by J. Nichols, | For P. Elmsly, in the Strand. | [tapered rule] | M DCC XCIV.

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1794] 8°: [a]-b8 B-Z8 Aa-Ii8 Kk7; 271l.; [i]-xxxi, [1] blank, [1]-510 p. [Vol 2: 1796] 8° in 4s: [a]-b4 χ1 B-Z4 Aa-Zz4 Aaa-Ppp4 Qqq3 *Qqq6 [folding tables] Qqq1 [last leaf of Qqq4] Rrr-Uuu4 Xxx2; 278 leaves (6 folding).; [4], v-xvi, [1] errata, [1] blank, [1]-529, [1] blank p., 3 folding tables on 6 leaves (split upon pages 487 to 492). In examining multiple copies of volume 2, it has been found that is some cases the original half title and title page have been excised, and a new title page has been glued on the stub. Page size: 210 x 122 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Half title page, "Elements | Of | Mineralogy. | Vol. I.," verso blank.; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; v-xvi, "Preface."-dated Dublin, 1 January 1795.; xvii-xxvii, "Contents."; [xxviii], Blank.; xxix-xxxi, "Errata."; [1 page], Blank.; [1]-392, Text.; 393, "First Appendix. | Diamond."; 394-458, "Second Appendix. | Of Stones and Earths that owe their Origin to | Fire."; 459-507, "Third Appendix. | Of the Chemical Analysis of Earths | and Stones."; [508], Blank.; 509-510, "Addition."-at end, "End of Vol. I.";

[Vol 2] [2 pages], Half title page, "Elements | Of | Mineralogy. | Vol. II.," verso blank.; [2 pages], Title page, verso blank.; v-xvi, "Contents."; [1 page], "Errata."; [1 page], Blank.; [1]-481, Text.; 482-485, "Table | Of The | Compostion | Of | Metallic Calces."; [486], Blank.; [6 folding leaves of tables, numbered for pages 487 to 492]; 493-503, "Notes | On The | Table of Calces."; 504-506, "Notes | On The | Second Table."; 507-513, "Notes | On The | Third Table."; 514-529, "Experiments | On The | Composition and Proportion of Carbon, | in Bitumen and Mineral Coal."; [1 page], Blank.

Very scarce. An enlarged and entirely rewritten work based upon Wernerian theories. Kirwan the greatest mineralogist in Ireland was called upon by the parliment in 1792 to participate in a committee to purchase the mineral collection of Nathanael Gottfried Leske [q.v.]. To negotiate the matter he travelled to Germany where he met and became a disciple of Abraham Gottlob Werner [q.v.]. Kirwan was so enthusiastic about Werner's theories, that when he became involved in setting up the newly acquired collection in Ireland, he arranged its specimens according to his friend's ideas of classification. In the preface, Kirwan states that it was this experience that allowed him to write the the second edition of the Elements. The book's considerable enlargement is due in no small matter to the many more analyses and descriptions the author was able to include because of his access of the Leskean minerals. The arrangement of the text follows closely that of the first edition.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 987. Cole, Chemical Literature, 1988: no. 717. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 75. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 313. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 38. LKG: XII 104. Lowndes, Bibliographer's Manuel, 1857-64: 5, 1280. NUC: 298, 83 [NK 0167535]. Partington, History of Chemistry, 1961-70: 1, 662. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 3431. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1262.

