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Jean Bauhin

(1541 - 1613)

(Born: Basel, Switzerland [or Lyons, France], 12 February 1541; Died: Mumpelgard [Montbéliard], France, 26 August 1613) Swiss botanist.

Of French Protestant ancestry, Bauhin was born to parents exiled in Basel, Switzerland. He was educated in Basel under the exiled Italian religious reformer Coelius Curione [1503-1569] and in Zurich under the famous Swiss naturalist Conrad Gesner. From 1560 to 1563, after completing his studies, Bauhin made an extensive trip throughout Europe, afterward settling in Lyons, France, where he established a medical practice. In 1568, he was forced to flee back to Switzerland when a wave of religious persecution swept France, but in 1571 he was appointed physician Duke Frederick, ruler of Würtemberg and Montbéliard. He built extensive botanical gardens, and collected minerals in the Alps with Gesner and others.

Biographical references: ADB. Catalogue of Portraits of Naturalists: 159-60 [4 portraits listed]. DBA: I 62, 305-306. DBF: 1, 331. DSB: 1, 525-7 [by C. Webster]. Jöcher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, 1750-51. LKG: 279. Nouvelle Biographie Générale (Hoefer). NDB: 1, 649-50 [by H. Buess]. Thomas, Dictionary of Biography, 1884: 310-1. WBI. Wilson, History of Mineral Collecting, 1994: 35-6 & 159-60.

Historia Novi, 1598.

1. Latin, 1598 [First edition].
Historia | Novi Et Admir- | bilis Fontis Balnei= | qve Bollensis In Dvcatv | Vvirtembergico ad acidulas Goe- | pingenses: | Mandato | Illvtriss. Principis Ac D.D. Frid. Dv- | cis Vvirtemberg. Et Teccensis, | Comitis Montisbelig & c. Ec Eqv. Ord. Reg. Gall. ad | subditorum omniumqz vicinorum & extero- | rum emolumentum ob vires insignes | adornati, | A Ioanne Bavhino Ill. eius Cels. | Medico conscripta. | Cuius sanè vtilitas non in eos tantum, qui prædicto fonte, sed alys | etiam medicatis aquis sunt vsuri, redundabit maxima: vsui | etiam in multorum morborum curatio= | nibus citra balneas fu= | tura. | Adijciuntur plurimæ figuræ nouæ variorum fossilium, | stirpium & infectorum, quæ in & circahunc | fontem reperiuntur. | Montisbeligardi | Anno | [rule] | M. D. XCIIX.

[Title page of the fourth book reads:]

Historiae | Fontis Et Bal- | nei Admirabilis | Bollensis | Liber Qvartvs. | De Lapidibvs Metalicis Qve | Miro Natvrae Artificio In Ipsis | terræ visceribus figuratis, nec non de stirpibus, infectis, auibus, aliisqz animalibus, partim in putei penetralibus, dum eius ve- | nas aquileges fodiendo perscrutantur, paritm in vicinia in- | uentis & obseruatis, quorummulta nunquam visa | viuis iconibus expressa hic oculis | subijciuntur. | Avctore | Ioh. Bavhino Illustrissimi Ducis Vvir= | tembergici, & c. Medico. | [ornament] | Montisbelgardi. | Apud Iacobvm Foilletvm. | CI\cUpCase I\cUpCase XCVIII.

[Part 1] 4°: π1 A3 (:)4 a-z4 Aa-Nn4 Oo2; 154l.; [16], [1]-291, [1] p.; [Part 2] 4°: a-z4 Aa-Ff4 *4 (:)(:)4 [(:)(:)4 blank]; 124l.; [8], 1-222, [2] blanks, [6], [2] blanks, [6], [2] blanks p., large portrait of J. Bauhin on verso of title, hundreds of woodcut illustrations. Text has initial letters and printer's devices throughout. Page size: 196 x 156 mm.

