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Carl Linnaeus
LINNAEUS (Linné), Carl.

LINNAEUS (Linné), Carl.
(1707 - 1778)

(Born: Rashult, Provience of Smaland, Sweden, 23 May 1707; Died: Uppsala, Sweden, 10 January 1778) Swedish physican & botanist.

Linneaus was educated at the Universities of Lund and Uppsala, where he studied medicine. He became adunctus to Olaf Rudbeck, at the University of Uppsala in 1730. On a government sponsored expedition, he traveled 4,600 miles in Lapland and Upper Scandinavia, discovering 100 new species of plants. In 1732, he taught students how to assay ores. In 1738, he became naval physician in Stockholm. Appointed professor of medicine and botany at the University of Uppsala in 1741, Linneaus became widely known as the greatest botanist of his time.

Biographical references: Barr, Index to Biographical Fragments, 1973: 157. Biographiskt Lexicon. Cleevely, World Palæontological Collections, 1983: 186. Drugulin, Sechstausend Portraits, 1863: nos. 3338-3383 & 6200. DSB: 8, 374-8 [by S. Lindroth]. ISIS, 1913-65: 2, 94-9. Kalm, P., "Kalm som Student i Uppsala och Lärjunge till Linné åren, 1741-1747." Föredrag ... den 27 maj, 1923 av Johan Markus Hulth. Svenska Linné-Sällskapet. Årsskrift, Årg. 7, (1924), 39-49. Lambrecht & Quenstedt, Catalogus, 1938: 265. Poggendorff: 1, col. 1470. Sarjeant, Geologists, 1980: 3, 1574-87, Suppl. 1 (1986), 2, 594-8 & Suppl. 2 (1995), 2, 845-7 [other refs.]. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-185, 139-241. Schauman, G., "Ett minne af Linné och hans förhållande till Kalm", Finsk Tidskrift för Vitterhet, Vetenskap, Konst och Politik, 62, (Maj, 1907), Heft 5, 372-375. Schmid, G., "Linné und Leysser," Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften, 88 (1928), no. 6, 191-266. Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexikon: 2, 81-3, portrait. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: 23, 700-??. WBI. World Who's Who in Science: 1049-50.

Systema Naturæ, 1735

1. Latin, 1735 [First edition].
Caroli Linnæi, sveci, | Doctoris Medicinæ. | Systema Naturæ, | sive | Regna Tria Naturæ | Systematice Proposita | per | Classes, Ordines, | Genera, & Species. | [double rule] | [...4 lines of quotation...] | [double rule] | Lugduni Batavorum, | Apud Theodorum Haak, MDCCXXXV. | [rule] | Ex Typographia | Joannis Wilhelmi de Groot. | [rule].

2°: 7l.; [14] p. Consists of 7 separate leaves without signiature, foliation or pagination. Text is printed on both sides except for the first and last leaves on which the verso is blank. Page size: 540 x 416 mm.

Contents: [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [11 pgs], Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

Rare. One of the most famous and important books in the history of science, as well as one of the rariest. This first edition covered not only the animal and plant kingdoms but the mineral kingdom (regnum lapideum) as well. Although Linné would refine the system through extensive additions and alterations, its main principals would remain unchanged through the many subsequent editions. In creating a mineral classification, he attempted to duplicate what he had done for plants and animals. This method, which does not take chemical composition into account and inherently assumes organic propogation, is not suited to the inorganic products of nature, and the mineral system could never be as useful as his biological systems. Nevertheless, Linné and the principals of his mineralogical system, first outlined in this work, exterted a tremondous influence in mineralogical science.

This first edition was printed at the request of Johann Friedrich Gronovius, one of the dutch admirers of the young Linné, for the "intention only to have a few copies ... to communicate it fully ... to the learned world" [see: Gronovius' letter to Sir Hans Sloane, reproduced in the Soulsby catalog of Linneaus]. Hence the extreme rarity of an original.

Contains:

Observationes in Regna 3 naturæ.

Caroli Linnæi Regnum Lapideum.

Observationes in Regnum Lapideum.

Clavis Systematis Sexualis.

Caroli Linnæi Regnum Vegetabile.

Observationes in Regnum Vegetabile.

Observationes in Regnum Animale.

Caroli Linnæi Regnum Animale.

The equivalent Swedish names are given in the Mineralogical portion only of the work.

The chief criticism of Linneaus' mineralogical classification was that it took into account only external characteristics without any attention to their chemical composition. Nevertheless, his observations in this field as well as geology and paleontology were in advance of his time. For example, he correctly attributed the origin of fossils to be the petrified remains of formerly living creatures.

A copy of this work, thought to be unique, was sold at Sotheby's on July 4, 1954. It appeared to be a proof copy, as it consisted of 12 leaves and was printed on only one side of the paper.

Bibliographical references: Dana's 7th (Bibliography): 76. Dibner, Heralds of Science, 1955: 27. DSB: 8, 374-81 [by S. Lindroth]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 357. Horblit: nos. 68 & 68a. Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I no. 1. Lindroth, Swedish Men of Science, 1952: 102-3. LKG: XII 78c. PPM: Printing and the Mind of Man: no. 192. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 39. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: 4709. Wallerius, Brevis Introductio, 1779: 72.

2. Latin, 1907 [Facsimile reprint].
Ad Memoriam primi sui Præsidis ejusdemque e conditioribus suis unius Caroli Linnæi opus illud quo primum Systema Naturæ per tria Regna dispositæ explicavit Regia Academia Scientiarum Svecica biseculari natali auctoris denuo edidit. Holmiæ: Generalstabens Litografiska Anstalt, 1907.

2°: [2]l., [7]l., [1]l., one plate, one portrait (Linneaus in his Lapland dress).