3. English, 1810 [3rd edition].
Elements | of | Mineralogy. | [tapered rule] | By | Richard Kirwan, Esq. | P.R.I.A. F.R.S.L.&E. | Of the Academies of Stockholm, Upsal, Berlin, Manchester, | Philadelphia, &c. | [tapered rule] | The Third Edition. | [tapered rule] | In Two Volumes. | Vol. I. [-II.] | Earths and Stones. [\hbox{-Salts,} Inflammables, and Metallic Substances.] | [double rule] | London: | Printed for J. Mackinlay, 87, Strand. | [rule] | 1810.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: a8 b4 B-Ff8 Gg2; 238l.; [i]-xxiv, [1]-452 p.; [Vol 2] 8°: π2 a4 B-Dd8 Ee2 Ff6 Gg8 Hh3; 236l.; [i]-xiv, [1]-459 p., 3 folding tables on 6 leaves (split upon pages 427 to 438). Page size: 210 x 128 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [i-ii], Half title page, "Elements | Of | Mineralogy. | Vol I."; [iii-iv], Title page, verso "London: Printed by B. McMillan."; [v]-xv, "Preface | To The | Second Edition."; [xvi], "Errata."; [xvii]-xxiv, "Contents | Of Volume I."; [1]-452, Text.;

[Vol 2] [i-ii], Half title page,"Elements | Of | Mineralogy. | Vol II."; [iii-iv], Title page, verso blank.; [v]-xiv, "Contents | Of Vol. II."; [1]-416, Text.; 417-420, "Table | Of The | Compostion | Of | Metallic Calces."; [3 folding tables]; 427-438, "Notes | On The | Tables Of Calces."; 439-444, "Notes On The Third Table."; 445-459, "Experiments | on the | Composition And Proportion Of Carbon, | In Bitumens And Mineral Coal."

Very scarce. Essentially a reprint of the 1794-96 edition with the text entirely reset. According to Blakewell, it was published "against [Kirwan's] approbation" because he had "declined for some time previously the further cultivation of the science." [R. Blakewell, An Introduction to Mineralogy, London, 1819, iv].

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 987. Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 75. NUC: 298, 83 [NK 0167536]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1263.

Anfangsgründe der Mineralogie, 1785

4. German, 1785 [First edition].
Anfangsgründe | der | Mineralogie | von | Richard Kirwan, Esq. | [...5 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Aus dem Englischen übersezt [!] | mit Anmerkungen und einer Vorrede versehen | von | D. Lorenz Crell, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Berlin und Stettin, | bey Friedrich Nicolai. 1785.

8°: π1 a-b8 A-Gg8; 256l.; [32], [1]-462, [18] p. Page size: 170 x 100 mm.

Contents: [2 pages], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pages], Series title page, verso blank.; [8 pages], "Vorbericht | des Herausgebers."-signed D.L. Crell.; [16 pages], "Vorrede."; [4 pages], "Inhalt."; [1 page], "Anfangsgründe | der | Mineralogie."; [2 page], Blanks.; [3]-462, Text.; [18 pages], "Register."

Scarce. According to LKG, this work was translated by J.H. Wittekop from Elements of Mineralogy (London, 1784). It also contains a forward by Lorenz Crell. A second volume also published in 1785 is a translation of Kirwan's work on the phlogiston. It has the title: Versuche und Beobachtungen | über | die specifische Schwere und die Anziehungskraft | verschiedener Salzarten; | und über | die wahre neuentdeckte Natur | des | Phlogiston's | von | Richard Kirwan, Esq. | [...5 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Aus dem Englischen übersezt | und | mit Anmerkungen und einer Vorrede versehen | von | D. Lorenz Crell, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Zweyter Band. | [rule] | Berlin und Stettin, | bey Friedrich Nicolai. 1785.

Bibliographical references: Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung: 4 (1785), 315. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 312. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 38. Hamberger & Meusel, Gelehrte Teutschland, 1796-1834: 8, 572 [Wittekop]. LKG: XII 105a. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 3433 [Abbrev. entry].

5. German, 1796-9 [2nd edition].
Anfangegründe | der | Mineralogie | von | Richard Kirwan, Esq. | [...6 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Zweyte Ausgabe | mit beträchtlichen Verbesserungen und Zusätzen. | [rule] | Aus dem Englischen übersezt, | und mit Anmerkungen und einer Vorrede versehen | von | D. Lorenz von Crell. | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | Erster Band. | Erden und Steine. | [rule] | Berlin und Stettin, | bey Friedrich Nicolai. 1796.