Contents: [Part 1] [2 pgs], Title page, verso usually blank but very rarely a portrait of Bauhin.; [7 pgs], "Illvstriss. Prin- | cipibvs Ioanni Fri= | derico, Ac Lvdovico Frideri= | co, Illvstriss. Princip. Friderici Ducis Vvirtem- | berg. & Teccensis, Comitis Montisbelig. ac | Equitis Ordinis Regis Galliarum, & c. | ..."-signed Ioh. Bauhinus, February 1598.; [1 pg], "Mand atvm | Illvstriss. C. Wir- | temberg. & c. | ..."-dated July 1596.; [5 pgs], "Leges Balnei Admirabilis Bol= | lensis, quas sanciuit Fridericus D.G. Dux | ..."; [1 pg], "Avthores Qvi in Historia Fontis | Admirabilis citantur."; [1]-87, "Liber Primvs | ..."; 88-177, "... Libri Secvndi, ..."; 178-291, "... Liber Tertivs ..."; [1 pg], Blank.

[Part 2] [2 pgs], Title page, verso "Viris | clariss. Celeberr. | ..."; [5 pgs], Text.; [1 pg], Blank.; 1-222, Text, begining "De Lapidibvs Variis, Tam | Bitvminosis Qvam Aliis, Cornv | Ammonis, Conchite, Ctenite, Myite, alijsq; | figuratis, Astro{\"\i}te, Belmnite. | ..."; [2 pgs], Blanks.; [6 pgs], "Paralipomena." [=mushrooms & fungi].; [2 pgs], Blanks.; [6 pgs], "Encomivm | Fontis Bollensis | ..." [=commendatory verses].; [2 pgs], Blanks.

Very rare. Historia Novi et Admirabilis comprises four books, of which the first three provide a description of the medicinal virtues of European mineral waters and baths, based on the study of the sprints at Bad Boll, near Groppingen, Würtemburg. It is one of the first illustrated books on minerals, gems and also contains an early record of cultivated fruit with a series of early illustrations. This was alsoo the most detailed work on the subject of balneology written in the sixteenth century, and it became Bauhin's most popular treatise. The fourth book, written almost like an appendix, is much more unusual in covering the local natural history in considerable detail. It utilizes fine woodcuts to illustrate the descriptions, and these comprise 210 of fossils and minerals, 60 of apples, 41 of pears, 2 of plants and 16 of insects, making this one of the very few illustrated works concerning mineralogy printed in the sixteenth century. After the main part of text, there follows a Paralipomena, with 11 woodcuts, including 7 of fungi, and 2 which perhaps show the preparation of flax. Finally, the text includes 3 leaves of commendatory verses. In the first part, Bauhin has included a list of authorities that are cited in the text. Among these are several works authored by Conrad Gesner, whose mineralogical work perhaps inspired Bauhin to prepare this exceptional illustrated mineralogy.

Unknown to most bibliographers is that there are several issues of the first edition. The persumed first issue was published with a portrait of Bauhin printed on the verso of the title page. This beautiful renaissance portrait shows the author with a plant in his right hand and his left hand on a skull. The portrait has the dates 1541 and 1597, the first date being the date of birth and the other one the date of the portrait. However, this issue does not contain the six-page illustrated supplement on fungi, "Paralipomena." Another issue lacks the portrait but does contain the supplement. A third issue contains the portrait and the supplement, but to date the compiler has only encountered this in one copy.

Bibliographical references: BL [1171.i.1.(2.)]. BMC: 1, 113. Cobres, Deliciæ Cobresianæ, 1782: 1, 246-7. Gatterer, Mineralogischen Literatur, 1798-9: 1, 72-3. Janson, H.F., Pomona's Harvest: An Illustrated Chronicle of Antiquarian Fruit Literature. Portland, Timber Press, 1996: p. 82. LKG: XIV 312a. Nissen (ZBI): no. 100. NLM 16th Century Books (Durling): no. 495. NUC: 39, 648-9 [NB 0195579-81]. Pritzel, Thesaurus Literaturæ Botanicæ, 1871-3: no. 500 [not seen]. Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 1984: no. 142. Wellcome Catalog (Books): 763.