Plates: The plate is a preproduction of a well-known patintinb by M. Hoffman of "Carolus Linneaus. In his Lapland Dress."

Very scarce. At the beginning is reproduced a letter dated December 19, 1735 from Johann Friedrich Gronovius to Sir Hans Sloane, which accompanied the copy of the Systema sent by him to the London Royal Academy. This is followed by the leaf `Methodus, 1736' and the facsimile reprint. The plate engraved by G.D. Ehret and titled: `Classes S. Literae' was added to some copies.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 43.

Systema Naturæ, 1740

3. Latin, 1740 [2nd edition].
Caroli Linnæi | Naturæ Curiosorum Dioscoridis Secunds | Systema | Naturæ | In Quo | Naturæ Regna | Tria, | Secundum. | Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, | Systematice Proponunter. | ["G.K." Mongraph] | [rule] | Editio Secunda, Auctior. | [rule] | Stockholmiæ | Apud Gottfr. Kiesewetter. | 1740.

8°: π2 A-K4; π2 A-C4; 56l.; [4], [1]-80; [4], 1-23, [1] p. Page size: 198 x 124 mm.

Contents: [Systema:] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to Carolo Gustavo Tessin, dated 20 May 1740.; [1 pg], "Lectori."; [1]-66, Text.; 67-79, "Observationes | In | Regna III. Naturæ."; 80, "O Jehova | ..."

[Fundementa Botanica:] [1 pg], Title page.; [2 pgs], Dedication.; [1 pg], "Præfactio."; 1-23, Text.; [1 pg], "Emendana | In Systemate Naturæ."

Very scarce. Dedicated to Count C.G. Tessin, May 20, 1740. The text has undergone alteration. Three different title page issues of this edition with no priority are known to have been published: (1) As described here with the monogram of the publisher, "G.K." on the title page, (2) with a rectangular vignette showing a garden, and (3) with a blank in the space referred to. In the text, Linnæus gives the Swedish names for the minerals listed.

Issued and bound together with Linneaus': Fundamenta Botanica. Editio secunda. Stockholm, G. Kiesewetter, 1740, which occurs at the end.

Bibliographical references: Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I, ??. LKG: XII 78c. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 46.

4. Latin & German, 1740 [3rd edition].
Caroli Linnæi, Sveci, Doct. Medic., Systema Naturæ, sive Regna tria Naturæ systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera et species.

Caroli Linnæi, aus Schweden, M.D., Natur-Systema, oder, Die in ordentlichem Zusammenhange vorgetragenen drey Reiche der Natur nach ihren Classen, Ordunungen, Geschlechtern und Arten, in die deutsche Sprache übersetzet und mit einer Vorrede herausgegeben von Johann Joachim Langen, &c. Halle: Gedurckt mit Gebauerischen Schriften, 1740.

8°: [7], 70, [1] p.

Very scarce. A reprint of the first edition (Lugduni Batavorum, 1735), in which the order of the text is rearranged, accompanied by a German translation by Johann Joachim Langen [?????]. The translation is printed in parallel columns.

Bibliographical references: Commercium Litterarium: 1740, 241-2. LKG: XII 78c. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 47.

5. Latin, 1744 [4th edition].
Caroli Linnæi ... Systema Naturæ, in quo proponuntur Naturæ Regna tria secundum classes, ordines, genera & species. Editio quarta ab auctore emendata & aucta [by Bernard de Jussieu]. Accesserunt nomina gallica. Paris: Sumptibus Michælis Antonii David, typis Joannis Baptistæ Coignard, 1744.

8°: [2], 108 p., one plate.

Very scarce. Reprint of the second original edition, with French names replacing the original Swedish. These were added by Bernard de Jussieu. The Fundamenta Botanica is reprinted as well.

The plate is labeled, "Clavis Classium."

This edition was seen throught the press by Abraham Bäck [?????], then working in Paris.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XII 78c. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 48.

6. Latin, 1747 [5th edition].
Caroli Linnæi Naturæ curiosorum Dioscoridis secundi Systema Naturæ, Regna tria secundum classes, ordines genera, species systematice proponuntur. Recusum et Societatis, quæ impensas eontulit, usui acccommodatum curante Mich. Gottl. Agnethlero ... Editio altera auctior et emendatior. Halæ Magdeburgicæ, 1747.

8°: 87, [1] p.

Very scarce. Follows the second edition but with German names replacing the Swedish.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 50.

7. Latin, 1748 [7th edition].
Caroli Linnæi ... Systema Naturæ sistens Regna tria Naturæ in classes et ordines genera et species redacta ... Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam & auctam editionem. Lipsiæ: Impensis Godofr. Kiesewetteri, 1748.

8°: [12], 224, [30] p., 8 plates, one portrait.

Very scarce. Dedicated to Count C.G. Tessin. A reprint of the sixth edition, but with the German instead of the Swedish names. The engraved portrait of Linnæus bears the inscription: "Delin 1748. J.M. Bernigeroth sc. Lips. 1749."

Bibliographical references: Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I 5. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 52.

Systema Naturæ, 1748

8. Latin, 1748 [6th edition].
Caroli Linnæi | Archiatr. Reg. Med. Et Bot. Profess. Upsal. | Systema | Naturæ | Sistens | Regna Tria Naturæ, | In | Classes Et Ordines | Genera Et Species | Redacta | Tabulisque Æneis Illustrata. | [ornament] | [rule] | Cum Privilegio S.R.M. Polonicæ Ac Electoris Saxon. | [rule] | Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam & auctam | editionem. | [rule] | Lipsiae, | Impensis Godofr. Kiesewetteri. | 1748.

8°: *3 A-P8 Q3; 131l.; [6], [1]-224, [32] p., frontispiece (portait of Linnaeus), 8 plates. Page size: 195 x 122 mm.