[Volume 2 reads:]

Anfangsgründe | ... | Zweyter Band. | Salze, brennbare Körper und metallische Substanzen. | [rule] | Berlin und Stettin, | bey Friedrich Nicolai, 1798.

[Volume 3 reads:]

Anfangsgründe | ... | Dritte Band. | Geologische Versuche über die uranfängliche Entstehung | unserer Erdkugel, und ihre nachmahligen Umwälzungen | bis zu ihrem jetzigen Zustande. | Berlin und Stettin, | bey Friedrich Nicolai, 1799.

[Volume 1 series title page:]

Richard Kirwan's, Esq. | [...5 lines of titles and memberships...] | Physisch=chemische | Schriften. | [rule] | Des zweyten Bandes erste Abtheilung, | enthaltend: | der Mineralogie | Erste Abtheilung. | [rule] | Aus dem Englischen übersetzt | von | D. Lorenz von Crell. | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | [rule] | Berlin und Stettin, | bey Friedrich Nicolai. | 1796.

3 vols. [Vol 1: 1796] 8°: *2 A-Kk8; 272l.; [2], [i]-xvi, [1]-525, [1] p. Page size: 168 x 100 mm.

Contents: [Vol 1] [2 pgs], Series title page, verso blank.; [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-x, "Vorrede | zu der Uebersetzung."-signed D.L. von Crell, 6 April 1796.; [xi]-xxvi, "Vorrede des Verfassers."; [xxvii]-xxxviii, "Inhalt."; [1], Sectional title page, "Anfangsgründe | der | Mineralogie. | [rule] | Erster Band."; [2], Blank.; [3]-686, Text.; [1 pg], Errata.; [1 pg], Blank.

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Series title page, verso blank.; [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-vi, "Vorrede."-signed D.L. von Crell, 30 April 1798.; [vii]-xviii, "Inhalt. | Zweyter Theil."; [1], Sectional title page, "Anfangsgründe | der | Mineralogie. | [rule] | Zweyter Band."; [2], Blank.; [3]-652, Text (pages 593-598 are folding tables).; [653]-672, "Register."; [2 pgs], "Verbesserungen."

[Vol 3] [2 pgs], Series title page, verso blank.; [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-xiv, "Vorrede."-signed D.L. von Crell, 4 April 1799.; [xv]-xvi, "Inhalts=Anzeige | der geologischen Versuche."; [1], "Geologische | Versuche."; [2], Blank.; [3]-525, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

Scarce. Translation by Lorenz Crell of Elements of Mineralogy (2nd ed., London, 1794-6). Included in this translation as volume three, which renders into German Kirwan's Geological Essays (London, 1799).

Lorenz Florenz Friedrich von Crell. (Born: Helmstädt, Germany, 21 January 1744; Died: Göttingen, Germany, 7 June 1816) German mining expert. Crell was the first professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the Carolinum in Braunschweig, 1771-73. Later he was appointed professor of philosophy and medicine at the University of Helmstädt. Crell ended his career as professor of chemistry at the University of Göttingen.

Bibliographical references: Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 38. Göttingische Anzeigen: Oct., 1796, 1700. LKG: XII 106b. Neue Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek: 30(1), 42. NUC: 298, 83 [NK 0167527]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1266. (Crell) Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 321 [1 portrait listed]. Poggendorff: 1, col. 495.

6. French, 1785 [French transl.].
Élémens | de | Minéralogie, traduits de l'Anglois de M. Kirwan, Membre | de la Société Royale de Londres, | Par M. Gibelin, Docteur en Médicine, Membre | de la Société Médicale de Londres, &c. | [ornament] | A Paris, | Chez Cuchet, Libraire, Rue & Hôtel | Serpente. | [ornate rule] | M. DCC. LXXXV. | Avec Approbation, & Permission du Roi.