2. Latin, 1600 [Reissue].
De lapidibus, metallieisque miro naturae artificio in ipsis terrae visceribus figuratis: necnon de stirpibus, insectis, avibus, aliisque animalibus, partim in fontis admirabilis Bollensis penetralibus, dum eius venas aquileges fodiendo perscrutabantur: partim in vicinia inuentis c. Medico. Montisbeligardi, Impensis Ludouici Koenig, apud Iacobum Foilletum, 1600.

4°: [8], 222, [2] blanks, [6], [2] blanks, [20] p., many woodcuts in the text.

Rare. This is the second printing of the very interesting description of stones, fossils, fruits, plants, insects, etc. found in the area of Bad Boll. The first edition was published as the fourth part of Bauhin's Historia Novi et Admirabilis Fontis Balneique Bollensis (1598). The unnumbered leaves between the blanks at the end contain some additional matter where among others mushrooms are figured. In the first edition were also included in this place three unnumbered leaves of poems, which are not present here; it is not clear whether they were included in this edition or not.

3. Latin, 1607-8 [2nd edition].
De aquis medicatis noua methodus Ioan. Bauhini ... Libris quatuor comprehensa. Agitur in iis de fontibus celebribus, thermis, balneis uniuersa Europæ, & potissimum ducatus Wirtembergici, eorum mixtionibus, metallis, succis inuestigandi, vtendi modo, ac eorum viribus. Item de varijs fossilibus stirpibus & insectis, quorum plurimæ siue siue icones & regionum tabulæ adduntur. Montisbeligardi, Apud Iacobum Foillet, 1607-8.

4°: )(4 (:)4 (:)(:)3 a-z4 Aa-Nn4 Oo2 2a-2z4 2Aa-2Ee4 2Ff3 *3 G-H4 I2; 278l.; [22], 291, [8], 222, [24] p., illus., folding plates, portrait, title vignettes, book 4 has a special title page, dated 1608, ornamental initials and head- and tailpieces. Rare.

Bibliographical references: Hoover Collection: no. 101. Sallander, Bibliotheca Walleriana, 1955: nos. 786-7.

4. Latin, 1612 [3rd edition].
De aquis medicatis nova Methodus ... agitur de Fontibus celebritbus, Thermis, Balaeis, universæ Europæ et potissimum Ducatus Wirtembergici. Eorumque miationibus, Metallis, succis invertigandi, utendi modo ac eorum viribus. Item de variis fossilibus stirpibus et insectis. Montbéliard, Jacobus Foillet, 1612.

4°: [24], 291, [34] last blank, 222 p., 4 folding maps of Wurtemburg, numerous woodcuts. Rare.

Bibliographical references: BL [461.a.24.]. LKG: XIV 311. NUC: 39, 648-9 [NB 0195572].

German edition

5. German, 1602 [German transl.].
Ein new Badbuch, vnd historische Beschreibung, von der wunderbaren Krafft vnd Würckung, des Wunder-Brunnen vnd heilsamen Bads zu Boll, nicht weit vom Sawrbrunnen zu Göppingen, im Hertzogthumb Würtemberg ... zu d. Underthanen u. Benachbarten, auch anderer außenlendischen Völcker unnd Nationen Nutzen, von wegen seiner außbündigen Krafft u. Tugendt, erbawen u. zugerichtet durch Johannem Bauhinum ... erstlich lateinisch beschrieben, an jetzo aber ins Deutsch gebracht, durch Dauid Förter... Stutgarten, Fürster, 1602.

4 vols. in one. [Vol 1] 4°: [16], 198 p. Title page in red and black. [Vol 2] 4°: [2], 207 [i.e. 205] p. [Vol 3] 4°: 270 p. [Vol 4] 4°: [2], 242 (i.e., 240), [8] p., 6 folding woodcut plates.

Rare. Translated by David Förter from Historia Novi et Admirabilis Fontis (Montisbeligardi, 1598).

Bibliographical references: BMC: 1, 113. Roller & Goodman, Catalogue, 1976: 1, 88. VD17: 12:191795C.

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