Contents: [Frontispiece].; [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], Dedication to Count Gustav Tessin.; [2 pgs], "Lectori," signed C. Linnæus, 2 August 1748.; [1]-224, Text.; [13 pgs], "Index Latinus."; [9 pgs], "Index Germanicus."; [2 pgs], Blanks.; [8 pgs], Explication of the plates.; [At end], 8 plates.

Plates: The frontispiece portait shows the upper body of Linnaeus seated at a table with him leaning on a book. The caption below the portrait reads in a cursive script, "Carolus Linnaeus, M.D. | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Navis 1707 May13/24 Delin. 1748 | J.M. Bernigeroth Sc. Lips. 1749." The eight other plates consist of: I. Skulls, II. Birds, III. Snakes & Lizards, IV. Fish, V. Insects, VI. Snails & Squids, VII. Plants, & VIII. Crystals.

Very scarce. This edition was completely rewritten by Linnaeus. Illustrations appear for the first time. Swedish and Latin names are given whenever possible for the animals and minerals. The order of the three kingdoms has been changed to animals, plants, minerals from the minerals, plants, animals of previous editions.

Bibliographical references: Hoover Collection: no. 540. Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I 5. Lärda Tidningar: 1748, 277-9. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 51.

9. Swedish, 1753 [8th edition, issue A].
Indelning i Ört-Riket, efter Systema Naturæ, på Swenska öfwersatt af Joh. J. Haartman. Stockholm: L. Salvius, 1753.

8°: [4], 136, [16] p., 3 plates.

Very scarce. Although this work would perhaps be better considered an augmented translation, Linneaus called this book the eight edition of his Systema Naturæ. The Mineral System was translated by H.A. Möller from the 6th edition. Dedicated to Countess Ulrica Lovisa Tessin.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 53.

10. Latin, 1756 [9th edition].
Caroli Linnæi ... Systema Naturæ, sistens Regna tria Naturæ, in classes et ordines genera et speies redacta, tabulisque æneis illustrata. Accedunt vocabula Gallica. Editio multo auctior & emendatior [by J.F. Gronovius]. Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Theodorum Haak, 1756.

8°: [6], 227, [27] p., 8 plates.

Very scarce. Dedicated to Count C.G. Tessin. Based upon the seventh edition, with some additions. Edited by Johann Friedrich Gronovius, this edition replaces the German names by French.

Bibliographical references: Göttingische Anzeigen: 1 (1757), 351-2. Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I 5-6. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 57.

Systema Naturæ, 1759

11. Latin, 1758-9 [10th edition].
Caroli Linnæi | [...4 lines of titles and memberships...] | Systema | Naturæ | Per | Regna Tria Naturæ, | Secundum | Classes, Ordines, | Genera, Species, | Cum | Characteribus, Differentiis, | Synonymis, Locis. | Tomus I [-II]. | [rule] | Editio Decima, Reformata. | [wavy rule] | Cum Privilegio S:æ R:æ M:tis Svciæ. | [ornate rule] | Holmiæ, | Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, | 1758 [-1759].

2 vols. [Vol 1: 1758] 8°: [4], 823, [1] p.; [Vol 2: 1759] 8°: [4], 824-1348 p.

Very scarce. This is the fourth original edition of the Systema. The total of Genera described amount to 312 with 4,378 species. "It is in this edition that Linné carried out the definitive plan of binomial nomenclature, with diagnosis and synonymes, for the first time, including the generic and trivial names, which together form the specific name, of each animal. This edition has therefore been accepted as the basis of zoological nomenclature." [Sandbergs Bokhandel, 1957].

The bionomial system first applied to minerals in Museum Tessinianum is extended into the Systema.

Bibliographical references: Commentarii de Reb. in Sci.Nat., &c., Leipzig: 8 (1759), 679-91 & 9 (1760), 598-605. Dibner, Heralds of Science, 1955: 27 [see note]. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 358. Gentleman's Magazine: 29 (1759), 454-7, 509-11, 564-6 & 35 (1765), 57-61. Göttingische Anzeigen: 2 (1759), 692-6 & 1326-7. Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I 6-7. LKG: XII 76a. Norman Catalog: 1, ??, no. 1359. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: no. 5404. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 58. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: 4794. Vogel's Neue Medicinische Bibliothek: 4 (1760), theil 4, 289-96.

12. Latin, 1760-70 [10th edition, pirated].
Caroli Linnæi ... Systema Naturæ per Regna tria Naturæ, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis Synonymis, Locis ... Præfatus est Joannes Joachimus Langius ... Ad editionem decimam reformatam Holmiensem. Halæ Magdeburgicæ: Typis et sumtibus Jo. Jac. Curt, 1760-70.

3 vols. [Vol 1: 1760] 8°: [6], 823, [1] p.; [Vol 2: 1760] 8°: [2], 825-1380 p. [Vol 3: 1770] 8°: 236, [10] p., 3 plates.

Very scarce. See Soulsby for differences.

Bibliographical references: Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I 7 & 9. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 60.

13. Latin, 1762 [11th edition].
Caroli Linnæi ... Systema Naturæ, &c. Lipsiæ, 1762.

8°:

Very scarce. This may be a nonexistant edition.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 61.

Systema Naturæ, 1768

14. Latin, 1766-8 [12th edition].
Caroli a Linné | [...2 lines of titles and memberships...] | Systema | Naturæ | Per | Regna Tria Naturæ, | Secundum | Classes, Ordines, | Genera, Species, | Cum | Characteribus & Differentiss. | Tomus III. | [wavy rule] | Cum Privilegio S:æ R:æ M:tis Sveriæ, & Electoris Saxon. | [wavy rule] | [ornate rule] | Holmiæ, | Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, | 1768.

