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Edward Lhwyd
LHWYD (Llhwyd, Lhuyd, Llwyd), Edward.

LHWYD (Llhwyd, Lhuyd, Llwyd), Edward.
(1660 - 1709)

(Born: Probably Glan Ffraid, Cardiganshire, Wales, 1660; Died: Oxford, England, 30 June 1709) English antiquarian & naturalist.

Lhwyd had very limited means while he was a student at Oxford, to the extent that he took rather miserable employment before completing a degree. Created an M.A. by Convocation, 1701. Lhwyd collected plants around the hill mass of Snowdon in Wales and established the existence of a distinct alpine flora and fauna there. Ray published Lhwyd's list of plants around Snowdon in his Synopsis, 1690. He assisted Lister in cataloguing mollusks and fossils in Oxfordshire. This topic became his primary scientific interest and resulted ultimately in Lithophylacii botannici ichnographia, 1699. Fossils involved him in geology. Ichnographia included six letters on geological subjects. The fossil content of stones led him to question the deluge account. Lhwyd undertook a general natural history of all the celtic parts of Britain (including also Ireland and Brittany). Achaeologia britannica, 1707, was to have been the first volume of this work, but Lhwyd did not live to publish the rest. That volume is more linguistic than scientific; it inaugurated the study of comparative celtic philology. Lhuyd was assistant to Robert Plot, keeper of the Ashmolean Museum from 1683 to 1691. He took over the post after Plot's death? and became Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, 1691-1709. Apparently the keepership carried no salary; Lhwyd derived his income from fees paid by visitors. Ellis says that his income from the museum never exceeded £50 per annum. Lhwyd undertook to collect material on Wales for a new edition of Camden's Britannia, published in 1695. For this he received a modest single payment from the publisher. He was partially supported by subscribers to his natural history of the celtic parts of Britain, 1696-1700. In the first of these years he received more than £100; by 1700 the amount had fallen off to about £11. Elected Esquire Beadle of Divinity at Oxford, 1709. This carried a salary of £100, but Lhwyd died after only a few months.

Lhwyd undertook his contributions to Camden's Britannia explicitly to encourage Welsh gentry to support a bigger project, and immediately after Britannia appeared he did begin to garner support. In 1695 he published a proposal (see Ellis) solliciting support for a pension to finance his projected Archaeologia britannica, and he received enough to proceed, though not everything promised actually came in. He dedicated the volume of Archaeologia that did appear to Sir Thomas Mansell. He assisted Martin Lister with lists of Oxfordshire species of mollusks and fossils. Quarrelled with Dr. Woodword about the origin of marine fossils. Became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1708.

Biographical references: Allibone, Dictionary of English Literature, 1859-71. BBA: I 686, 138-179; II 1616, 38. Campbell, J.L. & D. Thomson, Edward Lhuyd in the Scottish Highlands, 1694-1700. Oxford, 1963. DNB: 11, 1096-8. DSB: 8, ??. Ellis, R., "Some Incidents in the Life of Edward Lhuyd," in: R.T. Gunther, ed., Life and Letters of Edward Lhwyd (Early Science in Oxford, 14). Oxford, 1945, pp. 1-51. Emery, F.V., Edward Lhuyd, F.R.S., 1660-1709. Cardiff, 1971. Jahn, M.E., "Notes on Edward Lhwyd", Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, 4, (1966), 244-8, 6, (1971), 61-2 & 7, (1972), 86-97. Poggendorff: 1, col. 1448 & 1582. Roberts, B.F., "In Search of Edward Lhuyd", Archives of Natural History, 16, (1989), 49-57. Waller, Dictionary of Universal Biography, 1857-63. Walter, G. & F. Emery, "Edward Lhwyd, Edmund Gibson, and the Printing of Camden's Britannia, 1695", The Library, 32, (1977), 109-37. Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica, 1824. WBI.

Lithophylacii Britannici Ichnographia, 1699

1. English, 1699 [First edition].
Edvardi Luidii | Apud | Oxonienses Cimeliarchæ Ashmoleani | Lithophylacii Britannici | Ichnographia. | Sive | Lapidum aliorumque Fossilium Britannico- | rum singulari figura insignium; quotquot ha- | ctenus vel ipse invenit vel ab amicis accepit, | Distributio Classica: | Scrinii sui lapidarii Repertorium cum locis | singulorum natalibus exhibens. | Additis rariorum aliquot siguris ære incisis; cum | Epistolis ad Clarissimos Viros de quibusdam circa ma- | rina Fossilia & Stirpes minerales præsertim notiandis. | [rule] | [...4 lines of quotation, signed Du Hamel...] | [rule] | Londini: Ex Officina M.C. cI{[Backwards c] I[Backwards c]c xcix}.

4°: π4 a4 B-T4 ($2 signed); 80l.; [16], 1-139, [5] p., 23 plates. The 23 engraved plates are inserted between the text (N2v) and the Epistolæ (N3r).