8°: π3 a7 b-c8 A-Z8 Aa-Dd8; 242l.; [6], [iii]-xlviii, [1]-432 p., index, tables. Page size: 204 x 118 mm.

Contents: [2 pages], Title page, verso blank.; [4 pages], Dedication to De Calonne, signed [Jacques] Gibelin.; [iii]-xxi, "Préface | de l'Auteur."; [xxii]-xxiv, "Avertissement | du Traducteur."; xxv-xlvi, "Table | des Chapitres."; xlvii-xlviii, "Approbation."; [1]-421, Text.; 422-432, "Table | Alphabétique | des Matieres."

Very scarce. Translation by J. Gibelin from Elements of Mineralogy (London, 1784).

Jacques Gibelin. (Born: Aix, France, September 1744; Died: Aix, France, 4 February 1828) French physician. Gibelin was a doctor of medicine and a naturalist. After travelling for many years throughout France and England, he was appointed conservator of the library for the Provence of Aix.

Bibliographical references: BMC: 2, 987. LKG: XII 107c. NUC: 298, 83 [NK 0167531]. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 3432 [Abbrev. entry]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1264. (Gibelin) Poggendorff: 1, col. 892.

Elementos de Mineralogia, 1789

7. Spanish, 1789 [Spanish transl.].
Elementos | De Mineralogia. | Escritos en Inglés por Mr. Kirwan, Miembro del la | Sociedad Real de Lóndres. | Traducidos al Frances | Por Mr. Gibelin, Dr. de Medicina, é Individuo de | la Sociedad Médicade Londres, | Y de Este Idioma al Español | Por Don Francisco Campuzano, Comisario de Provincia de Marina. | Impresos de órden de S.M. Para la Enseñanza | Pública. | [vignette] | Madrid. | [rule] | Por Don Plácido Barco Lopez. | [rule] | MDCCLXXIX.

4°: π4 *-3*4 4*2 a-b4 A-Z4 Aa-Zz4 Aaa4 Bbb2; 218l.; [8], 1-28, I-XVI, 1-384 p., one plate (blow-pipe, spoon, & hammer). Page size: 205 x 142 mm.

Contents: [2 pages], Half title page, "Elementos De Mineralogia," verso blank.; [2 pages], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pages], "Introduccion."; [2 pages], "Advertencias."; 1-28, "Tabla general de las materias contendias en este volumen."; I-XIII, "Discurso Del Autor."; XIV-XVI, "Advertencia del Tradutor Frances."; 1-384, Text.; [At end], Plate.

Very scarce. Translation by Francisco Campuzano from Élémens de Minéralogie (Paris, 1785). This rare book is the first work in Spanish dealing solely with the science of mineralogy. In Campuzano's notes, a case is made for the study of the science. The translator suggests that great knowledge and national prestige will be gained from discovering how minerals interact with chemistry, a question which then agitated the scientists of Europe. Following Kirwan, the mineral kingdom is divided into four groups: earths and stones, salts, inflammable substances and metallic substances. The principal characters of each group are described together with the minerals that belong to it. An Appendix contains a brief account of geology and its principal phenomena, as well as a short description of the blowpipe and its use which is illustrated by the accompanying plate. That mineralogy was in flux as a science is evident throughout the volume from the translator's difficulty with dealing in the various terminology.

Bibliographical references: Annals de Chimie: 23 (1797), 102-6 [by Guyton de Morveau, {\rbf} 1 only]. Gothäische gelehrte Zeitungen: 1 (1785), 34. Maffei & Rua Figuera, Bibliografía Mineral, 1871-2: 1, 382, no. 1286. NUC: 298, 83 [NK 0167533]. Palau, Manual, 1948-77: no. 128076. Sinkankas, Gemology Bibliography, 1993: no. 3431. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 1265.