3 parts bound in 4 vols. [Vol 1] 8°: 532 p.; [Vol 2] 8°: 533-1327, [1], [36] p.; [Vol 3] 8°: 736, [16], 142, [2] p.; [Vol 4] 8°: 236, [20] p., 3 folding plates.

Very scarce. This is the last edition revised by Linneaus himself. It incorporates many additions to the tenth edition, especially in the zoological and botanical portions. With reference to mineralogy, this edition classifies minerals according to a binomial system for the first time. The plates belong to the mineralogical volume, which occupies volume four.

The twelfth edition of the Systema Naturæ incorporated Linnaeus' most mature thought concerning individuals of the mineral kingdom. There were, Linnaeus stated in the preface to this section, three methods one might use to investigate the stones, minerals and fossils found in the natural enviorment. The first was the physical, which "descended through the obscure generation of minerals"; the second was the natural, which "considered the superficial and visible structures"; and the third was the chemical, which ascended through to the middle course, and, having thus provided a justification of his methodology, Linnaeus proceeded to make a systematic classification of various crystalline substances.-Burke (1966).

Bibliographical references: Berlinische Sammlungen: 3, 650. Burke, Origins of the Science of Crystals, 1966: 51. Commentarii Lipsiæ: 15 (1768), 322-33 & 16 (1770), 104-28, 338-44. Göttingische Anzeigen: 2 (1767), 783-4, 2 (1768), 781-2 & 1 (1770), 21-4. Hoover Collection: no. 541. Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I 9. Lärda Tidningar: 1766, 229-31, 1767, 134-6 329-30 & 1768, 297-9. Lima-de-Faria, Historical Atlas of Crystallography, 1990 [reproduces the title page]. LKG: XII 76a. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 62.

15. Latin, 1767-70.
Systema Naturae, per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. ; Editio decima tertia, ad Editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. Vindobonae, I. Thomae nob. de Trattnern, 1767-1770.

3 parts in 4 vols. [Vol 1: 17-] 8°: 1-532 p.; [Vol 2: 17-] 8°: 533-1327, [1], [36] p.; [Vol 3: 17-] 8°: 736, [16] p.; [Vol 4: 17-] 8°: 142, [2] p.; 236, [20] p., 3 folded engraved plates.

Very scarce. This 'thirteenth' edition is a page-for-page reprint of the rare twelfth edition published in 1766-1768. The last part of the second volume (i.e., 144 pages) contains the 'Mantissa Plantarvm. Genervm editionis VI. et Speciervm editionis II', which is often lacking.

Bibliographical references: Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: 9 & 25. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: nos. 116 & 311b.

16. Swedish, 1777 [8th edition, issue B].
Indelning i Ört-Riket, Efter Systema Naturae. På Swenska öfwersatt af Johan Haartman. Och nu andra gången uplagd, ändrad och tilökt efter 13.de uplagan af Systemet. Westerås, Joh. Laur. Horrn 1777.

8°: [2], 158, [16] p., 3 engraved plates. Very scarce.

Facsimile reprint, 1976: Indelning i Ört- Riket efter Systema Naturae. På svenska öfversatt af Johan J. Haartman och nu andra gången uplagd, ändrad och tilökt efter 13:de upplagan af Systemet. Stockholm, Bokförlaget Rediviva, 1976. [6], 158, [16] p.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 56.

17. Latin, 1788-93 [13th ed.].
Systema naturae... Ed. 13., aucta, reformata. Cura Jo. Frid. Gmelin... Lipsiae: impensis G. E. Beer, 1788-93.

9 vols. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??.

Natuurlyke Historie of Uitvoerige Beschryving der Dieren, Planten en Minerallen, volgens het samenstel van den Heer Linnaeus. Met naauwkeurige Afbeeldingen. (5 vols., Amsterdam, 1780-5).
See under: Houttuyn, Martinus.

Vollständinges Natursystem des Mineralreichs nach der zwölften lateinischen Ausgabe in einer freyen und vermehrten Übersetzung von J. F. Gmelin. (4 vols., Nürnberg, 1777-9).
See under: Gmelin, Johann Friedrich.

English editions

18. English, 1794-1810 [English transl.].
A | Genuine And Universal | Sytem | Of | Natural History; | Comprising The | Three Kingdoms Of | Animals, Vegetables, And Minerals, | Arranged Under Their Respective | Classes, Orders, Genera, And Species, | By the late Sir Charles Linnæus, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | Improved, Corrected, And Enlarged, | By J. Frid. Gmelin, M.D. | Professor Of Natural History In The Royal Society | Of Gottingen. | Faithfully translated, and rendered mor complete by the Addition | of Vaillant's beautiful Birds of Africa; the superb Fish | of Mark Eliezer Bloch; the Amphibious Animas, Rep- | tiles, Insects, &c. in the costly Works of Albertus Seba, Merian, Fabricius, Knorr, &c. teh elegant Improvements | of the Comte de Buffon, and the more modern Discoveries | of the British Navigators in the South Pacific Ocean, New | Holland, New South Wales, China, Cochin-China, &c. | Methodically incorporated and arranged by the Editors of the | Encyclopædia Londinensis. | [double rule] | Volume The Fourteenth. | [double rule] | London: | Printed For The Proprietor By W. Lewis, Paternos- | ter-Row; And Sold By Champante And Whitrow, | Jewry-Street, Aldgate; And At The Ency- | clopædia Offic, Ave-Maria-Lane, | St. Pauls.

14 vols.

Very scarce. This work, published under the direction of the editors of the Encyclopaedia Londinensis is credited to Linneaus on the title page, but is actually only based upon the Systema Naturæ in general outline. It is augmented with information from many sources as well as copious illustrations. It was prepared to appeal to a large market and therefore contains a large amount of information not usually included in other works on natural history. For example, in the first volume is included material relating "to the occult influence of Nature over Man, founded on the exploded doctrine of astrology" on the theory that "it might be thought curious by some readers ..."