Contents: π1r, blank.; π1v, "Hujus Libri centum & viginti tantùm Exemplaria impressa sunt, impensis infrascriptorum."; π2r, Title page.; π2v, Blank.; π3r, Dedication to Martin Lister.; π3v, Blank.; π4r-a3v, "Præfatio."; a4r, "Elenchus Classium.; a4v, [contents to] "Epistolæ/"; B1r-N2r (pp. 1-91), Text.; N2v, Blank.; N3r, Half title page, "[rule] | Epistolæ | [rule]."; N4r-T2r (pp. 95-139), "Epistolæ I-VI."; T3r-T4v, Index.

Rare. The cost of publication of Lithophylacii britannici ichnographia, which Oxford University declined to finance, was subscribed by patrons and friends, including Newton, Hans Sloane, and Martin Lister. This was one of the early subscription publications.

Bibliographical references: Gunther, Early Science at Oxford: 14, 262-3. Jahn, Editions of Edward Lhwyd, 1972: p. 91. LKG: XIV 408. NUC: 331, 309-10 [NL 0332543].

2. Latin, 1699 [Pirated edition].
Edvardi Luidii | Apud | Oxonienses Cimeliarchæ Ashmoleani | Lithophylacii | Britannici | Ichnographia | Sive | Lapidum aliorumq; Fossilium | Britannicorum singulari figura insigni- | um, quotquot hactenus vel ipse invenit vel | ab amicis accepit, | Distributio Classica, | Scrinii sui lapidarii Repertorium cum locis | singulorum natalibus exhibens. | Additis rariorum aliquot siguris ære incisis | cum Epistolis ad Clarissimos Viros de quibusdam | circa marina fossilia & stirpes minerales | præsertim notiandis. | [...4 lines of quotation, signed Du Hamel...] | [rule] | Londini | Ex Officina M.C. cIo Ioc xcix. | [rule] | Lipsiæ. | Sumt. Joh. Ludw. Gleditsch & Weidmann.

8°: )(8 A-I8 K4 (irregularly signed); 84l.; [16], [1]-145, [5] p., 17 plates. Rare.

Contents: )(1r, Title page.; )(1v, "Hujus Libri ..."; )(2r, Dedication to Martin Lister.; )(2v-)(7r, "Præfatio."; )(7v, "Elenchus Classium."; )(8r-)(8v, [contents to] "Epistolæ."; A1r-F6r ([1]-91), Text.; F6v, Blank.; F7r-K1r (93-145), "Epistolæ I-VI."; K1v-K3v, Index.; K4, Blank.

Bibliographical references: Jahn, Editions of Edward Lhwyd, 1972 [see p. 91-4]. VD17: 23:643593E.

3. Latin, 1760 [2nd edition].
Edvardi Luidii | Apud | Oxonienses Cimeliarchæ Ashmoleani | Lithophylacii Britannici | Ichnographia. | Sive | Lapidu aliorumque Fossilium Britannicorum sin- | gulari figura insignium, quotquot hactenus vel | ipse invenit vel ab amicis accepit, | Distributio Classica: | Scrinii sui lapidarii Repertorium cum locis singulorum | natalibus exhibens. | Additis rariorum aliquot figuris ære incisis; cum Epistolis ad | Clarissimos Viros de quibusdam circa marina Fossilia & Stripes | minerales præsertim notandis. | [rule] | Editio Altera: | Novis quorundam Speciminum Iconibus aucta. | Subjicitur Authoris Prælectio de Stellis marinis &c. | [rule] | [...3 lines of quotation, signed Du Hamel ...] | Oxonii, | E Typographeo Clarendoniano. | Prostant apud Bibliopolas Oxonienses; J. Rivington in Cœmeterio | Paulino; J. Whiston & B. White in Fleetstreet, Londini. | M DCC LX.

4°: π1 a4 A-X4 χ1 ($2 signed); 94l.; [18], 1-156, [6] p., 25 plates. Rare.

Contents: π1r, "Imprimatur"-signed Jo. Browne, 13 May 1760.; π1v, Blank.; a1r, Title page.; a1v, Blank.; a2r-a2v, "Editoris Epistola Præfatoria"-signed Gulielmum Huddesford.; a3r, Dedication to Martin Lister.; a3v, Blank.; a4r-A3v, "Præfatio.; A4r, "Elenchus Classium."; A4v, "Hujus Libri ..."; B1r-N2r (1-91), Text.; N2v, Blank.; N3r, [contents of] "Epistolæ."; N3v, Blank.; N4r-T3v (95-142), "Epistolæ I-VI."; T4r, Half title page, "[rule] | Edvardi Luidii | Prælectio | De Stellis marinis Oceani Britannici, | Nec non | De Asteriarum Entrochorum & Encrinorum | Origine: | Habita quondam in Museo Ashmoleano | Oxonii. | [rule]."; U1r-X2v, "De Stellis Marinis."; X3r-χ1r, Index.; χ1v, Blank.

Bibliographical references: Jahn, Editions of Edward Lhwyd, 1972 [see p. 94-6]. NUC: 331, 309-10 [NL 0332545].

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