Nachal'nyia Osnovaniia, 1791

8. Russian, 1791 [Russian transl.].
Начальныя основанiя Естественной Исторiи, содержащiя cарсва животныhъ, пронзрастенiй и нзкопаемыhъ. Иждивением Ивана Вейтбреhта.

[Transliterated title:]

[Nachal'nyia osnovaniia estestvennoi istorii, soderzhashchiia tsarstva zhivotnykh, proizrastenii, i izkopaemykh. Izhdiveniem Ivana Veitbrekhta]. St. Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1791.

2 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: [16], 367, [1] blank p.; [Vol 2] 8°: [6], 334 p., including 3 leaves of tables.

Very scarce. "The Foundations of Natural History" was published in 3 sections totaling 7 volumes from 1791 to 1794. The second part here described is a translation by the great Russian mineralogist Vasilii Mikhailovich Severgin [q.v.] of Elements of Mineralogy (1st ed., London, 1784). It has been greatly enlarged and supplemented by the translator, almost to the point of calling it a new work. It classifies and describes minerals on the basis of chemical composition. Volume one contains descriptions of the Earths and Stones and the Salts, while the second describes Inflammable Substances and the Metals.

It has the added title, {\scyr Carstvo izkopaemyh izdano ad\char127\char24nktom Vasil\char126em Severginym po sistematiqeskomu izkopaemyh razpolo\char25eni\char24 g. Kirvana, na aglinskom \char31zyke pisannomu.} [{\t Ts}arstvo izkopaemykh izdano ad"{\iu}nktom Vasil'em Severginym po sistematicheskomu izkopaemykh razpolozheni{\iu} g. Kirvana, na aglinskom iazyke pisannomu].

Bibliographical references: NUC: 404, 170 [NN 0002755]. Sopikov, Essay in Russian Bibliography, 1904-8: no. 6689. Svodnyi Katalog Russkoi Knigi: no. 4511.

9. English, 1800.
Of | Chymical | and | Mineralogical | Nomenclature. | [tapered rule] | By Richard Kirwan, Esq; L.L.D. F.R.S. and P.R.I.A. | [tapered rule] | Dublin: | George Bonham, | Printer to the Royal Irish Academy. | [double rule] | 1800.

4°: [A]-C4 D1; 13l.; [1]-26 p. Page size: 245 x 175 mm.

Contents: [1-2], Title page, verso blank.; [3]-26, Text.

Rare. Separate issue of a paper first published in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy of Science [See: 8 (1800), 53-76]. Kirwan was prompted to author this article as a reponse to Guyton de Morveau's attacks against his mineralogical terminology (Annales de Chemie [See: 23 (1797), 103-4].

Kirwan being the leader of the old school of chemistry became the lightning rod for attacks by supports of the the new chemistry. Morveau, a man Kirwan greatly admired, was an enthusiastic supporter of Lavoiser's [q.v.] new chemistry and one of the principal reformers of chemical and mineralogical nomenclature. However, these attacks contributed to Kirwan's growing disenchantment with chemistry and mineralogy and eventually led to his retirement from the studies.

Bibliographical references: NUC: 298, 84 [NK 0167569].

10. English, 1799.
Geological essays. London, Printed by T. Bensley for D. Bremner, 1799.

8°: [i]-xvi, [1]-502 p.

Contents: [i-ii], Title page, verso blank.; [iii]-xii, "Preface."; [xiii]-xvi, "Table Of Contents."; [1]-502, Text.

Very scarce. In addition to his papers and books on chemistry, Kirwan wrote Geological Essays (1799), a controversial response to the pioneering work of geologist James Hutton. Kirwan was a devout, orthodox Christian. For him, geology was the handmaiden of true religion, and he repeatedly expressed alarm at systems of geology that struck him as favorable to atheism. The Essays advocates flood geology and vigorously opposes the increasingly influential uniformitarian theories of geologist James Hutton.

Bibliographical references: NUC. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976. USGS Library Catalog.

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