Bibliographical references: Buckman, Catalog of a Linnaeus Exhibition, 1957: no. 9. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??.

General System of Nature, 1806

19. English, 1806 [English transl.].
A General | System Of Nature, | Through The | Three Grand Kingdoms | Of | Animals, Vegetables, And Minerals, | Systematically Divided | Into Their Several | Classes, Orders, Genera, Species, And Varieties, | With Their | Habitations, Manners, Economy, Structure, | And Peculiarities. | By Sir Charles Linnè: | Translated from Gmelin, Fabricius, Willdenow, &c. | Together With | Various Modern Arrangements and Corrections, derived from the | Transactions of the Linnean and other Societies, as well as from the Classical | Works of Shaw, Thornton, Abbot, Donovan, Sowerby, Latham, Dillwyn, Lewin, Martyn, Andrews, Lambert, &c. &c. | With A Life Of Linnè, | Appropiate Copper-plates, and a Dictionary explanatory of the Terms which | occur in the several Departments of Natural History, | By William Turton, M.D. | Fellow of the Linnean Society, Author of the Medical Glossary, &c. &c. | [double rule] | In Seven Volumes. | [double rule] | Mineral Kingdom. | Life, Dictionary, &c. | [double rule] | London: | Printed For Lackington, Allen, And Co. | Temple Of The Muses, Finsbury-Square. | [rule] | 1806.

6 parts in 7 vols. 8°: 20 plates.

Very scarce. Second English edition, translated by William Turton from Systema Naturæ, sive, Regna tria Natur systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera & species (1788-93). In 1735, Linné in the first edition of his Systema Naturæ set forth an epitom of a carefully reasoned classification of the mineral kingdom, based upon both physical and chemcial properities of mineral substances. In this work, he proposes an all-inclusive systematization of natural productions. By means of a careful application of rules of classification to minerals, plants, and animals, he had devised a scheme of classification that reduced Nature's infinite variety to a generalized conceptual scheme. This was an outstanding accomplishment in its time. Although Linné's theories would be replaced by other methods, the classification he developed for plants is still in use. The mineralogical portion together with a "Life of Linné" and an "Explanation of Terms" occupies the seventh volume.

William Turton. (Born: 1735; Died: 1806) English physician.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??. (Turton) DNB.

20. Swedish, 1745.
Oländska och Gothländska Resa. Stockholm & Upsala: G. Kiesewetter, 1745.

8°: [14], 344, [30] p., 2 folding maps, one plate, woodcuts in text.

Very scarce. Linneaus' account of his journey to Öland and Gotland on behalf of the goverment in 1741. The purpose was to find a clay suitable for making chinaware and survey the land for other natural resources suitable for manufacture processes so that the country could become less dependent on imports. Linneaus was not successful in his assignment, but at the same time he made many observations on the people and their land. The work is of interest not only for the botanical results, which discovered over one hundred new plants, but also for many other observations relating to mineralogy, especially iron. A very rare book.

Facsimile reprint, 1962: Carl Linnaeus Ölänska och Gotlänska resa 1741. England, Wahlström & Widstrand, 1962. 390 p., illus.

Facsimile reprint, 1971: Öländska och Gotländska Resa på Riksens Höglovlige Ständers Befallning förrättad år 1741. Red. af Carl-Otto von Sydow. Illustr. af Gunnar brusewitz. Stockholm, 1977. 391 p., 2 maps, illus.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 779. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 202.

21. German, 1764 [German transl.].
Reisen durch Oeland und Gothland : welche auf befehl der hochloblichen Reichsstande des Konigreichs Schweden in Jahr 1741 angestellt worden. Aus dem schwedischen ubersetzt. Halle, J.J. Curt, 1764.

8°: [32], 364, [23] p. : fold. pl., fold. map.

Very scarce. Translation by J.C.D. Schreber. These two journeys to Swedish islands in the Baltic Sea were made in 1741 at the request of government authorities. Linnaeus was com-missioned to try to find a clay suitable for making chinaware and fur-ther was to take note of any raw material which might be used in manu-factures so that the country would be less dependent on imports. He was not successful in this specific assignment, but at the same time he made many observations of the antiquities of the islands, the people, the mechanic arts and fishing. More than one hundred new plants were discovered, some of them useful in medicine, dyeing and the rural economy.

Bibliographical references: Buckman, Catalog of a Linnaeus Exhibition, 1957: no. 33. LKG: XIV 782c. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 207.

Wåstgöta=Resa, 1747

22. Swedish, 1747.
Carl Linnæi | Archiate. Reg. Et Med. Prof. Upsal. | Wåstgöta= | Resa, | På | Riksens Högloslige Ständers | Befallning | Förråttad år 1746. Meb | Anmärkningar | uti | Oeconomien, Naturkurnogheten, An- | riquiteter, Inwånarnes Seder och | Lesnads=Sått, | Meb | Tilörige Figurer. | [ornament, consisting of 3 lines of `$ast$'] | [wavy rule] | Stockholm, | Uplagd på Lars Salvii Kostnad. 1747.

8°:

Rare. A journey undertaken by Linnaeus in 1746 to various places in the central provinces of Sweden. It was one of several such trips financed by the government. On the pages shown here Linnaeus discusses Fdrgegrdsen or plants used to make dyes. He describes three varieties one of which is Wejde (Isatis tinctoria). This plant, often growing to a height of about three feet, bluish green in appearance and with a yellow flower, was used prior to the discovery of sea routes to India, to prepare indigo. This and other native colors were used in the provinces to dye peasant yarn and woven materials. The illustration, drawn by Linnaeus is Wejdeqwarnen or the Isatis mill which was used to pulverize the leaves of the plant. Domestic dyes made from plants are now being used again in Sweden because of the renewed interest in peasant crafts.

Facsimile reprint with commentary, 1928: Carl Linnaei . . . Wastgota-Resa . . . forrattad ar 1746 . . . Nytryck efter original-upplagan 1747 med textkommentar av Natanael Beckman. Thulin & Ohlson, Goteborg, 1928.

Facsimile reprint, 1956: Västgöta resa 1746. Malmö, John Kroon, 1956. 8°: [4], [12], 284, [20] p., 4 plates.

Bibliographical references: Buckman, Catalog of a Linnaeus Exhibition, 1957: no. 37. LKG: XIV 781b. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 218.

Reisen durch Westgothland, 1765

23. German, 1765 [German transl.].
Herrn Carls von Linne | [...8 lines of titles and memberships...] | Reisen | durch | Westgothland, | welche | auf Befehl der hochlöblichen Stände | des Königreichs Schweden | im Jahr 1746. | angestellt worden. | Aus dem Schwedischen übersetzt. | [rule] | Mit Kupfern. | [rule] | [ornament] | [double rule] | Halle, | Druck und Verlag Johann Jacob Curts, 1765.

8°:

Very scarce. Translation by ???? of Wåstgöta=Resa (Stockholm, 1747).

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??.

24. Latin, 1747.
Specimen academicum de Crystallorum Generatione quod ... sub Præsidio ... Caroli Linnæi ... modeste submittit Martinus Kähler ... d. XXII Decembr. Anni MDCCXLVII.

4°: [8], 30, [2] p., one plate.

Very scarce. Linneaus was one of the first researchers who considered how crystal were generated.

This dissertation was reprinted several times in the collected papers of Linnæus. See Soulsby, 1477-1482.

Bibliographical references: Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus: p. 98, no. 396. Göttingische Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen: Stuck 120 (1748), 970-2. LKG: IX 3. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 1476.

25. German, 1771 [German transl.].
Martin Kählers Abhandlung von der Erzeugung der Kristalle aus dem Lateinischen übersetzet. Grätz: Bey den Widmanstätterischen Erben, 1771.

8°: [2], 43 p., one plate. Very scarce.

Bibliographical references: Hulth, Bibliographia Linnaeana, 1907: I 55. LKG: IX 3. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 1483.

26. Swedish, 1751.
[In red:] Carl Linnæi, | [in black:] Archiat. Reg. Et Med. Prof. Upsal. | Skånska | [in red:] Resa, | [in black:] På | [in red:] Höga Öswerhetens | [in black:] Befallning | Fortättad Ar 1749. | Med | [in red:] Rön och Anmärkningar | [in black:] Uti | Oeconomien, Naturalier, Antiquiteter, | Seder, Lefnads=sätt. | Med | [in red:] Tilhörige Figurer. | [in black, wavy rule] | Med Kongl. Mairs. Allernaegste Privilegio. | [wavy rule] | [in red:] Stockholm, | [in black:] Uplagd på Lars Salvii kostnad 1751.

8°: [i]-xiv, [1]-434, [34] p., one engraved map, 6 engraved plates. Title in red and black. Very rare.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 783. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 210.

27. German, 1757 [German transl.].
Reise durch d. Konigreich Shweden zur Verbesserung der Naturkunde, Haushaltungskunst etc. a. unt. d. Title: Versuch einer Naturhistorie von einigen Schwed. Provinzen. A.d. Schwed. von K.E. Klein. Leipzig, 1757.

8°:

Very scarce. Translation by K.E. Klein [????] of Skånska Resa (Stockholm, 1751).

Bibliographical references: LKG: XIV 784. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 213.

Museum Tessinianum, 1753

28. Latin, 1753 [Collection catalog].
Museum | Tessinianum, | Opera | Illustrissimi Comitis, | Dom. Car. Gust. Tessin, | [...8 lines of titles and memberships...] | [ornate rule] | Hans Excellence, Riks-Rådets &c. | Herr Gr. Carl Gust. Tessins | Naturalie-Samling. | [engraved ornament, signed "I.E. Rehn Sculpsit"] | [ornate rule] | Holmiæ | Apud Laurentium Salvium 1753.

[Sectional title page:]

Lapides | Dividuntur | In | Petras, | Quæ Lapidess Simplices. | Mineras, | Quæ Compositos. | Fossilia, | Quæ Mixtos | Comprehendunt, | [rule] | Ste{}nar | Fordelas | I | Berg-Arter, | Malmer | Och | Grus-Arter.

2° (in 4s): )(4 A-Q4 R2; 70l.; [8], [1]-123, [9] p., 12 plates (engraved; numbered I-XII). Printed in parallel columns in Latin and Swedish. Page size: 430 x 250 mm. uncut.

Contents: [2 pages], Title page, verso blank.; [6 pages], "Observatio. Anmarkning," in Latin & Swedish in parallel column.; [1], Sectional title page.; 2-123, Text.; [6 pages], "Tabularum Explicatio." [=description of plates].; [3 pages], "Index."

Plates: The unsigned engraved plates are numbered I to XII. No descriptions appear on the plates, as this is taken care of by descriptive text preceeding the plates. Each illustration shows various specimens from the collection.

The plates comprise: I. [Smoky quartz group]. II. [Tourmaline specimen and calcite specimen]. III. [Fossil trilobyte]. IV. [Fossil shells]. V. [Fossil bivalves]. VI. [Fossil shells]. VII.-VIII. [Petrified wood]. IX. [Starfish]. X.-XII. [Coral specimens].

Very scarce. A catalog of the collection of minerals and fossils belonging to Count Carl Gustaf Tessin [see note below] and stored in his castle at Åkerö, Sweden. Tessin was a great friend of Linneaus and used his influence to help the botanist establish his reputation. In appreciation, Linneaus dedicated many of his books to either Tessin or his wife. Finally, Linneaus prepared this catalog of his benefactor's mineralogical cabinet. Although Linneaus' name does not appear on the title page and contrary to custom, Tessin dedicated the work to Linneaus "as he alone should have the honor."

The text is written in both Latin and Swedish, which is presented in parallel columns throughout. In the book's preliminaries, Linneaus sets forth various observations about the nature of the mineral kingdom, and various methods of classifying its members. The text of the catalog is then presented. Linneaus has divided the minerals into simple stones, composite minerals and fossils. Following are pages describing the specimens illustrated on the plates. At the conclusion of the volume are indexes to the species mentioned. The first provides the names in Latin while the other gives the Swedish. Soulsby (1933) says the count only had a few copies printed for private circulation. A rare book.

Carl Gustaf Tessin. (Born: Stockholm, Sweden, 5 September 1695; Died: Åkerö, Sweden, 7 January 1770) Swedish aristrocat & politician. Tessin was the son of the architect and court superintendent. He was educated in France and Italy, and became the founder of the 18th-century parliamentary Hat Party and an influential adviser to the court of Adolf Frederick. In 1725 Tessin was appointed ambassador at Vienna. From 1746 to 1752 Tessin was president of the chancellery, the equivalent of today's prime minister. Tessin was one of the most brilliant personages of his time, and the most important representatives of French culture in Sweden.

Bibliographical references: Buckman, Catalog of a Linnaeus Exhibition, 1957: no. 72. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 1, 111, no. 25. Denso's Physikalische Bibliothek: Stück 2, 122. Freilich Sale Catalog: no. 524. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 281. Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen: 1754, 476. Hoover Collection: no. 781. LKG: XV 16. Nissen (ZBI): no. 2521. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 1081. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 2160. Warmholtz, Bibliotheca Sueo-Gothica, 1782-1817. (Tessin) Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition. SBA: Scandinavian Biographical Archive: B-331, 406-461. Svenskt Biografiskt Handlexikon: 2, 600-1. Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon. WBI.

29. Swedish, 1907.
Linnés | Pluto Svecicus | Och | Beskrifning | Öfwer Stenriket | Utgifna Af | Carl Benedicks | [tapered rule] | Uppsala 1907 | Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-{\hbox{A.-B.}}

8°: xvii, [2], 48 p., 3 plates. Printed wraps.

Scarce. This is Linneaus' first work dealing with the mineral kingdom. The manuscript is dated Dalecarlia, Sweden, 1734, but was not published until Pluto Svecicus appeared in 1907. However, the information contained therein formed the foundation for the regnum lapideum section in the many editions of the Systema Naturæ. The prime criticism of his classification was that it relied upon the external form on minerals and did not account for the minerals chemical properties. None the less, Linneaus was in many ways in advance of his time with respect to his observations in mineralogy, geology, and paleontology.

Bibliographical references: Buckman, Catalog of a Linnaeus Exhibition, 1957: no. 6. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 1012.

30. Latin, 1745.
Q.F.F.Q.S. | Dissertatio, | Corallia | Baltica | Adumbrans, | Quam, | Consensu Ampliss. Facultat. Medicæ | In Regia Academia Upsaliensi, | Præside, | Celeberrimo et Experientissimo Viro, | Domino | Doct. Carolo | Linnæo, | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | Publicæ Bonorum Censuræ Submittit | Henricus Fougt, | Reg. Coll. Mitall. Adscr. | In Audit. Carol. Maiori Ad Diem VIII. Junii | Anni MDCCXLV. | Horis, Ante Merdiem, Consuetis. | [ornate rule] | Upsaliæ.

Small 4°: [8], 40 p., one folding engraved plate (32 figures).

Very scarce. An early publication dealing with the corals found in the Baltic. Although Fougt was long credited with authoring this dissertation, G. Lindström proved that Linné is the true author. Fougt only drew the figures and paid the costs of the printing. This work was reprinted four times and translated into both German and English.

Bibliographical references: LKG: XVI 785. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. 1401.

31. Latin, 1772.
Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accomodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Göttingen: sumtu viduae Vandenhoeck, 1772. [Bound with, as issued:] Illustris Caroli a Linné termoinologia conchyliologiae. Edita a Johanne Beckmanno. Göttingen: sumtu viduae Vandenhoeck, 1772.

(16) 240 pp.; 356 (32) pp.

Very scarce. First edition of Johann Beckmann's epitome of Linnaeus's great work of classification; based upon the 12th edition published in 1766. Beckmann had studied with Linneaus in the 1760's, but his chief field of expertise was agriculture, and the history of inventions.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??.

32. German, 1764 [German transl.].
Herrn Carls von Linné ... Reisen durch Oeland und Gothland, welche auf Befehl der hochlöblichen Reichsstände des Königreichs Schweden im Jahr 1741 angestellt worden. Aus dem Schwedischen übersetzt. Halle, Johann Jacob Curt, 1764.

8°:

Scarce. Translation by J.C.D. Schreber. These two journeys to Swedish islands in the Baltic Sea were made in 1741 at the request of the Swedish government. Linnaeus was commissioned to find a suitable clay for making chinaware. In addition, he was to make observations on the raw materials of the area that might be used in manufacturing so that the kingdom might become less dependendent on imports. Although not successful in his specific assignment, Linnaeus has included in this work many observations on the antiquities of the islands, the people, their method of fishing, botany, animals and minerals. More than one hundred new plants were discovered, some of them useful in medicine, dyeing and the rural economy.

Bibliographical references: Buckman, Catalog of a Linnaeus Exhibition, 1957: no. 33. LKG: XIV 780a. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??.

33. English, 1802-4 [English transl.].
A General System of Nature, through the three Grand Kingdoms of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals. Translated from Gmelin, Fabricius, Willdenow, Co., 1806.

4 vols.

Very scarce. This edition contains only the animal kingdom, and no mineralogy.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??.

Amoenitates Academicæ

Amoenitates Academicæ, 1749

34. Latin, 1749-90.
Caroli Linnæi | [...3 lines of titles and memberships...] | Amoenitates | Academicæ | Seu | Dissertationes Variæ | Physicæ, Medicæ | Botanicæ | Antehac Seorsim Editæ | Nunc Collectæ Et Auctæ | Cum Tabulis Æneis. | [vignette] | Holmiæ Et Lipsiæ | Apud Godofredum Kiesewetter. | M DCC XLIX.

10 vols. [Vol 1: 1749] 8°: π2 A-Mm8 Nn6; 284l.; [4], [1]-563, [1] p. [Vol 2: 1751] 8°: π2 A-Ff8 Gg6; 240l.; [4], [1]-476 p. [Vol 3: 1756] 8°: π2 A-Ff8; 234l.; [4], [1]-464 p. [Vol 4: 1759] 8°: π2 A-Oo8 Pp4; 302l.; [4], [1]-600 p. [Vol 5: 1760] 8°: π2 A-Ii8 Hh6; ??l.; [4], [1]-483, [8] p. [Vol 6: 1764] 8°: π2 A-A-Gg8 Hh3; 245l.; [4], [1]-486 p. [Vol 7: 1769] 8°: π2 A-Hh8 Ii6; 256l.; [4], [1]-506, [2] p. [Vol 8: 1785] 8°: π2 A-X8; 168l.; [4], [1]-332 p. [Vol 9: 1785] 8°: π3 A-U8 X6; 165l.; [6], [1]-331, [1] p. [Vol 10: 1790] 8°: π2 A-Hh8 Ii6; 256l.; [4], [1]-506, [2] p.

Contents: [Vol 1] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], "Disserationes | In Hoc Volumine | Contentæ." [=table of contents].; [1]-563, Text of dissertations.; [1 pg], Blank.

[Vol 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [2 pgs], "Disserationes | In Secundo Volumine | Contentæ."; [1]-476, Text of dissertations.

[Vol 3] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to Carolo Ehrenpreus.; [1 pg], "Disseratines | In Tertio Volumine | Contentæ."; [1]-464, Text of dissertations.

[Vol 4] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to Johanni Georgio Lilljenberg.; [1 pg], "Disserationes | In Quarto Volumine | Contentæ."; [1]-600, Text of dissertations.

[Vol 5] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to Erico von Stockenström.; [1 pg], "Disserations | In Quinto Volumine | Contentæ."; [1]-483, Text of dissertations.; [3 pgs], "Index | Disserta- | tioum."; [5 pgs], "Catalogus."

[Vol 6] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to Petro Bagge.; [1 pg], "Disserations | In Sexto Volumine | Contentæ.; [1]-486, Text.

[Vol 7] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication Carol. Frid. Scheffer.; [1 pg], "Dissertationes | In Septimo Volumine | Contentæ."; [1]-506, Text.; [2], "Editiones | Operum Auctoris."

[Vol 8] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication Dedication to Joseph Banks.; [1 pg], "Dissertationes | In Octavo Volumine | Contentæ."; [1]-332, Text.

[Vol 9] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [3 pgs], "L.B.S. | Editor."; [1 pg], "Dissertationes | In Nono Volumine | Contentæ."; [1]-331, Text.; [1 pg], Blank.

[Vol 10] [2 pgs], Title page, verso blank.; [1 pg], Dedication to Xaverio L.B. a Wulfen.; [1 pg], "In Decimo Volumine | Continentur."; [2 pgs], "Index Tabularum Ænearum | Voluminum I-X."; [2 pgs], Preface.; [1]-170, Text.

Very scarce. The Amoenitates Academicæ, or "Academic Amenities" is a collection of the 185 academic dissertations to which Linnaeus' name is given as Praeses. The word Praeses in modern academic terminology is approximately equal to "thesis adviser." One additional dissertation is included in the collected edition for which Linnaeus' son acted as Praeses. These dissertations however, contain nothing but the results of Linnaeus' own ideas and research. In the eighteenth century professors dictated most of the theses to their students and only rarely did a candidate for a degree author the the work himself. The student did have to put the text into good or passable Latin and this was often not an easy task when the subject was complicated. The candidate also had to pay for the publication of the thesis.

The Amoenitates Academicæ has an extremely involved bibliography which was fully captured by Soulsby (1933). For a discussion of the authorship of the individual dissertations see Stearn 1957 (pp. 51-64) where a list of the individual dissertations is given. Each of the individual monographs was also issued separately in small editions.

Bibliographical references: Buckman, Catalog of a Linnaeus Exhibition, 1957: no. 61. Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??. Stafleu & Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 1976-88: no. 4754. Stearn, W.T., "Introduction", in: Linnaeus's Species Plantarum (1957-9). [Facsimile edition, with the 170 page introduction.].

35. Latin, 1787-90.
Amoenitates Academicae seu dissertationes variae physicae, medicae botanicae antehac seorsim editae nunc collectae et auctae ... curante D.J.C.D. Schrebero. Erlangae, J.J. Palm, 1787-1790.

10 volumes. Royal-8vo. With 65 (55 folded) engraved plates (printedon 61 leaves).

Very scarce. Soulsby 1283, 1289, 1294, 1298, 1302, 1306, 1310-1317.

Bibliographical references: Soulsby, Catalogue of the Works of Linneaus, 1933-6: no. ??.

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